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1014 [1014]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and actes of Doct. M. Luther.

present tyme, and that also for the bishop of Romes sake, he had much rather kepe silence in the same. Wherunto if he must nedes be vrged, he would þe fault should be vnderstāded of all mē to be where it was, namely in hys aduersary which prouoked him therunto, & not in him self. Eckius agayne clearyng hym selfe, translateth all the faulte vnto Luther, which first in his treatise De indulgencijs Papæ, defended that before Pope Syluesters tyme the Churche of Rome had no place of maioritie, or preheminence aboue other Churches, and also before the Cardinall Caietanus affirmed, that Pope Pelagianus wrasted many places of the Scripture out of their right sense, vnto his owne affection and purpose. Wherfore the fault hereof (sayd he) to him rather is to be imputed, whiche ministred the first occasion.

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MarginaliaDisputation betwene Luther & Eckius, about the popes supremacie.Thus Luther beyng egged and streyned to dispute, whether he would or no, the question began to be propounded touchyng the supremacie of the Byshop of Rome: whiche supremacie Eckius did contende to be founded & grounded vpon Gods law. M. Luther on the other side, denyed not the supremacie of the Byshop of Rome aboue other Churches, neither denyed the same moreouer to be vniuersall ouer all Churches: but onely affirmed it not to bee instituted by Gods lawe. Vpon this question the disputation did continue the space of 5. dayes. MarginaliaEx paralip. Abbat. Vrsp.Duryng all whiche season, Eckius very vnhonestly, and vncourtuously demeyned hym selfe, studying by all meanes how to bryng his aduersarye into hatred of the auditours, and into daunger of the pope. The reasōs of Eckius were these. MarginaliaThe reasons of Eckius for the supremacie.For somuch as the Church beyng a ciuill body, can not be without an head, therfore as it standeth with Gods lawe that other ciuile regimentes should not be destitute of their head: so is it by Gods law requisite, that the Pope should be head of the vniuersall Church of Christ. To this Martin aunswereth, þt he confesseth & graunteth the Church not to be headles, so long as Christ is alyue, who is the onely head of the Church: neither doth the Churche require any other head beside hym, for somuch as it is a spirituall kyngdome, not earthly: and he alleged for hym þe place Collos. 1. MarginaliaHieron.
Cyprian.
Eckius again produced certaine places out of Hierome and Cyprian, whiche made very litle to proue the primacie of the pope to holde by Gods law. MarginaliaBernard.As touchyng þe testimonie of Bernard, neither was the authoritie of the author of any great force in this case, neither was the place alleged so greatly to the purpose.

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Then came he to the place of S. Math. 16. Tu es Petrus. &c. MarginaliaMath. 16.Thou arte Peter, and vppon thys rock I will builde my Churche. &c. 

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Matthew 16:18. This considered by Catholics to provide scriptural authority for claims of papal primacy.

MarginaliaLuther answereth to the place of S. Math.To this was aunswered, that thys was a confession of fayth, and that Peter there representeth the person of the whole vniuersall Church, as Austen doth expound it. Also that Christ in that place meaneth him self to be the rocke, as is manifest to collect, both by hys wordes and order of the sentence, and many other coniectures. Likewise to the place of S. Ioh. pasce oues meas, MarginaliaIoh. 21.feede my sheepe: 
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John 21:16-17.

whiche wordes Eckius alleged properly and peculiarlye to be spokē to Peter alone: MarginaliaThe aunswere of Luther to the place of S. Iohn, Pasce oues meas.Martin aunswered, that after these wordes spoken, equall authoritie was geuen to all the Apostles, where Christ sayth vnto them, Receaue ye the holy ghost: whose sinnes soeuer ye remitte, they are remitted. &c. 
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John 20: 22-23.

By these wordes (sayth he) Christ assignyng to them their office, doth teach what is to feede, and what he ought to be that feadeth. MarginaliaThe authoritie of the councell of Constance.After this Eckius came to the authoritie of the Councell of Constance, alleging this amongest other Articles: De necessitate salutis est, credere Rom. pontificé Oecumenicum esse, that is, that it standeth vpon necessitie of our saluation, to beleue the B. of Rome to be supreme head of the Churche: allegyng moreouer, that in the same councell was debated & discussed, that þe generall Councell could not erre. Wherunto M. Luther agayn did aunswere discretly, saying that all the articles whiche Iohn Hus dyd hold in that Councell, were not condemned for hereticall: with much other matter more. Agayne, of what authoritie that Councell of Constance is to be estemed, that he left to other mens iudgementes. This is most certaine (said he) þt no Coūcel hath such authoritie, to make new Articles of fayth. Here M. Luther began to be cryed out of, by Eckius & hys complices, for diminishyng the authoritie of generall Councels. Although in dede he ment nothyng lesse, but euer laboured to confirme the authoritie of the same: yet was he called hereticke and schismaticke, and one of the Bohemes faction, with many other termes mo of reprochfull contumely. 
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Eck's strategy was to brand Luther as a heretic and a Hussite (i.e. 'one of the Bohemians' faction').

Eckius then graunted, the authoritie of all the Apostles to be equall: and yet not to folow therby, the authoritie of all Byshops therfore to be equall: For betwene apostleship, & ministerie (said he) there is great differēce.

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To conclude, Eckius in no case coulde abyde, that any creature shoulde decline from any worde or sentence of the Popes decrees, or the constitutions of the forefathers. To this agayne Luther aunswered, groundyng hym selfe vpon the place ad Gal. 2. where S. Paul speakyng of the principall Apostles, sayth: And of them which seemed to be great, what they were before, it maketh no matter to me, for God accepteth no mans person: neuertheles, they that were of some reputation, dyd auayle me nothyng at all. &c. 

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Galatians 2:6.

MarginaliaGal. 2.Eckius to this sayd, MarginaliaHere is good doctrine of Eckius, I trowe.that as touching the authoritie of the Apostles, they were all chosen of Christ, but were ordeyned Byshops of S. Peter. And where as Luther brought in the constitution of the Decree, whiche sayth Ne Romanus pontifex vniuersalis Episcopus nominetur. &c. Yea let not the Byshop also of Rome be called vniuersall Byshop. &c. To this Eckius aunswered on this sort, that the bishop of Rome ought not to bee called vniuersall Bishop: yet he may be called (sayd he) Byshop of the vniuersall Church. And thus much touchyng the questiō of the popes supremacie.

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MarginaliaThe question of Purgatorie.From this matter they entred nexte to Purgatorye: wherein Eckius kept no order. For when they should haue disputed, what power the pope hath in Purgatory, Eckius turneth the scope of þe question, and proueth, that there is Purgatory, and allegeth for hym the place of Machab. 

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2 Mac. 12: 43-5.

Marginalia2. Mach. 12.Luther leanyng vppon the iudgement of Hierome, affirmeth the booke of Machabees not be Canonicall. Eckius agayne replyeth, the booke of Machabees to be of no lesse authoritie, then the Gospels. Also he alleged the place. 1. Corinth. 3.: He shall bee saued, yet so as it were by fyre. 
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1 Corinthians 3:15.

Marginalia1. Corin. 3. Moreouer he inferred the place of Mat. 5. Agree thou with thyne aduersarye, while thou art in the way with hym, lest he committe thee into pryson, from whence thou shalt not escape, till thou hast payd the vttermost farthing. 
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Matthew 5: 25.

&c. MarginaliaMath. 5.To this he added also the place of the Psalme: We haue passed through fire & water. 
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Psalm 66: 12.

&c. MarginaliaPsal. 65.How these places be wrasted to Purgatory, let the reader discerne and iudge.

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MarginaliaThe question of Indulgences.Then was inferred þe question of Indulgences, wherof Eckius semed to make but a toye and a matter of nothyng, and so passed it ouer.

MarginaliaThe question of Penaunce.At last they came to the questiō of penaunce, touching whiche matter the reasons of Eckius digressed much frō the purpose, whiche went about to proue, that there bee some maner of paynes of satisfaction: whiche thyng Luther did neuer deny. But þt for euery particular offence, such particular penaunce is exacted of Gods iustice vpon the repentant sinner, as is in mans power to remitte or release as pleaseth hym: such penaunce, neither Luther, nor any other true Christian did admitte. And thus haue ye the chief effect of this disputation betwene Luther and Eckius at Lypsia. Whiche was in the moneth of Iuly, an. 1519 

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Both sides gained something from the Leipzig diputation. Eck succeeded in branding Luther as a heretic to many religious conservatives and convinced Rome (and Charles V) that Luther was a dangerous threat. But Luther's insistence on scripture as the sole authority for doctrine and his challenging papal primacy won him a great deal of support.

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MarginaliaWhen Vldericus Zuinglius came to Tigurie.About the begynnyng 

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The efforts to ascertain that Luther preceded Zwingli comes from Foxe. Otherwise, this description of the rise of Zwingli is taken from Johannes Sleidan, A famous cronicle of our time, called sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus (London, 1560), STC 19848, fo. 17r.

of the same yeare. 1519. Vldericke Zuinglius came first to Zurycke, and there began to teach. MarginaliaLuther and Zuinglius beganne both at one tyme to write agaynst the pope.Who in the 16. Article, in his booke of Articles recordeth that Luther and he both at one tyme, one not knowyng nor hearyng of an other, begā to write against the Popes pardons and Indulgences. Albeit if the tyme be rightly counted, I suppose we shall finde that Luther began a yeare or ij. before Zuinglius. Notwithstandyng this doth Sledan testifie, that in this present yeare, when Sampson a Franciscan, came with the Popes pardons

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