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1577 [1577]

K. Edvvard. 6. The godly confeßion of Doct. Redman at hys death.

Marginalia1551.kynd of Purgatory, as they phantasied.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Richard Elithorne, Iohn Wright,
Alexander Nowell, Edward Cratford, Rich.
Burton, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaOffering vp of the sacramēt called the sacrifice of the masse.4 Item, that the offeryng vp of the Sacrament in Masses and Trentals for þe sinnes of þe dead is vngodly. 

Commentary  *  Close

What Redman is saying here is that the Sacrament should not be offered in Requiem masses, not that these masses should not be celebrated. But this would contradict the third point, since if if there is no Purgatory, Requiem masses serve no useful purpose.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Edward Crat-
ford, Richard Burton, EllisLomas.

MarginaliaIf the wicked receiue the body of Christ, or onely the sacrament.5 Itē, that the wicked are not partakers of the body of Christ, but receaue the outward Sacrament onely. 

Commentary  *  Close

If Redman is saying that the character of the recipient affected the efficacy of the Sacrament, than both Protestants and Catholics would reject this view. But if he is saying that taking the Sacrament would not in and of itself save the unrepentant, than this statement was relatively uncontroversial.

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Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Eli-
thorne, Edward Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Rich.
Burton, Iohn Wright.

MarginaliaCarying about of the sacrament disproued.6 Item, that the Sacrament ought not to be caryed about in procession: for it is taught what is the vse of it in these wordes: Accipite, manducate, & bibite, & hoc facite in mei memoriam: Take, eate, and drinke, and do this in the remembraunce of me.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bur-
ton, Iohn Wright, Ed. Cratford, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaDoration of the Sacrament disproued.7 Item, that nothyng which is seene in the Sacrament, or perceiued with any outward sense is to bee worshipped.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Ellis Lo-
mas, Richard Burton.

MarginaliaA grosse opinion to thinke that Christ is corporally eaten in the sacrament.8 Item, that we receaue not Christes body Corporaliter, id est, crassè, corporally, that is to say, grosly, like other meates, & like as Capernaites 

Commentary  *  Close

'Capernaite' is a prejorative term for anyone who held an overly-carnal understanding of Christ's Real Presence in the sacramental bread and wine. The term is based on John 6: 52.

did vnderstand it.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bur-
ton, Edw. Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Iohn Wright.

MarginaliaChrist spiritually & truly eaten in the Sacrament.9 Item, that we receaue Christes body sic spiritualiter vt tamen verè, so spiritually, that neuerthelesse truly.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bur-
ton, Ed. Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Iohn Wright.

MarginaliaTransubstantiation hath no proufe in the olde Doctors.10 Item, as touchyng transubstantiation, that there is not in any of the old Doctours any good grounde or sure profe therof, or any mention of it, as farre as euer he could perceiue, neither that he seeth what cā be aunswered to the obiections made agaynst it.

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Witnesses Iohn Yong, Richard Burton, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaChrist can neyther bee vsed vp nor downe.11 Item, beyng asked of M. Wilkes what that was, which was lifted vp betwene the Priestes handes, he aunswered: he thought that Christ could neither be lifted vp nor downe. 

Commentary  *  Close

This sounds like a rejection of the Real Presence, but it is not necessarily so. Thomas Aquinas had maintained much the same thing, arguing that Christ was only present in the Sacrament under the species of bread and wine, but his actual location was in heaven.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Richard Burton, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaPriestes mariage laufull by Gods worde.12 Item, that Priestes may by the lawe of God mary wyues. 

Commentary  *  Close

Now this, if said, is truly evangelical. Note that JohnYoung and Richard Wilkes, both theological conservatives, did not subscribe to the accuracy of this article.

WitnessesAlexander Nowell, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaFayth onely iustifieth, a true doctrine.13 That this proposition: Sola fides iustificat, so that fides signifie Veram, viuam, & acquiescētē in Christo fidem, id est amplexum Christi: that is to say, that onely fayth doth iustifie, MarginaliaTrue faith defined.so that fayth doe signifie a true, a liuely, & a fayth restyng in Christ, and embracing Christ: is a true, godly, sweete and comfortable doctrine, so that it be so taught, that the people take none occasion of carnall libertie therof. 

Commentary  *  Close

This is less radical than it sounds. No one, Catholic and Protestant, denied that faith alone saved, but were good works inseparable from faith? The ambiguity here comes from the clause that the faith must conform with true doctrine. A Catholic (like John Young) would maintain that this meant acceptance of the teachings of the Church.

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Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bur-
ton, Iohn Wright, Edward Cratford, Richard
Elithorne, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaWorkes be not merite to saluation.14 Item, that our woorkes can not deserue the kyngdome of God and life euerlastyng.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Rich. Burton,
Ellis Lomas, Edw. Cratford, Rich. Elithorne,
Iohn Wright.

15 Item, that the sayd Doct. Redman, at such tymes as we the foredsayd persons which haue subscribed, heard hys communication concernyng the foresayd pointes of Religion, was of quyet minde and of perfite remembraunce, as farre as we were able to iudge.

Witnesses Iohn Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard Bur-
ton, Ellis Lomas, Edward Cratford, Richard
Elithorne, Iohn Wright.

¶ Also Maister Yong of him selfe doth declare further, touching the former Articles in this wise: 

Commentary  *  Close

These are John Young's own comments on Redman's points; they may have been added at Young's insistence, in return for his subscribing to Nowell's list of Redman's points.

¶ To the v. Article.

MarginaliaDoct. Yonges testimonye of Doct. Redmās doctrine.IN Primis, that Doct. Redman sayd more, where as Saint Augustine sayd: Quòd Iudas idem accepit quod Petrus, MarginaliaIudas receaued the same that Peter did, as Simon Magus receiued the same baptisme as Peter dyd.that Iudas receiued the same that Peter did, he sayd that he vnderstode that of the Sacrament, and that after the same phrase a man might say: Quòd Simon magus idem Baptisma recepit quod Apostoli, that Simon Magus receaued the same Baptisme that the Apostles did, when he did receaue onely the outward Sacrament to his condemnation: for he sayd that hee thought Christ would not vouchsafe to geue his holy fleshe to an vngodly man: and this he said was alwayes his mynde, though hee knew that other men did otherwise thincke.

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¶ To the sixt Article.

MarginaliaCarying about of the Sacrament.Item, he sayd, he neuer lyked the cariage about of the Sacrament, and preached agaynst it, about. xvj. yeares since in Cambridge.

¶ To the x. Article.

MarginaliaTransubstantiation.Item, when he was demaunded of transubstantiation, he sayd, that he had trauailed about it, and thinkyng that the doubtes which he perceiued did rise theron should be made playne by the scholemen, dyd read their bookes, and that after hee had read them, the opinion of transubstantiation was euery day Magis & magis languida that is, weaker and weaker, and that there was no such transubstantiation as they made, addyng thereto that the whole Schole did not know what was ment by consecration whiche he sayd was the whole action of the holy Communion.

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¶ To the xiij. Article.

MarginaliaIustification by fayth only.Item, he sayd that he did repent him that he had so much striued agaynst Iustification by onely fayth.

¶ To the. xiiij. Article.

MarginaliaWorkes merite not eternall life.Item, that woorkes had their crowne and reward, but that they did not deserue eternall life and the kingdome of God, no not the workes of grace: Nam donū dei vita æterna. For euerlasting life is the gift of God.

Although these testimonies aboue alledged may suffice for a declaratiō touchyng the honest life, sound doctrine, and sincere Iudgement of Doct. Redman: yet (velut ex abundanti) I thought not to cut of in this place, the testimoniall Letter or Epistle of D. Yong written to M. Cheke specially cōcernyng the premisses. Which Epistle of Doct. Yong, as I receiued it written by his owne hand in the Latine tongue, the copy which he him selfe hath not, nor can deny to be his owne, and is extāt to be read in the former booke of Actes and Monumentes, so I haue here exhibited the same faythfully translated into the Englishe tongue, the tenour wherof here foloweth.

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¶ The letter of M. Yong written to M. Cheke concerning Doct. Redman, translated out of Latine into Englishe. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter, which Foxe claimed was a translation of the autograph, almost certainly passed from Cheke to Cecil, and thence to Foxe. But Cecil probably obtained this letter after the report of Redman's answers was printed or it would have been included. Young's version of what Redman said is basically consistent with the versions given by Wilkes and Nowell, but in his version Redman is less doubtful about the Real Presence in the Sacrament. In Young's version, Redman also accepts Purgatory, while in the third of Nowell's points, Redman denies its existence.

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MarginaliaM. Yonges letter to M. Cheke touching D. Redman.ALthough right worshypfull, I am stricken into no litle dampe and dolour of mynde, for the vnripe (but that it otherwise pleased almighty god) & lamētable death of that most blessed and learned man Doct. Redman, in somuch that all astonied with weeping and lamenting, I can not tell what to doe or thynke: yet neuerthelesse (perceyuing it to bee your worships will and pleasure, that so I should do) as I may, call my wittes together, and purpose by goddes grace, here in these my letters, sincerely and truly to open and declare what I heard that worthy learned man speake, and confesse at the houre of his death as touching the controuersies of religion, wherewith the spouse of christe is in these

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