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1581 [1545]

K. Edvvard. 6. The story of William Gardiner, Martyr.

Marginalia1552.Who albeit vpon diuers coniectures they conceyued the cause of hys sadnes, notwithstanding they dyd not fully vnderstand that those matters so much troubled hys godly minde: neither yet did he declare it vnto any man, but seeking solitarynes and secrete places, falling downe prostrate before God, with manifold teares bewayled the neglecting of hys dutye, deliberating wyth him selfe how he might reuoke that people from theyr impietie and superstition.

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In this deliberation & aduise hys minde beyng fully setled, and thinkyng that the matter ought not to be any lõger differred, hee renounced the worlde, MarginaliaWilliam Gardiner cleareth his bookes of accomptes.makyng vp all his accomptes so exactly (as well of that which was due vnto hym, as that which hee ought vnto others) that no man could iustly aske so much as one farthyng. MarginaliaWilliam Gardiner continuing in watching and prayer.Which thyng done, he continued night and day in prayer callyng vpon God, and continuall meditation of the Scriptures, that scarsely he would take any meate by day, or slepe by night, or at the most, aboue an houre or two of rest in the night, as Pendigrace his felow, companion both at bed and bourd beyng yet alyue, can testifie. 

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This acknowledgement that Pendigrace was Foxe's source first appears in Rerum, p. 206. For a possible identification of 'Pentigrace' as one Thomas Pendigrace, see Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Roayl Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 (1966).

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MarginaliaWilliam Gardiners aduised preparation to the accomplishment of hys purpose.The Sonday came agayne to bee celebrate 

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The wedding which putatively inspired Gardiner's act of sacrilege took place on 4 December 1552 (not September as Foxe states); the act of sacrilege itself took place on 11 December.

either with lyke pompe and solemnitie, or not much lesse, whereas the sayd William was present earely in the mornyng, very cleanly apparelled 
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Interestingly, a witness testified before the tribunal investigating Gardiner that, at the time of his act of sacrilege, he was 'a man of respectable appearance' ['um homem bem disposito'] (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 [1996], p. 5).

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euē of purpose, that he might stand neare the altar without repulse. Within a while after commeth the kyng with all his nobles. Then Gardiner setteth hym self as neare the altar as hee might, hauyng a Testament in his hand, the which he diligētly read vpon, and prayed vntill the tyme was come that he had appoynted to worke his feate. MarginaliaThe Cardinal at his Masse.The Masse began, which was then solemnised by a Cardinall. 
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Foxe is in error on this point. The Cardinal-Infante Henrique was unquestionably present at the service, but testimony at Gardiner's trial reveals that a royal chaplain was celebrating Mass (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 [1996], p. 13).

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Yet he satte still. Hee which sayd Masse, proceded, hee consecrated, sacrificed, lifted vppe on hye, shewed his God vnto the people, all the people gaue great reuerence, and as yet he styrred nothyng. At the last they came vnto that place of the Masse where as they vse to take þe ceremoniall Hoste & tosse it too & fro round about the Chalice, makyng certayne circles and semicircles. MarginaliaWilliam Gardiner plucketh the Cardinalls Idoll out of hys handes at Masse, as he was leaping about the Chalice.Thē þe said W. Gardiner, not beyng hable to suffer any longer, ranne spedily vnto the Cardinall: and (which is vncredible to be spoken) euen in the presence of the kyng and all his Nobles and Citizens, with the one hand he snatched away the cake from the Priest, and trode it vnder his feete, and with the other hand ouerthrew the Chalice. 
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In a pastoral letter written after Gardiner's sacrilege, the Archbishop of Lisbon wrote that Gardiner had crushed the Host with one hand and overturned the chalice with the other (I. da Rosa Pereira, 'O Desacato na Capella Real em 1552 e o processo do calvinista inglês peranto Ordinário de Lisboa', Annais da Academia Portuguesa da Historia 29 (1984), pp. 618-19).

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This matter at the first made them all abashed, but by and by there rose a great tumulte, and the people began to cry out. The Nobles and the common people ranne together: MarginaliaWilliam Gardiner wounded with a dagger.amongest whom, one drawing out his Dagger, gaue him a great wounde in the shoulder, and as he was about to strike hym agayne to haue slayne hym, the Kyng twyse commaunded to haue hym saued. 
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Witnesses testified at Gardiner's trial that the crowd attacked Gardiner and were only stopped from killing him by the personal intervention of João III (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 (1996), pp. 14-15).

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So by that meanes they absteyned from murther.

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MarginaliaWilliam Gardiner brought before the kyng.After the tumult was ceassed, he was brought vnto the kyng: by whom he was demaunded what countrey man he was, and how he durst be so bold to worke such a contumely agaynst his Maiesty, and the Sacramentes of the Church? MarginaliaThe oration of William Gardiner before the kyng.He aunswered: 

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To accept that this speech actually took place, one must accept that a person who seriously wounded by an enraged mob would have had the presence of mind to deliver this oration and that the king, anxious to forestall the mob, would have listened patiently while he delivered it. It is almost certain that Foxe wrote this little speech himself. His reason for doing so was clear. The martyrologist was anxious to clear Gardiner (and Protestants in general) of any taint of disrespect for monarchs or sedition.

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most noble kyng, I am not ashamed of my countrey, which am an Englishe man both by byrth and Religiõ, and am come hyther onely for trafficke of Marchaundise. And when I sawe in this famous assembly so great Idolatry committed, my conscience neither ought neither could any longer suffer, but that I must nedes do that which you haue seene me presently doe. Which thyng (most noble Prince) was not done nor thought of me for any contumely or reproch of your presence, but onely for this purpose (as before God I do clearely confesse) to seeke the onely saluation of this people.

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MarginaliaThe suspition of the Portugales vpon the facte of William Gardiner.When they heard that he was an English man, and called to remembraunce how the Religion was restored by king Edward, they were by & by brought in suspition, that he had bene suborned by English mē thusto doe, to mocke and deride their Religiõ. Wherfore they were the more earnest vppon him to know who was the author and procurour that hee should commit that act. MarginaliaThe aūswer of William Gardiner to the false suspition of the Portugales.Vnto whom he aunswered, desiryng them that they woulde conceaue no such suspition of hym, for so much as he was not moued therunto by any man, but onely by his owne consciēce. For otherwise there was no man vnder the heauē, for whose sake he would haue put him self into so manifest daunger: but that he ought this seruice first vnto God, and secondarily vnto their saluation: wherefore if he had done any thyng which were displeasaunt vnto them, they ought to impute it vnto no man, but vnto them selues, which so vnreuerently vsed the holy Supper of the Lord vnto so great Idolatry, not without great ignominye vnto the Church, violation of the sacramentes, and the perill of their owne soules, without they repented.

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Whilest that he spake these with many other things more vnto this effect very grauely & stoutly, the bloud ran abundantly out of the wounde, so that he was ready to faint. Wherupon Surgeons were sent for, wherby he might be cured if it were possible, and be reserued for further examination, & more greuous torment. For they were fully persuaded that this deede had diuers abbettors and setters on: which was the cause that all the other Englishe men also in the same Citie, came into suspition, and were commaunded to safe custody. MarginaliaPendigrace bedfellow to W. Gardiner, imprisoned vpon suspition.Amõgest whom, Pendigrace, because he was his bedfelow, was greuously tormented and examined more then the residue, and scarcely was deliuered after two yeares imprisonment. The other were much sooner set at libertie at the intercession of a certaine Duke. 

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It is worth noting that, despite Portuguese suspicions that Gardiner was not acting alone, the incident did not disturb either diplomatic or trade relations between England and Portugal.

MarginaliaW. Gardiners chamber searched.Notwithstandyng theyr suspition could not yet bee satisfied, but they came vnto his chamber to seke if there were any letters, to vnderstand and finde out the author of this enterprise. And when as they could finde nothyng there, they came agayne vnto him being greuously woūded, with tormentes to extorte of hym the author of this facte, and to accuse him as giltye of most greuous heresie. Of both which pointes, with such dexteritie as he coulde, hee cleared him selfe. Wherin, albeit hee spake the Spanish 
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Actually Portuguese; Foxe seems to have believed that the language of Portugal was Spanish.

tounge well, yet he vsed the Latine tounge much more exactely. 
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Gardiner's examinations were conducted in Latin but recorded in Portuguese.

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But they not beyng therwith satisfyed, added an other straunge kynde of torment, which (as I suppose) passeth the Bull of Phalaris. MarginaliaThe Bull of Phalaris a certayne tyranne, was a kind of tormēt made of brasse lyke a Bull, with fyre vnder it to torment such as were put into it, and make them to roare lyke a Bull.Bicause there shoulde no kynde of extreme cruelty be left vnassayd, 

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The Portuguese records state that torture was applied to Gardiner, but they do not describe the tortures. The tortures described by Foxe have a grim plausibility since conventional tortures could not be used on a severely wounded man.

they caused a linnen cloth to be sowed rounde like a ball, the which they with violence put down his throte vnto the bottome of his stomacke, tyed with a small stryng which they held in theyr handes, & when it was down, they pulled it vp agayne with violence, so pluckyng it to and fro through the meate pype, in such sort as with much lesse griefe they might haue ryd hym out of his lyfe at once.

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Thus at the last, when all tormentes & tormenters were weryed, and that it did nothyng at all preuayle to go this way to worke, they asked hym whether hee dyd not repent his wicked and seditious deede. MarginaliaW. Gardiner not repenting hys facte.As touching the deede, he aunswered that it was so farre of that hee did repent, that if it were to do agayne, he thought hee should do the same. But as touchyng the maner of the deede, he was not a litle sory that it was done in the kynges presence to the disquietnes of his minde. Howbeit that was not to bee imputed vnto him, which neither enterprised or thought vpon any such matter, but rather to be ascribed vnto the kyng, in that he hauyng power, would not prohibite so great Idolatry vsed among his people. This he spake with great feruency.

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After they had vsed all kynde of tormentes, and saw that there could nothyng more be gathered of hym, and also that through hys woundes and paynes he could not long lyue, they brought hym three dayes after to execution. MarginaliaThe ryght hand of W. Gardiner cut of in the Vestry.And first of all, bringyng him into the Vestry, cut of his right hand, which hee takyng vp with his left

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hand
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