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1009 [1009]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and lyfe of Doct. Martyn Luther.

in the couent of þe Augustines (who is thought to be Weselus aboue mencioned) 

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The claim that this elderly man was the noted theologian John of Wesel, is Foxe's baseless speculation. In fact, John died in 1481, two years before Luther was born.

with whom Luther beyng then of the same order 
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This is all that Foxe has on Luther's becoming an Augustinian friar and his zeal in trying to live the monastic life, which are covered in some detail by Melanchthon. These details were probably somewhat distasteful to Foxe.

a Frier Augustine, had conference vppon diuers thinges, especially touchyng the Article of remission of sinnes: the whiche article the sayd aged father opened vnto Luther after this sorte, declaring, that we must not generally beleue onely forgeuenes of sinnes to be, or to belonge to Peter, to Paule, to Dauid, or such good men alone: but that Gods expresse Cōmaundemēt is, that euery man should beleue particularly his sinnes to be forgeuen him in Christ: and further sayd, þt this interpretation was confirmed by the testimonies of S. Bernard, & shewed him the place, in the Sermon of the Annunciation, where it is thus set forth: MarginaliaAn excellent declaration of S. Bernard touching fayth.But adde thou that thou beleuest this, that by him thy sinnes are forgeuen thee. This is the testimonie that the holy Ghost giueth thee in thy hart, saying: Thy sinnes are forgeuen thee. For this is the opinion of the Apostle, that man is frely iustified by faith.

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By these wordes Luther was not onely strengthened, but was also instructed of the full meanyng of S. Paul, who repeateth so many tymes this sentēce: We are iustified by fayth. And hauyng read the expositions of many vppon this place, he then perceiued as well by the purpose of the old man, as by the comforte he receiued in hys spirite, the vanitie of those interpretations, whiche he had read before, of the schole men: And so reading by litle and litle, with conferryng the sayinges and examples of the Prophets and Apostles, and continuall inuocation of God, and excitation of fayth by force of prayer, he perceiued that doctrine more euidently. MarginaliaThe profite of S. Austines bookes.Then began he to read S. Augustines bookes, where he founde many cōfortable sentences among other, in the exposition of þe Psalmes & specially in the booke of the Spirite & Letter, which cōfirmed this doctrine of fayth and consolation in his hart, not a litle. And yet he layd not a side the Sentenciaries, as Gabriell & Cameracensis. 

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By 'sententiaries', Foxe is refering to scholastic theologians who wrote commentaries on Peter Lombard's Sentences. Gabriel Biel (c. 1420-95) and Pierre d'Ailly (1350-1420) were both strong influences on Luther and both nominalists. Pierre d'Ailly was bishop of Cambrai ('Cameracensis' in Latin).

Also he read the bookes of Occam, whose subtiltie he preferred aboue Thomas Aquine, and Scotus. 
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Luther showed a marked preference for nominalist theologians, such as William of Ockham, over realist theologians such as Aquinas and Scotus. The realists insisted on the actual existence of metaphysical universals, the nominalists were denied their existence. Nominalists tended to a certain scepticism about transubstantiation.

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He read also and reuolued Gerson: but aboue all the rest, he perused all ouer S. Augustines workes with attentiue cogitation. And thus continued he his studie at Erford, the space of iiij. yeares in the couent of the Augustines.

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MarginaliaThe institution of the Vniuersitie at Wittenberge.
Staupicius.
About this tyme one Staupicius a famous man, 

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Johann von Staupitz (c. 1460-1525) was the vicar-general of the Observant Augustinians (Luther's order) and he was indeed a spiritual mentor to the young Luther. Staupitz emphasized election and justification in his theology. When the dispute over Indulgences first broke out, Staupitz supported Luther and tried to act as a mediator. Later, Staupitz, deplored Luther's extremism although the personal ties between the two men remained close.

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who ministring his helpe to further the erection of an Vniuersitie in VVittenberge, and endeuoring to haue Scholes of diuinitie founded in this new Vniuersitie: when he had considered the spirite and towardnes of Luther, hee called him from Erford, to place hym in VVittenberge, in the yere. 1508. and of his age xxvi. There his towardnes appeared in the ordinary exercise both of his disputations in the scholes, and preaching in the churches, where as many wise and learned men attētiuely heard Luther, namely D. Mellerstad. MarginaliaThe iudgemēt of Doct. Millerstad, vpon M. Luther.This Mellerstad would oftentymes say, that Luther was of such a meruellous spirit, & so ingenious, that he gaue apparent signification, that he would introduce a more compendious, easie, and familier maner of teachyng, and alter and abolishe the order that then was vsed.

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There first he expounded the Logicke & Philosophie of Aristotle, and in þe meane while, intermitted no whitte his study in Theologie. MarginaliaLuther sent to Rome.Three yeares after, he went to Rome, about certeine contentions of the monkes, and returnyng the same yeare, he was graded Doctour, MarginaliaFridericke Duke of Saxonie.
Luther commensed doctor.
at the expences of Elector Fredericke, Duke of Saxonie, according to the solempne maner of scholes: For he had heard hym preache: well vnderstanded the quicknes of his spirite: diligently considered the vehemency of his woordes, and had in singular admiration those profound matters, whiche in his Sermons hee ripely and exactly explaned. This degree Staupicius, agaynst his will enforced vpon him, saying merely vnto him, that God had many things to bring to passe in his Church by him. And though these wordes were spokē merely, yet it came so to passe anone after, as many predictions or presages proue true before a chaunge.

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MarginaliaDoct. M. Luther beginneth to reade the epistle to the Romaines.After this he began to expound the Epistle to the Romaines, and cōsequently þe Psalmes: where he shewed the difference betwixte the law and the Gospell. He also confoūded the errour that raigned then in scholes & sermons, teachyng þt; mē may merite remission of sinnes by their proper workes, and that they be iust before God, by outward discipline, as þe Phariseis taught. Luther diligētly reduced the mindes of men, to the sonne of God. MarginaliaLuther taught Iesus Christ.And as Iohn Baptist demonstrated the Lambe of God that tooke away the sinnes of the worlde: euen so Luther shyning in the Church as a bright starre after a long cloudy and obscure skye, expresly shewed that sinnes are frely remitted for the loue of the sonne of God, and that wee ought faithfully to embrace this bountifull gift.

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These happy 

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In the 1570 edition Foxe amended these passages to remove the dangerous admissions (at least to sixteenth-century readers) that Luther was an innovator and that many of his mentors and colleagues deplored the schism that he created in the Church.

begynnynges of so good matters, gotte hym great authoritie, especially seyng his lyfe also was correspondent to his profession. The consideration wherof allured to him meruelously the hartes of his auditors, and also many notable personages.

All this while Luther yet altered nothyng in þe ceremonies, but precisely obserued his rule among his felowes: he medled in no doubtfull opinions, but taught this only doctrine, as most principall of all other to all men, openyng and declaryng the doctrine of repentaunce, of remission of sinnes, of fayth, of true comforte in tymes of aduersitie. Euery man receiued good tast of this swete doctrine, and the learned conceiued highe pleasure to behold Iesus Christ, þe Prophets & Apostles, to come forth into light out of darkenes, wherby they beganne to vnderstand the difference betwixt the lawe and the Gospell: betwixt the promises of the law, and the promise of the Gospell: betwixt spirituall iustice, and ciuill thinges: which certeinly could not haue bene founde in Thomas Aquine, Scotus, nor such lyke schole clerkes.

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MarginaliaErasmus openeth the way before Luther.It happened moreouer about this tyme, that many were prouoked by Erasmus learned workes, to study the Greeke & Latine tongues, who perceiuyng a more gentle & ready order of teachyng then before, began to haue in contempt the Monkes barbarous and sophisticall doctrine: and specially such as were of a liberall nature and good disposition. Luther began to study the Greeke and Hebrue toung, to this ende, that after he had learned the phrase and proprietie of the tounges, and drawen the doctrine out of the very fountaines, hee might geue more sound iudgement.

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As Luther was thus 

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All of the passages which follow, on the pontificate of Leo X, down to the mention of Tetzel, are taken from John Bale, Catalogus (p. 645). This includes the citation of Christian Massaeus's chronicle, which Foxe is repeating from Bale.

occupyed in Germanie, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1516. Leo the x. of that name succedyng after Iulius. 2. was Pope of Rome. MarginaliaEx Christia. Massæo. lib. 20 Chronic.Who vnder pretense of warre agaynst the Turke, sent a Iubile with his pardons, abroad throughe all Christen realmes and dominions: wherby he gathered together vnnumerable riches and treasure. MarginaliaX. shylling pardons.The gatherers and collecters whereof persuaded the people, that who so euer would geue x. shillynges, should at his pleasure, deliuer one soule from the paynes of Purgatorie. For this they held as a generall rule, that God would do, what soeuer they would haue hym, accordyng to the saying: Quicquid solueritis super terram, erit solutū in cœlis. &c. Whatsoeuer you shalt loose vpon earth, the same shall be loosed in heauen. But if it were but one iotte lesse then x. shillynges, they preached that it would profit them nothyng. Ex Christia. Masseo lib. 20. Chro.

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MarginaliaTecellius preacher of þe popes pardons.This filthy kynd of þe Popes marchandise, as it spread through all quarters of Christian regions, so it came also to Germanie, through the meanes of a certaine Dominicke Frier 

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At this point, Foxe resumes drawing on Henry Bennet's translation of Melanchthon's biographical sketch of Luther. He will do this down to the discussion of Frederick the Wise's conversation with Erasmus about Luther (see A famous and godly history, trans. Henry Bennet (London, 1561), sigs. C1r-C3r).

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named Tecellius, 
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I.e., Johann Tetzel, a Dominican whose extravagant claims for the salvific power of indulgences, provoked Luther into his confrontation with the Church.

who most impudently caused the Popes indulgences or pardons to bee caryed and sold about the countrey. MarginaliaLuthers propositions of pardons.Whereupon, Luther much moued with the blasphemous Sermōs of this shameles Frier, and hauing his hart earnestly bent with ardent desire to maintaine true Religion, published certaine propositions concerning indulgences, whiche are to be read in the first Tome of his workes, and set them openly on

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