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932 [932]

Actes and Monumentes of the churche

suche thynges as pertayned vnto the trade of marchandise: wherevnto he dyd so apply hymself, that notwithstandyng he reserued the religiō of his countrie, which he was endued with all in Englande, alwayes sound and vndefiled from the Portugales superstition.

There were also besydes hym diuers other good men in the same citie: neyther dyd he lack good bookes, or the conference of good and honest men, vnto whom he would oftentymes bewayle his imbecillitie and weakenesse, that he was neyther sufficiently touched with the hatred of his synnes, neyther yet enflamed with the loue of godlinesse. Whilest he was there abidyng, it happened that there shoulde be a solemne mariage celebrate in the Calendes of Septembre betwene two Princes. 

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This was the marriage of the Portuguese Infante João, son of João III, to Juana, a daughter of Charles V, on 1 September 1552.

The mariage daye beyng come, there was great resorte of the Nobility and estates: there lacked no bishops with Miters, nor Cardinals wyth theyr hattes, to set out this royall weddyng. To bee short, they went forward to the wedding with great pompe, but with a farre greater multytude, to beholde and loke on. There was great preparation throughout the whole citie, as in such cases is accustomed: & al places wer filled wt mirth & with gladnes. In this great assēbly of the whole kyngdome, William Gardiner was also present, who, albeit he dyd not greatly esteme such kinde of spectacles, yet being allured throughe the fame and reporte thereof, thought that he alone woulde not be absente. Wherefore he came early in the mornyng, to the intent he myght haue the more oportunity and better place to behold and see. The hower was come. They came into the churche wyth great solemnity and pompe, the kyng first, & then euery estate in order. The greater persōs the more circumstance was about them. After all thynges were set in order, they wente forwarde to the celebratyng of theyr masse, (for that alone serueth for all purposes.) The Cardinall did execute with muche singing and organe playing. 
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These is a hint here that Foxe did not approve of organs and choral music during church services.

The people stode with great deuotion and silence, praying, loking, kneling, and knocking, theyr myndes beyng fully bent and set (as it is the maner) vpon the externall sacrament. It cannot be spoken how greuously these thinges dyd pricke and moue this yonge mans minde, partlye to beholde the miserable absurditie of those thinges, & partly to see the foly of the common people: & not onely of the common people, but specially when he saw the king himselfe, and the kinges counsayle with so many sage and wise men to be seduced with like Idolatrie as the common people were: In so much that it lacked very lytle but þt he wold euen that present day haue done some notable thing in the kings sight and presence, but þt the great prease and throng that was about him, letted that he could not come vnto the altare.What should I go about here to declare with wordes, that which skarcely can be imagined or thought. In the meane tyme, whilest he behelde these thinges, what care, and Imaginacions was hys minde occupied with all, or what prickes or motyons felt he? For he knew not what to do. He coulde not go out of the church for the prease. Should he let the Mynister? he coulde much lesse do that: and both shame & also the reuerence of the place would not suffer it. What then? Shoulde he crie out as detesting and abhoring that abhominaciō? By and by the sworde of thys world honge ouer hys head. Shoulde he hold hys peace? In thys point also he feared the wrath of God. What nede many wordes? When the ceremonies wer ended, he commeth home very sad and heauy in hys mynde: in so much that all his fellowes meruailled greatlye at hym: who albeit vpon dyuers coniectures cōceyued the cause of hys sadnes, notwithstanding they dyd not fully vnderstand that those matters so much troubled his godly mynd. Nether did he declare it vnto any man, but seking solytarynesse and secrete places, fallinge downe prostrate before god, with manyfold teares, bewayled the neglecting of hys dewtye, deliberating with him selfe howe he might reuoke that christen people from theyr impietye and supersticion, which thing in dede he dyd. In thys delyberation and aduise, hys minde being fully setled, he thought not the matter to be any longer protracted, but renounced the worlde, making vp al hys accomptes so exactly, (aswel of that which was dew vnto hym as that which he ought vnto others) that no man coulde iustly aske somuch as one farthing: which thing done, he contynewed night and day in prayer, calling vpon god, & continuall meditacion of the scriptures, that skarsely he woulde take any meate by daye, or slepe by nyghte, or at the moste, but an hour or two of reste in the night, as Pendigrace his fellow, companion both at bedde and bourd, beinge yet a lyue can testify. 
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This acknowledgement that Pendigrace was Foxe's source first appears in Rerum, p. 206. For a possible identification of 'Pentigrace' as one Thomas Pendigrace, see Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Roayl Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 (1966).

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The sonday came againe to be holden 
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The wedding which putatively inspired Gardiner's act of sacrilege took place on 4 December 1552 (not September as Foxe states); the act of sacrilege itself took place on 11 December.

either with like pompe & solēpnitie, or not much lesse, wheras the said Williā was present early in the morning, very clenly apparailed, 
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Interestingly, a witness testified before the tribunal investigating Gardiner that, at the time of his act of sacrilege, he was 'a man of respectable appearance' ['um homem bem disposito'] (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 [1996], p. 5).

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euen of purpose, that he myghte stand nere the altar without repulse. Within awhile after commeth the king with all hys nobles. Then Gardiner setteth him selfe as nere the altar as he might, hauing a testamēt in his hand, the which he diligently red vpon, and prayed vntill the time was come that he had appointed to worke hys feate. The masse began, which was then also solemnised by a Cardinall. 
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Foxe is in error on this point. The Cardinal-Infante Henrique was unquestionably present at the service, but testimony at Gardiner's trial reveals that a royal chaplain was celebrating Mass (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 [1996], p. 13).

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Yet he satte styll. He which sayde masse proceded, hee sacryfyced, consecrated, lyfted vp on hye, and shewed it vnto the people, wherupon all the people did greate reue-

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