Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1576 [1576]

K. Edward. 6. The iudgement of Doct. Redman in cases of religion.

MarginaliaAn. 1551.He sayd, as man is made of two partes, of the body and the soule, so Christ would feede the whole man: but what (sayth he) be the wordes of the text? Let vs take þe woordes of the Scripture: and he rehearsed the text him selfe thus: Accepit Iesus panē:  

Commentary  *  Close

Redman is quoting Matthew 26:26 from the Vulgate.

Christ tooke bread. wherin hys wyll was to institute a Sacrament, Accipite, commedite: take, eate. Here he tolde the vse of it. What dyd he geue them? Hoc est corpus meum, he calleth it hys body.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether Christ be present in the Sacrament.
Then I asked hym of the presence of Christ.

He said, Christ was present with his sacrament, and in those that receaued it as they ought. And there was Miro vnitio, a wonderfull vnion (for that woord was named betwixt Christ and vs) as S. Paule sayth: MarginaliaVnitio.Vos estis os ex ossibus eius, & caro ex carne eius.  

Commentary  *  Close

Redman is quoting Ephesians 5:30 from the Vulgate.

Ye bee bone of hys bones, and fleshe of hys fleshe. The which vnion was ineffable.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether Christ be present corporally, naturally, and really in the Sacrament.
Then I asked him what he thought of the opinion, that Christ was there corporally, naturally, and really.

MarginaliaCorporally, that is, truly: so Christ is there otherwyse not.He aunswered: if you meane by corporally, naturally and really, that he is there present Verè, I graunt.

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether Christ be there fleshe, bloud, and bone.
Then I asked howe hee thought of that which was woont commonly to bee spoken, that Christ was there flesh, bloud and bone, as I haue heard the Stewardes in their Letes 

Commentary  *  Close

A Leet was originally a manorial, subsequently a district, court.

geue charge when the sixe articles stoode in effecte, and charge the Inquest to enquire, that if there were any that woulde denye Christ was present in the Sacrament of the aultar in flesh, bloud, and bone, they should apprehend them. 
Commentary  *  Close

Redman is saying that is that after the Act of Six Articles was passed in 1539, local courts were assigned to investigate accusations of disbelief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament.

[Back to Top]

He sayd, that was to grosse and could not well be excused from the opinion of the Capernaites. 

Commentary  *  Close

'Capernaite' is a prejorative term for anyone who held an overly-carnal understanding of Christ's Real Presence in the sacramental bread and wine. The term is based on John 6: 52.

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether Christ be receaued in mind and spirite, or with mouth and body, or with both?
Then I asked him: in as much as Christ was there Verè, 

Commentary  *  Close

'truly'.

how do we receaue hym? in our myndes and spirituall partes, or with our mouthes and into our bodies, or both?

He sayd, we receaue him in our mindes and soules by fayth. MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether Christes very body be receaued into our very bodyes or no?

Then in asmuch as he was much in thys point, that there was Mira vnitio, a marueilous vnion betwixt vs and Christ, in that we were Caro ex carne eius, & os ex ossibus eius: Bone of hys bone, and fleshe of hys fleshe: 

Commentary  *  Close

Redman is quoting Ephesians 5:30 from the Vulgate.

I desired to know his opinion whether we receiued the very body of Christ with our mouthes, and into our bodies or no.

[Back to Top]

Here hee paused and helde hys peace a litle space, and shortly after he spake, saying: I wyll not say so: I can not tell: it is a hard question, but surely saith he, we receiue Christ in our soule by fayth. When you speake of it other wayes, it soundeth grosly and sauoureth of the Capernaites.

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether that be to bee worshipped which the priest sheweth to the people betwixt his handes?
Then I asked him what he thought of that whych the Priest was woont to lift vp and shew the people betwixt hys handes?

He said it is the sacrament. Then said I, they were woont to woorship that which was lifted vp. Yea sayth he, but we must worship Christ in heauen: Christ is neither lifted vp nor downe.  

Commentary  *  Close

This sounds like a rejection of the Real Presence, but it is not necessarily so. Thomas Aquinas had maintained much the same thing, arguing that Christ was only present in the Sacrament under the species of bread and wine, but his actual location was in heaven.

I am glad, sayd I, maister Doctor, to heare you say so much. I woulde not speake of the holy sacrament otherwise then reuerently, but I feare lest that sacrament & the litle white peece of bread so lifted vp, hath robbed Christ of a great part of hys honour.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaQuestion.
Whether the carying about of the sacramēt is to be alowed?
Then sayd he, looking vp and praying, God graunt vs grace that we may haue the true vnderstanding of his word, whereby we may come to the true vse of his sacramentes, and sayd he would neuer allow the carying about of the sacrament and other fonde abuses about the same.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaTransubstantiation.Then after a litle while pausing, sayd I: Maister Doctor, if I should not trouble you, I woulde pray you to know your mynde in transubstantiation. Iesu maister Wilkes (quoth he) will you aske me that? Syr said I, not if I should trouble you. No, no, I wyll tell you sayth he: Because I found the opinion of transubstantiation receiued in the church, when I heard it spoken agaynst, I searched the auncient Doctours diligently, MarginaliaTransubstantiation not to be found in the Doctours.and went about to stablishe it by them, because it was receiued. And whē I had read many of thē, I found little for it, and could not be satisfied. Thē I went to the Schoole Doctors, and namely to Gabriell, 

Commentary  *  Close

Gabriel Biel (c. 1410-1495), arguably the pre-eminent theologian of the late fifteenth-century.

and wayed hys reasons. The which when I had done and perceyued they were no pithier, Languescebat opinio mea de transubstantiatione, my opinion of transubstantiation waxed feeble, and then (saith he) I returned again to Tertullian 
Commentary  *  Close

Tertullian was a major patristic writer and theologian.

and Irenæus 
Commentary  *  Close

Irenaeus was an early patristic writer and theologian.

, and when I had obserued their sayings, mine opinion that there should be transubstātiation, prorsus erat abolita: was quite dashed.

[Back to Top]

Then sayd I, you knowe that the Schoole Doctors did holde that panis non remanebat post consecrationem: that bread remayned not after consecration, as they called it. MarginaliaThe schole Doctours deceaued in the word consecration.

The schole Doctors (sayth he) did not know what consecratio doth meane: and here he paused a while. I pray you, sayd I, what say you that consecratio doth meane? MarginaliaWhat is consecration.Sayth he, it is Tota actio in ministring the sacrament, as Christ did institute it. MarginaliaConsecration signifieth the whole action of the Supper, and not the turning of the elementes.All the whole thing done in the ministery as Christ ordayned it, that is consecratio: and what (sayth he) neede we to doubt that bread remayneth? Scripture calleth it bread, & certain good autors that be of the later time, be of that opinion. 

Commentary  *  Close

In this account, Redman is expressing doubts about the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament and Wilkes is trying to persuade him otherwise. Other memories of Redman's deathbed conversations differ. For a discussion of Redman's beliefs on the Sacrament see Ashley Null, 'John Redman, the Gentle Ambler' in Westminster Abbey Reformed, 1540-1640, ed. C. S. Knighton and Richard Mortimer (Aldershot, 2003), pp. 64-70.

[Back to Top]

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaTalke betwene M. Wilkes & Doctour Yonge about D. Redman.After that I had cōmuned with Mayster Readman, and taken my leaue of him, Maister Yong came foorth into the next chamber with me, to whom I sayd that I was glad to see maister Doctor Redman so wel minded. Then sayd M. Yong to me, I am sure he wyl not deny it. MarginaliaD. Yonge stayed by Doctour Redman from hys popish opinion.I ensure you sayth he, Maister Doctor hath so moued me, that where as I was of that opinion before in certaine things, that I woulde haue burned and lost my lyfe for them, now sayth maisterYong, I doubt of them. But I see (sayth he) a man shall knowe more and more by processe of tyme, and reading and hearyng of other, and Maister Doctor Redmans saying shal cause me to looke more diligently for them.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe opinion of Doct. Redman touchyng iustificatiō by fayth.Also Ellis 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Ellis Lomas.

Maister Doct. Redmans seruant shewed me, that he did know that hys Maister had declared to K. Henry 8. his maiestie, that fayth onely iustifieth: but that doctrine as he thought, was not to bee taught the people, lest they should be negligent to do good workes. 
Commentary  *  Close

This, if accurately reported, is strikingly close to Protestantism, but what Redman actually meant is unclear. If justification by faith was the sole means of attaining salvation, then not teaching it to people endangered their souls. Next to this, the question of whether people were or were not negligent in performing good works hardly mattered.

[Back to Top]

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaConsensus Ecclesiæ is but a weake staffe to leane to.The sayd Maister Yong hath reported (the whych also I heard) that Maister Doctor Redman should say, that consensus Ecclesiæ, the consent of the Church was but a weake staffe to leane to, but dyd exhort him to read the scriptures, for there was that which should comfort hym when hee shoulde bee in such case as hee was then.

[Back to Top]
¶ An other communication betwene Doct. Redman lying in his death bed, and M. Nowell then scholemaister in Westminster, and certaine other, with notes of his censure and iudgement touchyng certaine pointes of Christes Religion. 
Commentary  *  Close

Although both William Seres (A Reporte of Maister Doctor Redmans answers (London, 1551), 20827, sig A2r-v) and Alexander Nowell himself (A Confutation as wel of M. Dormans last Boke…[London, 1567], STC 18739, fos. 11v-13r) are quite disingenuous about the origins of this document, its apparent genesis is revealing. Word of Redman's deathbed reached William Cecil, who instructed Nowell to draw up this of doctrinal points made by Redman and to get witnesses to subscribe to it. (For the identities of these witnesses see commentaries earlier in this section.) Cecil gave this document to Seres who printed it in A Reporte, fos. A3r-A6r). This again is indicative of the efforts made by Cecil and the Edwardian authorities to capitalize on Redman's death for purposes of religious propaganda.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe confession of Doctour Redman before M. Nowell.1. IN Primis, the sayd D. Redmā sent for M. Nowell of his own mind, and sayd he was willyng to commune with him of such matters as he had moued þe said Doct. Redman of a day or two before: and he beyng desired of the sayd M. Nowell to declare his minde concernyng certaine pointes of our Religion, first sayd: aske me what ye will, and I will aunswere you (before God) truely as I thinke, without any affection to the world or any worldly person.

[Back to Top]

Witnesses, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bourton, Ellis
Lomas, Iohn Wright.

2 Item, the sayd Doct. Redman sayd, that the Sea of Rome in these latter dayes is Sentina malorum, that is, a sinke of all euill.

Witnesses, Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bour
ton
, Richard Elithorne, Edward Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Iohn Wright.

3 Item, that Purgatory, as the scholemen taught it and vsed it, was vngodly, and that there was no such

kynde
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield