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929 [929]

would (quod he) right gladly, but that I feare by such my talke, and cōmunication, I shalbe vnto you, so feble a man, and now allmost spente, a trouble, and griefe, he the sayd Docter Redman replieng: what shall I spare my carkes quod he which hath so short a tyme heare to remayne? Go to, go to, sayd he, propose what you wil. Then he the sayd Nowell put fourth certayne questiōs in order, which I wyll here declare: wher vnto the said Doctor Redman seuerallye answered, as hereafter followeth.

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The fyrste question that he asked of hym was, what he thought of the byshop of Rome: vnto whome Redman answered that the sea of rome in these our latter dayes had muche suarued from the true religion and worshipping of god, and is with horrible vices stayned and polluted: which I therfor (quod he) pronounce to be the poomp of al euil, & shortly wil com to vtter ruine by the scourge of god, except the soner it do fall to repentaunce. wherwith he briefely complained of the filthy abuse of our Englysh church.

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Being then asked, what his opinion was concerning purgatory, and what the scholemen iudged therof, he answereth: that the subtyl reasons and arguyngs of the scholemē, concernyng purgatory, semed to hym to be no lesse vain, and fryuolus, then disagreing from the truth: adding therunto, that whiles we be rapt vp to the cloudes to mete christ comming to iudgement with a great numbre of Angels in all glorye and maiesty, then euery one shalbe purged with fire as it is writtē: the fyre shal go before hym, and shall flame roūde about his enemies and the fier shall burne in hys sight, and round aboute hym shalbe a great tempest: 

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Psalm 97: 3.

saying that dyuers of the old wryters approued this his sētence concerning purgatorye.

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When he was asked, whether wicked and vngodly prople in the holy communion did eate the body of christ and drynke hys bloud, answered that such kind of men dyd not eate Christes moste blessed fleshe, but only toke the sacramente to their owne dampnation: saying that Christ would not gyue his moste pure and holy fleshe to be eaten of such naughty, and impure persones: but would kepe it away from them. And that (quod he) that is obiected by saynte Augustyne, that Iudas receyued the self same thing, which Peter receaued: that I thynk to be vnderstanded of the externall sacrament: and the lyke kynde of phrase of speaking sayd he we maye vse and say concernyng the baptisme of Magus. That Simon Magus receaued that whiche the Apostels did receue. In dede as concernyng the Sacrmēt of the externall baptisme, Simō Magus receaued that which thappostels dyd: but that internall grace, wherewith the Apostels were indued, and that holye sprite wherewith by baptisme they were inspired, he lacked. 

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For Simon Magus see Acts 8: 14-24. This account specifically relates that Simon, traditionally regarded as the proto-heretic, received Christian baptism.

And so (quod he) the wicked, & forsaken people, which rashly presume to come to the holy table of the lord, do receiue the sacrament & the selfsame, which good & godly mē receaue: but the body of Christ they do not receyue. For christ doth not vouchsafe to delyuer it them. And this he sayd is, and euer was his opinion, and belefe concerning the same, although he knewe others to be of a contrary iudgement.

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Being then after this demaunded, whether he thought christes presence, to be in the sacrament or no answered, that christ dyd gyue, and offer to faythfull and christian men hys very reall body, and bloud verely and really vnder the sacramentes of bread and wine: in somuch that they which deuoutly come to be pertakers of that holy foode, are by the benefite thereof vnited, and made one with christe in his flesh, and body. And therfore (sayd he) that christ dyd distribute hys body so spiritually as truely: not so yet neuerthelesse, that by these and the lyke wordes we mighte conceyue any grosse, or carnall intelligence, suche as the Caphernites  

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'Capernaite' is a prejorative term for anyone who held an overly-carnal understanding of Christ's Real Presence in the sacramental bread and wine. The term is based on John 6: 52.

ones dreamed of: but that (quod he) we myght labour, and endeauour to expresse by some kinde of tearmes, & wordes hys ineffable maiesty. For the maner wherby christ is there present, and ministreth to the faythfull his fleshe, is al together inexplicable: but we must beleue (quod he) and think, that by gods mighty power & holy operation of his spirite, this so notable a mistery was made; and þt heauen and yearth was ioyned together in that moment, as the blessed man Sainte Gregory sayth. The lowest partes are inioyned with the higheste: by which is vnderstande that holy foode, wherby they whiche beregenerate by the holy ghoste in baptisme are noryshed, & educated to immortalytie: & farther saide that christs body was receaued in the sayd sacramēt by faithe which being receyued, both body and soule were quickned to euerlastyng ioy.

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Beyng then required to say his mynde about transubstantiation, gaue answere that he had much trauayled in that poynt: and that he fyrst much fauoured and enclined to that part which maynteined transubstantiation, in searching the verity wherof most studiously he had bene no lytle whyle occupyed: and founde to aryse thereabout a infinite and almoste an inexplicable absurditye: In cōfuting wherof, what tyme he had but smallye contented hymselfe, hee sayde that he toke in hande the scholemens workes, and perused Gabriel, and other the wryters of that stampe, for that by theyr helpe, and ayde, he hoped that all fallacies and inconueniencies which dyd spryng and aryse, by mainteinance of transubstantiation, myght be cleane conuinced and wiped away: of which mine hope I was vtterly frustrated, for that (he sayd) he did fynde in those workes many fonde, & fantastical things, which were both to folishe to be recorded in wrytynge, and also to be alleged about such a misterie. And truly said he, euer after the readyng of them, my former zeale & opiniō, touchyng the mayntenance of transubstantiation dyd euery day more and more decrease: and therfore in conclusion perswaded hymself to thynk that there was no such trāsubstātiation, as the scholemen imagined and feigned to be: saying that in dede the ancient writers wer plainly agaynst the mayntenance therof: amongest whome he rehearsed by name, Iustine 

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I.e., Justin Martyr, one of the early patristic writers.

, Ireney, 
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Irenaeus was an early patristic writer and theologian.

& tertulliā, 
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Tertullian was a major patristic writer and theologian.

notorious aduersaries to the same. Furthermore he added herunto that the whole schole vnderstode not what this worde Consecratio was: which he defined to be the full and entier action of the holy communion. Demanded al so whether we ought to worship Christ presente in hys holy supper, tolde vs that we are bound so to doe: & that it was most agreyng to pietie and godly religion. Lykewyse being asked whether he would haue the visible sacrament to be worshipped that which we see with oure eyes and is lifted vp betwene the priestes handes, aunswered: that nothing which was visible and to be perceiued by the sight of the eye is to be adored or worshipped: nor that Christ would be eleuated into any hygher, or brought downe into any lower place: so that he can neyther be lifted vp hygher nor pulled down lower. Again asked what his iudgement was aboute the custome and maner in carying about the sacramēt in solemne pompes, processions, and otherwyse, sayde that he alwayes myslyked and reproued that order: insomuch that about. xvi. yeres agone, openly in the pulpit at Cambridge he spake agaynst that abuse, and disalowed that ceremony, shewyng that Christ had expressed by playne & euident wordes a very fruitfull and ryght vse of this sacrament whē he sayde: Take ye, by which kynde of Phrase (quoth he) he dothe expresse that he wyll geue a gyfte: Eate ye: by which wordes he dothe declare the proper vse and order of that his precious gift: This is my bodye, whereby he doth euidently and plainly shew what by that gifte they should receiue, and howe royall and precious a gyfte he would geue them. And therefore he iudged those suche pompous and superstitious ostentations vtterlye to bee damned and taken away, as playn mockeryes and counterfayt visars. His iudgement also beyng asked aboute the commemoration of the dead, and the remembraunce of them in orisons, whether he thoughte it profitable or or no answered that it semed to hym to be no lesse profytable, than religious and godly: and that myght be well proued out of the bookes of the Machabees: the whiche bookes, although saincte Hierome, adiudgyng as inauthentike, thought good to be red in the temples, only for the edifying of the church, and not for the assertion of opinions: yet with me, the opinion of the other wryters, to whome those bookes are allowed as canons, preuayleth: Whiche hee in that pointe thinketh good to be red. 
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Redman's belief in the merits of prayers for the dead seems to contradict the third point in the list Nowell compiled, which denied Purgatory. It also drew a sharp response from Foxe who, in a marginal note, observes that Redman's judgment on this point.

Beyng furthermore requyred to shew his mynde about trental Masses, and Masses of Scala coeli 
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These are both series of Requiem Masses, celebrated to mitigate the punishments inflicted on departed souls in Purgatory.

, shewed them that they wer altogether vnprofitable, superstitious, and irreligious flowing and distilling out of the fylthye and impure fountayne of superstition, not yeldyng the fruite which they promysed to bryng foorth. The sacryfyce of the supper of the Lorde Eucharistia, (quod he) that sacrifice he denyed coulde bee offered for the synnes of the quicke and the deade. Finallye of his owne voluntarie

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wyll,
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