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1063 [1063]

K. Henry. 8. Persecution in Germanie. Germane Martyrs.

Persecutors.Martyrs.The Causes.

me to aunswere for my selfe in matters of such importaunce,
then sende me to my prison agayne amonge my todes and
frogges, whiche will not interrupt me, while I talke with my
Lord my God. The boldenes of whose spirite and courage, as
it made some to gnashe their teeth, so some it made to won-
der, and ministred to some great confirmation.
There was also one Bergiban the same time in prison, who
had bene a foreward mā, and a great doer in the Gospell, be-
fore the commyng downe of Brulius. Who beyng also sought
for at the taking of Brulius, & beyng thē not foūd at home,
either by chaunce not knowyng, or els because he conueyed
him selfe out of the way for feare, conceaued therof such so-
row in his minde, that afterward neither his wife nor chil-
dren, nor any frende els, coulde staye hym, but hee would
nedes offer him self to the Iudges, saying to the Ruler, beyng
asked why he came: The Magistrates came to seeke me
(said he) & nowe I am come to know, what they would. Wher
vpon the ruler being sory of his cōming, yet notwithstandyng
committed him to prison, where he remained constant a cer
tein while. But after the Commißioners had threatned him
with cruell tormentes and horror of death, hee began by litle
and litle to wauer and shrinke from the truth. At the fayre
wordes of the false Friers and Priestes, to haue his punishe-
ment chaunged, and to be beheaded, he was fayne to graunt
vnto their byddynges and requestes. Wherupon the aduersa
ries taking their aduauntage came to Miocius, and told him
of Bergibans retractation, willyng him to do the like. But he
stoutly persistyng in the truth, endured to the fire, where hee
hauyng pouder put to his brest, was so put to death, and dis-
patched. The Friers hearyng the cracke of the pouder, vpon
his brest, told the people, that the deuill came out of him and
caryed away his soule. Ex Rabo. & alijs.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of a good priest.A certein
Prince in
Germa-
nie, about
Hungary
or the
partes of
Pannonia.

A Priest
of Ger-
manie.

Ioannes Gastius Conui-
ual. Sermo. lib. 2. writeth of a
certein prince, but doth not name
him, whiche put out the eyes of
a certein priest in Germanie, for
no other cause, but for that he
sayd the Masse to be no sacrifice,
in that sense, as many priestes do
take it. Neither did the cruell
prince immediatly put him to
death, but first kept him in pri-
son a long time, afflicting him
with diuers tormentes. Then he
was brought foorth to be degra-
ded, after a barbarous and tiran-
nous maner. First they shaued
the crowne of his head, then rub
bed it hard with salt, that the
bloud came running downe his
shoulders. After that, they rased
& pared the toppes of his fingers
with cruel paine, that no sauour
of the holy oyle might remaine.
At last the pacient and godly
martyr, iiij. daies after, yelded vp
his lyfe and spirite. Ex Ioan.
Gastio. lib. 2.

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MarginaliaThe cruell murthering of Iohn Diazius.Aphon-
sus Dia-
zius, a
Spaniard
Petr9 de
Maluēda
the popes
prolocu-
tor at Ra-
tisbone,
a Spani-
ard.

Ioannes
Diazius
a Spani-
ard, mar-
tyr, killed
of his own
brother. At

Of this Iohn Diazius the full
proces and history is set foorth in
Latine, wherin the whole circū
stance is debated at large, wher-
of the brief Summe is this. Iohn
Diazius a Spaniard borne, first
beyng at Paris. 13. yeares, from
thence remoued to Geneua: thē
to Basill, and after to Straus-
burgh: from whēce he was sent
Ambassadour with Bucer and
other, to the Councell of Ratis-
bone: where he talking with Pe
ter Maluenda his countreyman,

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Persecutors.Martyrs.The Causes.

MarginaliaThe Emperours confessours.The Em
perours
confessor
a Blacke
Frier a
Spaniard
Marquina.

Neoberge
in Germa-
nye.
An. 1546.

the Popes factour, so declared his
religion vnto him, that Maluen
da wrote to the Frier, whiche
was the Emperours confessour,
touching the sayd Iohn Diazius:
at the openyng and readyng of
which letters, one Marquina an
other Spaniard was presēt. Vpō
this it folowed, whether by this
confesor, or by Marquina, that
Alphonsus Diazius, brother to

Iohn Diazius, whiche was one of the Popes Lawyers in
Rome, had knowledge geuen him, of his brother Iohn.
When the communication of Ratisbone was dissolued
and broken vp, Iohn Diazius, from Ratisbone went to the
Citie of Neoberge, within the dominion of Otto Henry Pa-
latine, about the expedition of Bucers booke there to be prin
ted. As Iohn Diazius was there occupied, it was not long,
MarginaliaAsphonsus Diazius come from Rome to kill hys brother.but Alphonsus his brother was come from Rome to Ratis-
bone, where Maluenda was, bringing with him a pestilent
cutthroate, a notorious ruffian or homicide belonging to the
Citie of Rome. Maluenda and Alphonsus consulting toge-
ther about the dispatch of their deuilish purpose, first labou-
red to hunt out by the frendes of Diazius, where Diazius
was. Whereof Alphonsus and the homicide hauyng know-
ledge by certeine of his secret frendes, pretendyng great mat-
ters of importance, came to Neoberge, where Diazius was
printing of Bucers boke: Where after long debatyng of mat-
ters of Religion betwene the ij. brethren, Alphonsus seing the
hart of his brother Iohn to be so constātly planted on the sure
rocke of Gods truth, that by no wise he could either be remo-
ued from his opinion, or perswaded to ryde in his company
(being otherwise counsailed by Bucer and his frendes) fained
him selfe frendly to take his leaue of his brother and to de-
parte: but shortly after, secretlye with his ruffenly murde-
rer he returned agayne, and by the waye they bought a cer-
tein hatchet of a carpenter. This done, Alphonsus sendeth his
mā beyng disguised, with letters vnto his brother, he him self
folowyng after. As Iohn Diazius in the mornyng was risen MarginaliaIohn Diazius slain by his own brother.
out of his bedde, to read the letters, the wretched hangman,
with the hatchet cloue his head vnto the braynes, leauyng
the hatchet in his head, and so he with Alphonsus tooke thē
to their horse, whiche stoode without the Citie gate, with as
much speade as they might. They of Neoberge, hearyng of
the horrible acte, sent out certeine horsemen, making great
iourneys after them. Who comming to Augusta, and hearing
the murderers to be past before, were out of hope to ouertake MarginaliaGod will haue murther knowen.
them, and so returned. One in the company more zealous thē
the rest, would not returne, but pursued them still, and in the
Citie of Oeniponte, caused them to bee stayed, and put in
prison. Otto Palatine hearing of their taking, writeth to the
Magistrates of Oeniponte for iudgemēt. Which Magistrates
at first semed very willing therto: but in conclusion, through
the practise of Papistes, and crafty lawyers, the sentence iu-
diciall was so delayed from day to day, then from houre to
houre, that the Emperours letters came in posthast requiring
the matter to be stayed, and reserued to his hearyng. And
thus the terrible murder of Cain and his felow, was bolstered
out by the Papistes. The like wherof frō the memory of men
MarginaliaCain still killeth Abell.was neuer heard of, since the first example of Cain, whiche
for religion slue his owne brother Abell. But although true
iudgement in this world be peruerted, yet such bloudy Cains
with their wilfull murther, shall not escape the hādes of him,
who shall iudge truly both the cōmitters, & the bolsterers al-
so of all mischieuous wickednes. Ex Claudio Senarcleo.

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MarginaliaInterim.¶ An. 1546. 
Commentary  *  Close

The table interspersed some materials about the political history of Germany in the later 1540s, without intending to be a detailed history of it. So Foxe included a brief excursus on the failure of the Augsburg ('Augusta')'Interim', the forlorn attempt concluded on 15 May 1548 to negotiate a 'concord' between the major contending faiths in Germany. Foxe had clearly absorbed enough during his time in Basel to pour scorn on 'a new forme of Religion called Interim' with its attempts to 'make a hodgebotch of them both' (1583, p. 892). That became an increasingly common view, especially in Reformed circles, after the peace of Augsburg (1555), which formally excluded Reformed (Zwinglian/Calvinist) confessions from being incorporated within the peace. Foxe's source for the early failure of the Imperial siege of Constance, one of the few protestant successes of the Schmalkaldic War, was Sleidan (book 21), 3, 139-40. For the flight of various protestant ministers from southern Germany during the war, where Foxe singles out Martin Frecht ('Martinus Frechtus'), superintendant at Ulm, Wolfgang Musculus at Augsburg, Johannes Brenz ('Brentius') from Halle, Ambrose Blaurer ('Blaurerus') from Contance and Martin Bucer from Strasbourg, his source of information was also Sleidan (book 20), 3, pp. 139-140. His presentation of Johann Friedrich ('John Fridericke'), Elector of Saxony as among the 'godly and constant Sayntes of Christ' for his 'admirable constancy' in the aftermath of his defeat and capture by the emperor in 1547 also largely glosses the account given in Sleidan (book 19), 3, pp. 13-19 et seq. Foxe reinforced the case for an honourable mention of the protestant princes who had so disastrously engaged in the Schmalkaldic War by including Philip, Landgrave of Hesse as another 'godly and constant' saint, especially during his five-year captivity in Spain. Again, Foxe's source was Sleidan (book 19), 3, pp. 28-34. At the same time, Foxe could not resist a paragraph being devoted to the interesting reform-minded Archbishop of Cologne whose attempts to reform his own archdiocese were among several examples of those figures in the catholic authority who took an independent and conciliatory line towards protestant critique. Sleidan had reported on them briefly (Sleidan [book 15], 2, p. 309) but as the background to his summary removal from office in the different climate of 1548 and replacement by Adolf von Schauenburg (Sleidan [book 18], 2, p. 575). Foxe might well have liked to have dwelt longer, however, on the stubborn resistance to siege by imperial forces of the 'Christian city of Magdeburg' and the 'constancy of their doctrine reformed' in 1552. It marked a turning-point in German protestant fortunes in their conflict with the emperor. Once more, Foxe's source was Sleidan (book 23), 3, pp. 302-4.

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Charles the Emperour held an armed Coū
cel at Augusta, after his victory gottē in Germanie. Where
Iulius Pflug, Michael Sidonius, and Iohn Islebius goyng
about to concorde together the Gospell of Christ, with
the traditions of þe Pope, that is, to make a hodgepotch
of them both, drewe and framed out a new forme of reli-
gion called Interim. Whereupon began a new matter of
persecution in Germanie. For the Emperour proceded
straitly agaynst all them, whiche would not receaue hys
Interim, intendyng therby to haue wrought some great
mastry agaynst the Gospellers, but the Lorde disapoyn-

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