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1496 [1496]

K. Hen. 8. Stile burned with the Apocalyps. The processe of Pope Clemēt against K. Henry.

burned together with them, and the next day at v. of the clocke in the mornyng, was caryed with them into S. Giles in the fielde, and there burned, beyng but a small concourse or company of people at their death.

MarginaliaOne Stile Martyr, burned in Smithfield with the Apocalyps.In the companye and fellowshippe of these blessed Saintes and Martyrs of Christ 

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This account was, as Foxe states, provided directly to him by Sir Robert Outred. No corroborating evidence of this incident survives, and it can only be dated by reference to Cuthbert Tunstall's episcopate in London (1522-30). The date makes it likely that Stile was a Lollard, and this is corroborated by Foxe's account: the Apocalypse (that is, the book of Revelation) was a favourite Lollard Biblical text, of which handwritten copies frequently circulated independently. It can only be a Wycliffite book of Revelation that is referred to here.

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, whych innocently suffered within the tyme of K. Henries raigne, for the testimonie of Gods word & truth, an other good mā also commeth to mynde, not to be exluded out of this number, who was with like crueltie oppressed and burned in Smithfield, about the latter end of Cutb. Tonstalls time Bishop of London: whose name was called Stile, as is credibly reported vnto vs by a worthy and auncient Knight, named Syr Robert Outred, MarginaliaEx testimonio D. Rob. Outredi.who was the same time present him selfe at hys burning, and wytnesse of the same. With hym there was burned also a booke of the Apocalyps, which belike he was wont to read vpon. This booke when he sawe fastned vnto the stake to be burned wyth hym, lifting vp his voice, O blessed Apocalyps (said he) how happye am I that shal be burned with thee? And so this good man, and the blessed Apocalyps were both together in the fire consumed.

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ANd thus (through þe gracious supportatiō of Christ our lord) we haue rūne ouer these. 37. laborious yeares of K. Hēries rase. Vnder whose time & gouernāce, such actes and recordes, troubles, persecutions, recantations, practises, alterations and reformations as thē happened in the church, we haue here discoursed, with suche statutes, iniunctions, and proclamations as by hym were set forth in causes and matters to the sayd Churche apperteining: Albeit not comprehending all thinges so fully as might be, yet pretermitting as few thinges as we coulde, of suche matters as came to our handes: MarginaliaPope Leo hys Bull agaynst Luther.saue only, that certein instrumētes with a few other occurrentes somewhat pertainyng to the course of this kings history, haue past our handes, as the false lying Bull of Pope Leo x. against M. Luther: MarginaliaM. Luthers appeale frō the Pope to a generall Councell.with the forme also of the sayd M. Luthers appeale from the Pope vnto a generall Councell. All whiche, with other matters moe besides omitted, we haue differred by them selues hereafter to bee exhibited and declared in the sequele of thys present storye, as in hys due place shall appeare. 

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Papal sentence on Henry VIII's divorce

Henry VIII's struggle to rid himself of Catherine of Aragon had been going on for more than five years by the time that Pope Clement issued his decree. Clement had refused for a number of reasons to grant the king the annulment which he had wanted, and in the spring of 1533 the King had taken matters into his own hands. He had secretly married Anne Boleyn, and had caused Thomas Cranmer, the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, to declare his first marriage null and void. Anne Boleyn had then been crowned as Queen, and Clement's reaction had been to order him to take Catherine back on pain of excommunication. Meanwhile Catherine's appeal for a definitive sentence in her favour still hung fire in the Curia. It appears that Clement was still hoping to settle the issue by diplomacy. It was not until March 1534 that the Consistory finally issued its verdict. These issues are thoroughly discussed in Garrett Mattingly, Catherine of Aragon (1942), J..J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968), H.A. Kelly, The Matrimonial Trials of Henry VIII (1976) and E. Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004). The reference to 'his defense against the Emperour and the Spayniards' is an allusion to the determined influence which Charles V had exercised from the beginning on behalf of his aunt.

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

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MarginaliaThe Sentence definitiue of Pope Clement. vij. agaynst the diuorce of K. Henry.In the meane season, amōgest other omissions here ouer past, for somuch as a certaine instrument of the Popes Sentēce definitiue 

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The 'sentence definitive' against Henry VIII which came into Foxe's hands was probably the copy now surviving as BL Cotton MS Vitellius B.XIV, 3. Three copies are listed in Letters and Papers (VII, 362), of which two are described as 'modern copies'. The document was printed by Nicholas Pocock in Records of the Reformation, II, p.532. Gardiner's mission to Rome with Edward Foxe took place in 1528, not 1532, and no letter survives which corresponds with the description here given. Gardiner wrote to Henry VIII from Viterbo on the 11 June (before he had met the Pope) saying that he thought Clement, entertained a 'sincere love' for Henry.(James Muller, Letters of Stephen Gardiner, 1933, p.5). If a more favourable letter was written to Wolsey it does not apparently survive. The 'Kinges booke' referred to was probably A Glasse of the Truthe (T. Berthelet, 1532)

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agaynst K. Henryes first diuorse wt Lady Katherin Dowager, hath of late come to our handes, conteinyng matter neither impertinēt nor vnmeete to be committed to history, I thought here presently to place the same, to the entent that the Reader seyng the arrogant and impudent presumption of the Pope in the sayd Sentence, goyng about by force and authoritie so to constreine and compell kyngs and Princes agaynst their wylles, and agaynst right and Scripture to applye to his imperious purpose, may the better vnderstand therby, what was the true cause and ground why þe kyng first began to take stomacke agaynst the Pope, & to send hym cleane packyng out of this Realme. But before I shall produce this foresayd sentence of þe Pope definitiue, to make þe matter more playne to the reader, it shall not be amisse, first to discipher and ryppe vp the originall of such occasions as shall induce the reader to the better vnderstandyng of this fallyng out betwene the kyng and the Pope.

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For so I finde by the letters of Doct. Steuen Gardiner, written to Cardinal Wolsey, from Rome, (at what tyme hee and Doct. Foxe were sent Ambassadours by the kyng to Pope Clement the 7. about the expedition of the kynges diuorce, an. 1532) that the sayd Pope Clement with the counsaile of the Cardinall Sanctorum quatuor, and other Cardinals, at first was well willyng, and very inclinable to the accōplish-ment and satisfaction of the kynges desire in that behalfe, and that for diuers respectes:

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MarginaliaThe causes mouing the Pope at the first to fauour the cause of the kings diuorce.As first, for the great benefites receaued, and the singular deuotion of the kyng toward þe Sea Apostolicke, in taking warre for the Churches cause, in surceasing warre at the Popes desire, and especially in procuryng the Popes deliueraunce, wherby the Pope then thought him self with his whole Sea, much obliged to the king in all respectes, to passe by his authority whatsoeuer reasonably might be graūted in gratifiyng the kynges so ample merites and desertes.

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Secondly, for the euident reasons and substantiall argumentes in the Marginalia* Thys booke called the kinges boke, was a certayn treatise concerning the reasons & argumentes of diuers learned mē, for the lawfull dissolutiō of the kings mariage, with aunswere also to the contrary obiections of Abell, and others. And this booke the kyng here sent to the Pope.* kynges booke conteined, which semed well to satisfie the Popes likyng, and to remoue away all scruples.

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Thirdly, for the good opinion and confidēce that the Pope had in the excellent wisedome, profounde learnyng, and mature iudgement of the kyng, whiche the Pope (as he said in formal wordes) would sooner leane vnto, then to any other learned mans mind or sentēce, so that the kynges reasons (he sayd) must nedes bee of great efficace and strength of him selfe to order and direct this matter.

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The fourth cause mouyng the Pope to fauour the kynges request, was for the quyet and tranquilitie of his conscience, whiche otherwise in that vnlawfull mariage with his brothers wife could not be sattled.

MarginaliaThe fifte cause.The fift cause was for the consideration of the perils and daungers, whiche otherwise might happen to the Realme by þe pretēsed titles of the kyng of Scottes, & other, without any heyre male to establish the kynges succession: for the auoydyng of whiche perils and also for the other causes aboue rehearsed, the Pope shewed hym self at that tyme propense and forward to promote & set forward þe kynges desired purpose in that behalfe.

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And thus much touchyng this bymatter I thought here to suggeste, and repeate to the reader, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 1222. 1224.albeit the same is also sufficiently expressed before, pag. 1222. and 1224. to the ende that the studious reader ponderyng these first procedynges of the Pope, and comparyng them with this Sentence definitiue, whiche vnder foloweth, may the better vnderstand what inconstant leuitie, what false dealyng, what crafty packyng, and what contrarietie in it selfe, is in thys Pope, holy Sea of Rome: MarginaliaThe double dealing of the Pope with K. Henry.as by this case of the Pope may well appeare, who in short tyme after all this, was so cleane altered from that he was, that where as before hee pretended to esteme so gratfully the kynges trauaile and benefites exhibited to þe Sea Apostolicke, in his defense agaynst the Emperour and the Spayniardes, now he ioyneth vtterly with the Cesarians agaynst the kyng. MarginaliaThe Pope false double, and contrary to hym selfe.And where before he so greatly magnified the kynges profound learnyng, and mature iudgement, estemyng his minde and Sentence aboue all other learned men, to be as a Iudge sufficient in the direction of this case: now turnyng head to the taile, hee vtterly refuseth to bryng the matter in iudiciū orbis, but will nedes deteyne it at home. Again, where before he pretended a tender prouision for the state of this realme: now he setteth all other realmes agaynst it. And finally where he before semed to respect the quyet and tranquilitie of the kynges conscience: MarginaliaThe Pope how presumptuously he cōpelleth and commaundeth kinges and princes.now he goeth about to commaund and compell the kyng agaynst hys wil & conscience to do cleane contrary to that, which he him self before in his iudgement had alowed, thinkyng to haue þe kyng at his becke, & to do and vndoe what he listed and commaunded: as by the tenour and true copie of this his Sentence definitiue, ye may vnderstād. Which as it came newly to our hands, I thought here to exhibite vnto þe world, that all mē might see what iust cause the kyng had, being so presumptuously prouoked by the Pope, to shake of his proude authoritie, and vtterly to exile him out of his realme. Marke, I pray thee, the maner of the Popes proude Sentēce how presumptuously it procedeth.

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Anglici
ZZZ. iiij.
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