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1031 [1031]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and actes of Doct. Martyn Luther.

ueiance of certein nobles in Saxonie, because of the Emperours Edict, aboue mentioned. 

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I.e., the banning of Luther's works and the order for his arrest (after his safe conduct had expired) issued by Charles V at the Diet of Worms.

MarginaliaCarolostadius casteth downe Images in Wittenberge.In the meane tyme, while Luther had thus absented him selfe out of Wyttenberge, 
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The account of Luther's quarrel with Carlstadt over images is drawn from Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus (London, 1560), STC 19848, fos. 35v-36r and 45r-v.

Andreas Carolostadius
 
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Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt (c. 1480-1541), often known simply as Carlstadt, became a leading and extreme Lutheran. In 1518, he had been an important and outspoken ally of Luther's but Carlstadt eventually fell out with him.

proceding more roughly and egerly in causes of Religion, had styrred vp the people, to throwe downe Images in the temples, beside other thyngs moe. MarginaliaLuther myslyketh castyng out of Images by strong hād.For the which cause, Luther returning agayne into the Citie, greatly misliked the order of theyr doynges, and reproued the rashnes of Carolostadius declaryng, that their procedinges herein were not orderly: but that pictures and Images ought first to be throwen out of the hartes and consciēces of men, and that the people ought first to bee taught: that we are saued before God, and please him onely by faith, & that Images serue to no purpose: this done, and the people well instructed, there was no daunger in Images, but they would fall of their own accord. Not that he repugned to the contrarye (he sayd) as though hee would mainteyne Images to stād or to be suffered: but that this ought to be done by þe Magistrate, & not by force, vpon euery priuate mās head, without order and authoritie. MarginaliaEx Ioā. Sled. Lib. 3.Ex Ioan. Sled. lib. 3.

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Furthermore Luther writyng of Carolostadius, affirmeth that hee also ioyned with the sentence of them, which begā then to spread about certeine partes of Saxonie, saying that they were taught of God, that all wickednes beyng vtterly suppressed, and all the wicked doers slayne, a new full perfectiō of all thynges must be set vp, and the innocent onely to enioye all thynges. &c.

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The cause why Luther so stoode agaynst that violent throwyng downe of Images, and agaynst Carolostadius, semeth partly to rise of this, by reason that Pope Adrian, in his letters sent to the princes and states of Germany, doth grieuously complayne, and charge the secte of Luther, for sedition and tumultes, and rebellion agaynst Magistrates, as subuerters and destroyers of all order, and obedience, as appeareth by the woordes of the Popes letter before expressed, pag. 985. therfore M. Luther, to stoppe the mouth of such slaunderers, & to preuēt such sinister suspitions, was enforced to take this way, as he did: that is, to procede, as much as hee might, by order and authoritie.

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MarginaliaThe causes discussed why 

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Foxe's knowledge of Adrian VI's letters comes from Sleidan's Commentaries (see A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus (London, 1560), STC 19848, fo. 37r-v) but it is Foxe who shrewdly guesses that they caused Luther to prohibit Carlstadt's iconoclasm.

Luther permitted Images to stād.¶ Wherin are to be noted by þe way, ij. speciall points, touchyng the doctrine and doynges of M. Luther, especially for all such who in these our dayes, nowe abusing the name and authoritie of Luther, thinke thē selues to be good Lutherians, if they suffer Images stil to remaine in temples, & admitte such thinges in the Church, which them selues do wishe to be away. 
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In the following paragraphs, Foxe, who staunchly endorsed iconoclasm, is trying to explain away Luther's opposition to iconoclasm as tactical and also not a precedent to be followed in England.

MarginaliaTwo thinges to bee noted in Luther for bearyng with Images.The first is the maner how and after what sort Luther did suffer such Images to stand. For although he assented not that the vulgare and priuate multitude tumultuously by violence should rappe them downe: yet that is no argument now for the Magistrate, to let them stand. And though he allowed not the Ministers to styrre vp þe people, by forceable meanes to promote Religion: yet that argueth not, those Magistrates to be good Lutherians, whiche may and should remoue them, and will not.

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The second point to be noted is, to consider the cause why that Luther did so stand with standyng of Images, whiche cause was tyme, and not his owne Iudgement. For albeit in iudgement he wished them away, yet tyme so serued not therunto then, as it serueth now. For then the doctrine of Luther first beginnyng to spryng, & being but in the blade, was not yet knowen wherto it tended, nor to what it would grow, but rather was suspected to tende to disobedience and sedition: and therfore the pope hearyng of þe doinges of Carolostadius in Wittenberge, and of other lyke, tooke his ground thereby to charge the sect of Luther with sedition, vprores, and dissolute libertie of lyfe. And this was the cause, why Luther compelled then by necessitie of tyme, to saue his doctrine from sclaunder of sedition and tumulte, beyng layd to hym by the Pope (as ye haue heard) was so much offēded with Carolostadius & other, for their violence vsed agaynst Images. For otherwise, had it not bene for the Popes accusations, there is no doubt, but Luther would haue bene as well contented with abolishyng of Images and other monumentes of Popery, as he was at þe same tyme, contented to write to the Friers Augustins for abrogatyng of priuate Masses. And therfore as Luther in this doyng is to be excused, the circumstāces considered: Marginaliaxxxxso the lyke excuse perhaps will not serue the ouermuch curious imitation of certeine Lutherians in this present age now: MarginaliaLutheriās of thys age.whiche consideryng onely the facte of Luther, do not marke the purpose of Luther, neither do expende the circumstances & time of his doinges: being not much vnlyke to the ridiculous imitatours of kyng Alexander the great, whiche thought it not sufficient to followe him in his vertues, but they would also couterfeite him in hys stoupyng & all other gestures besides: ; MarginaliaHowe Luther is to be folowed.but to these lyuing now in the Churche, in an other age then Luther did, it may seme (after my minde) sufficient to folow the same way after Luther, or to walke with Luther, to the kyngdome of Christ, though they Iumpe not also in euery foote steppe of hys, and kepe euen the same pase, and turnynges in all pointes, as he did.

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MarginaliaLuther not to bee contenmed for one litle blemishe.And contrarywise 

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Here Foxe is defending Luther against the numerous godly in England who rejected key parts of Lutheran theology (notably on the Eucharist), by praising Luther as a great physician of souls.

of the other sorte, much lesse are they to be commended, whiche rungyng as much on the contrarye stryng, are so precise, that because of one small blemish, or for a litle stoupyng of Luther in þe Sacramēt, therfore they geue cleane ouer þe readyng of Luther, & fall almost in vtter contempt of his bookes. Wherby is declared not so much the nicenes and curiousnes of these our dayes, as the hinderance that commeth therby to the Church, is greatly to be lamented. MarginaliaCommendation of Martin Luthers doctrine.For albeit the Church of Christ (praysed by the Lord) is not vnprouided of sufficient plentie of worthy and learned writers, able to instruct in matters of doctrine: yet in the chief pointes of our consolation, where the glory of Christ, and þe power of his passion and strength of faith is to opened to our cōscience, and where the soule wrastelyng for death & lyfe, standeth in nede of serious consolation, the same may be sayd of M. Luther, amongest all this other varietie of writers, MarginaliaCyprian so much delited in reading of Tertulliā, that whensoeuer he called for hys booke, he badde, reach hym his Maister.that S. Cyprian was wont to say of Tertulian: Da magistrum: geue me my maister. MarginaliaThe cōsent betwene Lucher & Zuingl. in cases of doctrine.And albeit that Luther went a litle awry, and dissented from Zuinglius in this one matter of the Sacrament: yet in all other states of doctrine they did accorde, as appeared in the Synode holdē at Marpurge, 
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Foxe based this account of the Colloquy of Marburg on Caspar Hedio, Paralipomoena rerum memorabilium (Strasbourg, 1538), pp. 472-3 and Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus (London, 1560), pp. 472-3. It should be observed that Foxe is going out of chronological order in his narrative, as the Colloquy of Marburg was held in 1529.

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by Prince Philippe Lantgraue of Hesse. whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1529. where both Luther, and Zuinglius were present, and conferryng together, agreed in these Articles: 1. On the vnitie, and Trinitie of God 2. In the Incarnation of the worde. 3. In the Passion and Resurrection of Christ. 4. In the Article of Originall sinne. 5. In the Article of faith in Christ Iesu. 6. That this faith cōmeth not of merities, but by the gift of God. 7. That this faith is our rightuousnes. 8. Touchyng the externe worde. 9. Likewise they agreed in the Articles of Baptisme. 10. Of good workes. 11. Of confeßion. 12. Of Magistrates. 13. Of mens traditions. 14. Of Baptisme of infantes. 15. Lastly, concernyng the doctrine of the Lordes Supper, this they did beleue and hold, first that both the kindes thereof are to be ministred to the people accordyng to Christes institution: and that the Masse is no such woorke for the whiche a man maye obteyne grace both for the quicke, and the dead. Item, that the Sacrament (whiche they call of the altare) is a true Sacrament of the body and bloud of the Lord. Item, that the spirituall manducation of his bodye and bloude is necessarie for euery Christen man. And furthermore, that the vse of the Sacrament tendeth to the same effect, as doth the worde geuen and ordeined of almightie God, that therby infirme consciences may be styrred to belefe, by the holy Ghost. &c. Ex Paral. Abbat. Vrsp.

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In all these summes of doctrine aboue recited, Luther and Zuinglius did consent and agree. Neither were then opinions so differēt in the matter of the Lordes Supper, but that in the principall pointes they accorded. 

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In fact, in 14 of the 15 articles drawn up by Luther before the Colloquy (and listed by Foxe), the Lutheran and Swiss Reformers agreed. But the Swiss refused to accept the doctrine of the Eucharist contained in article 15. Foxe is de-emphasizing the disagreement in response to a blistering attack by Nicholas Harpsfield, who argued that Lutherans, Zwinglians and Calinists were not of the same religion because they did not share the same beliefs on the key doctrine of the Eucharist (Harpsfield, Dialogi sex, pp. 802-17 and 822-25).

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For if the question be asked of them both, what is the materiall substaunce of the Sacrament, whiche our outward senses do behold & feele: they will both confesse bread, and not the accidentes onely of bread. Further if the question bee

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