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1421 [1421]

K. Henry. 8. Trouble for the vj. Articles. Tho. Bernard, Iames Morton, Martyrs.

pishe Prelate most bare stroke, there most persecution encreased. The Byshop of Lincolne the same tyme was Iohn Longland, and Doct. Dracotte hys Chancellour, Of whose rigorous doinges ye haue hearde enough and to much before. Hys readye diligence in all popishe quarrells, as it neuer lacked before: so now in the execution of these vj. Articles, it was not farre behinde: in whose diocesse diuers good men and wemen, namely about Buckingham and Amersham, and quarters theraboutes, were greuouslye disquieted, appearing yet in the same Register 

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The six individuals following are not known from other sources, with one exception, but their offences have a distinctively Lollard flavour to them, and seem out of place here. Blunt denials of the Mass, couched in crude language and accompanied by mockery of the clergy, are far more characteristic of Lollardy than of mainstream Protestantism. Foxe's source can be presumed to be, as he says, Lincoln diocesan records. The suspicion that these cases are misplaced in Foxe is apparently confirmed by one trace of these individuals in other records. A William Hart was charged with heresy in Lincoln diocese on 4 October 1530: Lincoln Record Office, vj.11, fo. 144v, cited in John Fines, A biographical register of early English Protestants and others opposed to the Roman Catholic Church 1525-58, part II (unpublished typescript).

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: MarginaliaEx Regist. Lincoln.as one

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Elynore
Godfrey.

For laughing & speaking certain wordes
agaynst one Tho. Collerd, who like a Pope-
holy hipocrite in the Church of Merlowe, v-
sed at Masse tyme to crouch behind the chil-
dren: and when the priest crossed hys head
with the saucer (as she termed it) he would
crosse hys head likewyse. And for these
wordes she was conuented before the By-
shop, and miserablye vexed.
W. Hart.
For saying these wordes: Thinkest thou
that God almightie wil abide ouer a knaue
priestes head?

Christo-
pher Erle.

Because he dyd no reuerence vnto the
Sacrament commyng to the Church, and
for lookyng vppon hys booke at tyme of
eleuation, and that he woulde not come to
see the eleuation. &c. Item, as he was wor-
kyng vpon a peece of Fustian on an holy-
day, and being asked why hee kept not the
holyday, he aūswered, that was no worke,
and that it was better to do that, then to sit
at the Alehouse drinking dronke.

W. Fasten-
dyche.

For speakyng certayne wordes agaynst
the Sacrament of the Altar, & beleued not,
that it was the very body of Christ.

W. Gar-
land.

W. Garland, talking of extreme vnction,
sayd that those thynges were godly signes,
but there were but two Sacramentes. &c.
W. webbe
Because he sette the Imade of a headles
Beare in the Tabernacle of S. Roke.
¶ Thomas Bernard and Iames Morton, Martyrs. 
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A particularly egregious example of Foxe's chronological confusion. This misplacing of this case is obvious - English texts of the Lord's Prayer and of the Bible were entirely legal in the latter part of Henry VIII's reign. To compound the confusion, in 1570 and subsequent editions, Thomas Barnard, husbandman, and James Mordon, labourer, are described (and, in 1576 and 1583, depicted) as being burned in one fire at Amersham, 'two or thre yeres' after the burning of William Tilsworth (aka Tylseley) in 1506 (1570, p. 117 recte 917). Yet a few pages later, they are described (1570 pp. 949-54) as Lollards arrested in 1521, with some details given of their offences and networks, and it is said that both were burned in the same year as relapsed heretics (1570, p. 964). In any event, they did not survive to be burned in the 1540s.

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MarginaliaTho. Bernard, Iames Morton, Martyrs.ABout the same tyme Iohn Longland Byshop of Lyncolne, burned two vppon one day, the one named Thomas Bernard, and þe other Iames Morton: The one for teachyng the Lordes prayer in Englishe, and the other for keping the Epistle of S. Iames translated into Englishe.

MarginaliaThe recantation of M. Barber in Oxforde.In Oxforde 

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This detail, one of many provided for Foxe by Cranmer's former secretary Ralph Morice during the 1560s, likely refers to a scholar named Laurence Barber, who died in or shortly before July 1539. A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford A.D. 1501 to 1540 (Oxford 1974), p. 24.

also the same tyme or much therabout, recanted one M. Barber Maister of Arte of that Vniuersitie, a man excellētly learned. Who beyng called vp to Lābeth before the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, was in his examination so stoute in the cause of the Sacrament, and so learnedly defended hym selfe therin, that (as it is credibly affirmed of them, whiche yet be alyue, and were present thereat) neither Cranmer hym selfe, nor all they could well aunswere to hys allegations brought out of Austen. Wherein hee was so prompt and rype of hym selfe, that the Archbyshop with the residue of his cōpanye, were brought in great admiration of hym. Notwithstādyng by compulsion of the tyme, & daunger of þe vj. Articles, at last he relēted, and returnyng agayne to Oxford, was there caused to recant. After whiche the good man long prospered not, but ware away. Ex testimonio Rad. Morys.

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¶ A mery, and pleasaunt narration, touchyng a false fearefull imagination of fire 
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Fire in Oxford

Foxe based his initial version of the panic - due to a false alarm of fire - at the penance of John Mallory, on his memory. (Foxe states in the Rerum that he witnessed the incident). There is, however, independent corroboration of Foxe's account, in a poem by John White, written in honour of John Claymund, who played a conspicuous - and according to White, heroic - role in the affair. (See John White, Diacosio-Martyrion {Louvain, 1553], STC 25388, fos 82r-83r). White also supplies a detail that Foxe omits, the date of the incident: the third Sunday of Advent, 1536. Foxe's first account of the panic appeared in the Rerum (pp. 139-44). This section was translated word-for-word in 1563. In 1570, Foxe added new details (the name of the person doing penance and the name of the person who started calling 'fire') which must have come, directly or indirectly, from others present at the incident. In the second edition, Foxe also deleted passages - originally in the Rerum - that explained to non-English readers how the English dealt with fires and that they roofed their churches with lead (this interesting passage, comparing methods of dealing with fire alarms in England and Germany first appears in the Rerum (p. 140) and was directly translated from that into the 1563 edition. It was dropped thereafter as Foxe no longer expected a large non-English audience for his martyrology). The version of the incident printed in 1570 was unchanged in subsequent editions. Foxe's purpose in printing this anecdote is not obvious. The story involves neither a martyrdom nor an important episode in the history of the Reformation. Foxe probably included the story precisely because it was not a martyrdom. As he descibes it, it is a 'merry and pleasant Interlude'which breaks up a grim narrative of persecutions following the Act of Six Articles. At the same time, it allowed Foxe to expostulate on the horror of burning people to death for heresy.

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Thomas S. Freeman.

, raised among the Doctours and Maisters of Oxford in S. Maryes Churche at the recantation of M. Mallary M. of Art of Cambridge.

MarginaliaThe recantation of M. Malary Graduate of Cambrige, who recanted at Oxforde.THis recantation of M. Barbar aforesayd in the Vniuersitie of Oxford, bringeth me in remembraūce of an other recantation likewise happenyng not long before, in the sayd Vniuersitie, whiche I thought here not to ouerpasse, and namely for that the same caryeth withall, a merye ridiculous spectacle, not vnworthy to be remembred, and here to be inserted, somewhat to recreate and refreshe by the way, the weery minde of the reader, after so many bloudy and lamentable storyes, executions, recantations, and tragedies aboue passed. The storye is this.

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There was one M. Malary, master of Arte of Cambridge, scholar of Christes Colledge 

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The name of the person doing penance was added in the 1570 edition. Foxe's source was quite accurate: John Mallory had proceeded to take his MA degree at Christ's College in 1527 (Venn).

, who for the lyke opinions to those aboue rehearsed, holdē contrary to þe Catholicke determination of holy mother Church of Rome, that is, for the right truth of Christes Gospell, was cōuented before the Byshops, and in the end, sent to Oxford, there openly to recant, and to beare his fagot, to the terrour of the Studentes of that Vniuersitie. MarginaliaMallarye brought into S. Maries church with hys fagotte.The tyme and place was appoynted, that he should be brought solemly into S. Maryes Churche vppon a Sonday 
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St Mary's was the University church at Oxford. In 1563, Foxe's wording for this passage is significant: 'upon a Sunday as I remember'. This is an indication that Foxe was present at the event.

: where a great number of the head Doctours and Diuines, and other of the Vniuersitie, were together assembled: beside a great multitude of Citisens & towne dwellers, whiche came to behold the sight. Furthermore, because that solēnitie should not passe without some effectuall Sermon, for the holdyng vp of the mother Church of Rome, MarginaliaD. Smith preached at the recantation of Mallary.D. Smith reader then of the Diuinitie lecture 
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Richard Smith was appointed the first Regius Professor of Divinity in October 1536.

, was appointed to make the Sermō at this recātation. Briefly at the preachyng of this Sermon there was assembled a mightye audience of all sortes and degrees, as well of Studētes as other. Few almost were absent, whiche loued to heare or see any newes: In so much that there was no place almost in the whole Churche, whiche was not fully replenished with concourse and throng of people.

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All thynges thus being prepared and set in a readines, commeth forth poore Mallarye with his fagotte vpon hys shoulder. Not long after also procedeth the Doctor into the pulpitte to make hys Sermon: the purpose and argument wherof was wholy vppon the Sacrament. MarginaliaThe Sacrament of the altar brought into the pulpitte.The which Doctor for the more confirmation and credite to hys wordes, had prouided the holy catholicke cake, and the Sacrament of the altar, there to hange by a stringe before hym in the pulpitte. Thus the Doctor with hys God almightie 

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I.e., the wafer. This derisive phrase was added in the 1570 edition.

, entryng hys godly Sermon, had scarce proceded into the middest therof (the people geuing great silence with all reuerēce vnto his doctrine) but sodeinly was heard into the Church the voyce of one crying in the streete, fire, fire. The partie which first cryed thus in the streete, was called Heuster.  
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The name of the person who started calling 'fire' was added in the 1570 edition.

The occasion was thys: for that he commyng from Alhallowes Parishe, saw a Chimney on fire, and so passing in the streete by S. Maries Church, cryed fire, fire, as the fashion is, meanyng no hurte.

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Thys sounde of fire being heard into the Church, first of thē which stoode vttermost next to the Church doore, so encreased and went frō one to an other, that at length it came vnto the eares of the Doctors, and at laste to the preacher hym selfe. MarginaliaA maze among D. Smithes audience in Oxforde.Who as soone as they heard the matter, being amazed with sodeine feare, and marueling what the matter should meane, began to looke vp into the toppe of the Church, and to behold the walles. The residue seing them looke vp, looked vp also. Then beganne they in the middest of the audience to crie out with a loude voyce, fire, fire. Where sayth one? where sayth an other? In the Church, sayth one. The mention of the Churche was scarslye pronounced, MarginaliaS. Maries church in Oxforde falsly supposed to be set on fire by heretickes.when as in one moment there was a cōmon crie amongest them, the Church is on fyre, the Church is set on fire by heretickes. &c. And albeit no man dyd see any fire at all, yet for somuch as all mē cryed out so, euery man thought it true that hee heard. Then was there such feare, concourse, and tumult of people, through the whole Church, that it can not bee declared in wordes, as it was in deede.

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