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1013 [1013]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and actes of Doct. Martyn Luther.

MarginaliaThe cause of Luther in great daūger.Here (no doubt) was the cause of Luther in great daūger, beyng now brought to this strayt, that both Luther was ready to flye the countrey, and the Duke agayne was as much afrayde to kepe hym, MarginaliaGods prouidence.had not the meruelous prouidence of God (who had this matter in gydyng) here prouided a remedie, where the power of man dyd fayle, MarginaliaThe Vniuersitie of Wittenberge wryteth to the Duke for Luther.by styrryng vp the whole Vniuersitie of Wyttemberge, who seyng the cause of truth thus to decline, with a full and a generall consent, addressed their letters vnto the Prince, in defense of Luther and of his cause, makyng their humble suyte vnto him, that he of his princely honour, would not suffer innocencie and the simplicitie of truth so cleare, as is the Scripture, to be foyled and oppressed by mere violence of certeyne malignant flatterers about the Pope: but that the errour first may bee shewed and conuicted, before the partie bee pronounced gyltie.

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By the occasion of these letters the Duke began more seriously in hys mynde to consider the cause of Luther, and to read hys workes, and also to hearken to hys Sermons. Wherby (thorough Gods holy workyng) he grew in knowledge and strength, perceauyng in Luthers quarell more then he did before. This was about the begynnyng of December, an. 1518.

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MarginaliaNew Indulgences set forth by pope Leo.As this past on, Pope Leo playing the Lyon at Rome 

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This is Foxe's pun: 'Leo' is Latin for lion.

in the meane tyme, in the moneth of Nouember, to stablishe his Seate agaynst this defection, which he feared to come, had sent forth new indulgēces into Germanie, and all quarters abroade, with a new edicte, wherin he declared this to bee the Catholicke doctrine of the holy mother Churche of Rome, prince of all other Churches, MarginaliaThe doctrine of the church of Rome.that Byshops of Rome which are successours of Peter, and vicares of Christ, haue this power and authoritie geuen, to release, and dispense, also to graunt indulgences auailable both for the lyuing and for the dead, lyeng in the paynes of Purgatorie. And this doctrine he charged to be receaued of all faythfull Christen men, vnder paine of the great curse, and vtter separation from all holy Churche.

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MarginaliaThe Popes Alestake to picke mens purses.This popishe decree & indulgence, as a new marchandise, or Alestake to gette mony, being set vp in al quarters of christendome for þe holy fathers aduantage, came also to be receaued in Germanie about þe moneth of December. MarginaliaLuther appealeth from the pope to a generall councell.Luther in the meane tyme hearing how they were about in Rome, to procede and pronounce agaynst hym, prouideth a certeine appellation conceaued in due forme of lawe, wherin he appealeth from the Pope to the generall Councell. 

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Which effectively knocked the ball into the long grass. At this point in time, the pope had no intention of summoning a general Council of the Church, which, he feared would challenge papal authority as the Councils of Constance and Basel did.

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MarginaliaMiltitius the popes chamberlain sent to Duke Fridericke.When Pope Leo parceaued that neither his pardons would prosper to his mynde, nor that Luther could bee brought to Rome, to assay how to cōpasse his purpose by crafty allurementes, he sent hys Chamberlaine Carolus Miltitius, aboue mentioned, which was a Germane, into Saxonie to Duke Fridericke, with a goldē rose, 

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This was an award conferred by the papacy and considered to be a high honour.

after the vsuall ceremonie accustomed euery yeare to bee presented to him, with secrete letters also to certeine noble men of the Dukes Counsaile, to sollicite the Popes cause, and to remoue the Dukes mynde, if it might be, from Luther.

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MarginaliaThe death of Maximilian þe Emperour.But before Miltitius approched into Germanie, Maximilian the Emperour deceased in þe moneth of Ianuary, an. 1519. At what tyme two there were which stoode for the election: to wytte Fraunces þe Frenche kyng, and Charles kyng of Spayne, whiche was also Duke of Austriche, and Duke of Burgundie. MarginaliaCharles the 5. elected Emperour, by the meanes of Duke Fridericke.To make this matter short, through the meanes of Fridericke, prince Elector, (who hauyng the offerre of the preferment, refused the same) the election fell to Carolus, called Carolus v. surnamed Prudens: which was about the end of August. 

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It was feared that if Luther went to Rome, he would be tried and executed for heresy there so Frederick the Wise and other supporters of Luther insisted that the examination of Luther be held in Germany. This was accepted by the papacy because they did not wish Maximilian's nephew, Charles, to succeed Maximilian and hence they could not offend Frederick and risk Frederick voting for Charles as the next Emperor. However, once Charles V had been elected Holy Roman Emperor, papal proceedings resumed against Luther because the papacy now had no particular reason to conciliate Frederick the Wise. Additionally, Charles V was greatly concerned about the spread of heresy in his domains and worked to support the papacy.

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MarginaliaThe disputation at Lypsia.In the moneth of Iune before, 

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Foxe now turns to the Leipzig disputation which, contrary to what Foxe states here occurred after the death of Emperor Maximilian. He bases his entire narrative of the debate on Melanchthon's account, as printed in Caspar Hedio, Paralipomena rerum memorabilium (Strassburg, 1559), pp. 450-3.

there was a publicque disputation ordeyned at Lypsia, 
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The disputation was held in the University of Leipzig.

whiche is a Citie in Misnia, vnder the dominion of George Duke of Saxonie, vncle to Duke Fridericke. This disputation first begāne throughe the occasion of Ioan. Eckius, a Frier, 
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Johann Eck was a priest, not a friar, and he was a doctor of theology at the University of Ingolstadt. He was the most prominent anti-Protestant theologian of his generation and spearheaded the early attacks on Luther.

and An-dreas Carolostadius, D. of Wittenberge. 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

This Eckius had impugned certein propositions or conclusions of M. Luther, which he had written the yeare before, touching the Popes pardons. Agaynst hym Carolostadius wrote in defense of Luther. MarginaliaEckius agaynst Carolostadius.Eckius agayne to aunswere Carolostadius, set forth an Apologie. Whiche Apologie Carolostadius 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

agayne confuted by writing. Vpon this began the disputation, with safe conducte graunted by Duke George, to all and singular persons, that would resort to the same. 
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As the papacy was, at the time, unwilling to move against Luther, Eck tried to force the issue by confronting the Protestants in print and challenging them to public debate. After a series of attacks on Carlstadt, Eck succeeded in drawing Luther into a debate on the issue of papal primacy. Carlstadt and Luther agreed to debate Eck at Leipzig.

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MarginaliaLuther cōmeth to the disputation.To this disputation came also M. Luther MarginaliaMelancthon newlye come to Wittenberge.with Phil. Melancton, who not past a yeare before was newly come to Wittenberge, Luther not thinkyng then to dispute in any matter, because of his appellation aboue mentioned, but onely to heare what there was sayd and done.

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First, before the entrye into the disputation, it was agreed, that the Actes should be penned by Notaries, and after to be diuulged abroad. But Eckius afterward wēt backe from that, pretendyng that the pennyng of the Notaries should be an hynderance and a stay vnto thē, wherby the heate of them in their reasonyng should the more languishe and their vehemencie rebaite. 

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Actually two notaries kept records of the disputation.

But Carolostadius 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

without Notaries would not dispute. The Sūme of their disputations was reduced to certaine cōclusions. MarginaliaThe question of free will.
xxxx
Among whiche first came in question to dispute of free will, whiche the Grekes call xxx: that is, whether a man haue of him selfe, any election or purpose, to do that is good: or (to vse the termes of the schole) whether a man, of congruence, may deserue grace, doing that which in him doth lye? Herein when the question was to be discussed, what the will of man may do of it selfe, without grace: they through heate of contētion (as the maner is) fell into other bymatters and ambages, litle or nothyng apperteinyng to that whiche Carolostadius 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

proposed. Eckius affirmed, MarginaliaGod geueth hys grace to vsurye.that the pure strength to do good, is not in mans will, but is geuen of God to mā to take interest & increase of mā agayn, which first he semed to deny. Thē being asked of Carolostadius 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

whether the whole and ful good worke þt is in man, procedeth of God: MarginaliaTotum.
Totaliter.
to this he aunswered, the whole good worke, but not wholy: graunting that the will is moued of God: but to consent, to be in mans power. Agaynst this reasoned Carolostadius, alleging certain places of Austen, and namely of S. Paul, whiche sayth, that God worketh in vs both to will and to performe. MarginaliaPhil. 2.And this sentence of Carolostadius 
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This is Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, often known as Carlstadt. He became a leading and extreme Lutheran, eventually falling out with Luther himself. But in 1518, he was an important and outspoken ally of Luther's.

semed to ouercome. Eckius for his assertion, inferred certein exscriptes out of Bernard, whiche semed litle to the purpose. And thus was a whole weeke lost about this contentious and sophisticall altercation betwene Eckius, and Carolostadius.

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MarginaliaLuther disputeth with Eckius.Luther (as was sayd) came, not thinkyng at all to dispute, but hauing free libertie graunted by the Duke, and vnder the Popes authoritie, was prouoked, and forced agaynst hys will to dispute with Eckius. The matter of their controuersie was about the authoritie of the Byshop of Rome. Here is first to be admonished, that Luther before had set forth in writyng this doctrine: MarginaliaLuthers assertion against the popes supremacie.that they which do attribute the preheminence to the Church of Rome, haue no foundatiō for thē, but out of the popes decrees, set forth not much past. 400. yeares heretofore: Whiche decrees he affirmed to be contrary to all auncient hystories, aboue a thousand yeares paste: contrary also to the holy Scriptures and vnto Nicene Councell.

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MarginaliaThe assertion of Eckius for the supremacie.Agaynst this assertion Eckius set vp a contrary cōclusion, saying: that they whiche hold that the supremacie and preheminence of the Churche of Rome aboue all other Churches, was not before the tyme of Pope Syluester the first, doo erre: for as much as they whiche succeded in the sea and faith of Peter, were alwayes receaued for the successours of Peter, & vicares of Christ in earth.

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This beyng þe last of all the other Themes of Eckius, yet thought he chiefly to begin with this, agaynst Luther, to bring him into more displeasure wt the B. of Rome: wherin Luther himself much refused to dispute, alleging that matter to be more odious then necessary, for that

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