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1591 [1591]

K. Edvvard. 6. Peter Martyrs disputation in Oxforde.

Marginalia1552.made. Now the Sacrament of the Churche is made of two thinges, that is, of the Sacrament that signifieth, and of the matter of the Sacrament that is signified. &c.

Theodoretus.

MarginaliaTheodoretus Dial. 1. contra Eutychen.These visible mysteries which are seene, he hath honored with the name of his body and bloud, not chaunging the nature, but addyng grace vnto nature. &c. And the same Theodoretus agayne sayth: MarginaliaTheodoretus Dial. 2. contra Eutychen.

Those mysticall Sacramentes after sanctification do not passe out of their own proper nature, but remaine still in their former substance, figure, and shape. &c.

Ergo, lyke as the body of Christ remayned in him, and was not chaunged into hys diuinitie: so in the Sacrament the bread is not chaunged into the body, but both the substaunces remaine whole.

Origene.

MarginaliaOrigen. in Matth. cap. 15.If what soeuer entreth into the mouth, goeth down into the belly, and so passeth through a man: euē that meate also which is sanctified by the worde of God and by prayer, as touchyng that parte which it hath materiall with in it, passeth into the bely, and so voideth through a mā. But through prayer which is adioyned to it, accordyng to the measure of faith, it is profitable & effectuall. &c. And he addeth moreouer: For it is not the outward matter of the bread, but the word that is spoken vpō it, that profiteth hym which eateth him worthely. &c.

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Irenæus.

MarginaliaIrenæus Lib. codē.Iesus taking bread of the same conditon which is after vs (that is, taking bread of þe same nature & kinde as we vse cōmonly to eate) did confesse it to be his body. And taking likewise the cuppe which is of the same creature which is after vs (that is, which we cōmonly vse to drinke) confessed it to be his bloud. &c.

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Itē, lib. 4. Like was bread which is of the earth receauyng the worde and callyng of God, is now not common bread, but the Eucharist, cōsistyng of two things, the one earthly, the other heauenly: so our bodyes receauyng the sacrate Eucharist, bee now not corruptible, hauing hope of resurrection. &c.

¶ Argument.

Ba-
The bread in the Sacramēt is so chaunged into the
body, as our bodies are chaunged when they are
made vncorruptible by hope.
ro-
But our bodies are not made incorruptible by
chaungyng their substaunce:
co.
Ergo, no more is the
bread chaunged into the sub-
stance of the body.

Gregory.

MarginaliaGregorius in Registro.Notwithstanding whether we take leauened or vnleauened bread, we are all one body of our Lord and Sauiour. &c.

¶ Argument.

Da-
Where bread leauened or vnleauened is takē, there
is substance of bread and not accidences onely.
ri-
In the Sacramēt bread is receaued either leauened
or vnleauened:
j.
Ergo, in the Sacrament is substaunce of bread and
not accidences onely.

¶ Argument.

The body of Christ is named of that which is proportioned round, and is vnsensible in operation.

Accidences onely of bread haue no figure of roūdnes:

Ergo, the body of Christ is not named of accidences, but of very bread substantiall. 

Commentary  *  Close

According to the metaphysics of the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, which became enshrined in Catholic theology through its use by St Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, 'substance' refers to the inherent nature of an object; 'accidents' refer to the elements of an object that are not inherent. In the case of bread, for example, the shape and color are accidents of the substance of a piece of bread.

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¶ Argument.

The wordes of the Euangeliste speakyng of that which Christ tooke, blessed, brake, and gaue, doe importe it to be bread, and nothyng els but bread.

Ergo, the substaunce of bread is not to be excluded out of the Sacrament.

Chrysostome.

MarginaliaChrysost. 1. Cor. 11. el. 27.Christ in bread and wine said: do this in remēbrance of me.

Cyrillus.

MarginaliaCyrill. in Iren. lib. 4. cap. 14.He gaue to them peeces or fragmentes of bread.

Also the same Cyrill sayth: In bread we receaue hispretious body, and his bloud in wyne.

Ergo, by these Doctours it remayneth bread after consecration.

Ambrose.

Before the bleßing of the heauenly wordes, it is called an other kinde of thyng. After consecration the body of Christ is signified.

¶ Argumentes of Peter Martyr disputyng with M. Chadsey vpon the first question.

Da-
The Analogie 
Commentary  *  Close

St Augustine gave the traditional definition of Sacraments as visible signs ('analogy', 'similtude'of invisible grace, grace being the Holy Spirit or God's divine self at work in the world. Protestants argued that regarding the Eucharist the bread and wine are the 'analogy' that signify Christ's true but spiritual presence. Catholics argue that visible signs or analogy are the accidents of the outward signs of bread and wine after the substance of the bread and wine have been consecrated and completely transformed into the invisible but true, spiritual and corporeal body and blood of the Risen Christ.

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and resemblaunce betwene the Sa-
crament and the thyng signified must euer be kept,
in all Sacramentes.
ti-
In the Sacrament of the Lordes body, this Analo-
gie or resemblaunce cā not be kept, if bread be tran-
substantiated:
si.
Ergo, the substaunce of bread must nedes remayne
in the Sacrament of the Lordes body.

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MarginaliaAugust. Epist. ad Dardanum.The Maior 

Commentary  *  Close

The 'major' of an argument is its chief point; the 'minor' is the proof ascertaining ('certaine') the major's veracity.

of this argumēt is certain by S. Austen, Lib. De catechisandis rudib , & epist. ad Dardan. Where hee sayth: Sacramentes muste needes beare a similitude of those thynges vvherof they are Sacramentes, or els they can be no Sacramentes.

The Minor is thus proued.

¶ Argument.

MarginaliaApologie or proportion betwene the outward nourishing of bread in our bodyes, and the inward nourishing of Christes bodily death in our soules.

Ba-
The resemblaunce betwen the Sacrament and the
body of Christ is this: that as þe properties of bread
and wyne doe nourish outwardly: so þe properties of
the body of Christ do nourish spiritually.
ro-
Without the substaunce of bread and wyne there is
no resemblance of nourishyng:
co.
Ergo, without the substaunce of bread and wyne the
Analogie can not hold.
¶ Argument.
Ba-
Agayne, an other resemblaunce and similitude or
Analogie of this Sacrament is this: that as one
loafe of bread, and one cup of wyne conteineth ma-
ny cornes and many grapes: so the mysticall congre
gation conteyneth many members, and yet maketh
but one body:
ro-
Without the substaunce of bread and wyne, no such
resemblaunce or similitude of coniunction can be re-
presented:
co.
Ergo, without the substaunce of bread and wyne, the
Analogie of this spirituall cōiunction can not hold.
¶ An other Argument.
Ba-
Euery Sacrament consisteth in two thinges, that
is, in the thyng signifiyng, and the thyng signified.
ro-
Without the substaunce of bread and wyne, there is
nothyng that signifieth in the Sacrament:
co.
Ergo, the substance of bread and wyne in the Sacra-
ment can in no wise be transubstantiate from their
natures.

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The Minor is thus to be proued.

Fes-
There is no signification in any Sacrament with-
out the element.
ti-
The substaunce of bread and wine is the element of
this Sacrament:
no.
Ergo, without the substance of bread and wyne
there is no similitude nor signification in this Sa-
crament.

And for somuch as þe aduersaries ground their transubstantiatiō so much vpō these wordes of Christ: This is my body: 

Commentary  *  Close

Matt. 26: 26; Mark 14: 22; Luke 22: 19 - the Gospel narratives of the institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper. Martyr claimed that Catholics read this phrase only according to the literal sense of interpreting the Bible, not the analogical, figurative or 'spiritual' sense. Catholics claim they understand this Biblical text in both the literal and spiritual senses.

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which they expoūd only after þe literal sense, without trope 
Commentary  *  Close

'Trope': metaphor; in this case a visible object signifying Christ's Eucharistic presence. A sacrament could not exist without the visible sign of invisible grace, and Martyr claimed that the Catholic Eucharist did not have one, since the substance was completely transformed. Catholics maintained that the accidents of bread and wine - the outward signs of the transubstantiated elements - served as the trope or figure of Christ's corporeal body and blood, and so could be called 'bread' and 'wine'.

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or figure: now that this their expositiō is false, and that the sayd wordes are to be takē figuratiuely and spiritually, by three causes it is to be proued: 1. First by þe wordes of the Scripture: 2. By þe nature of a Sacrament: 3. By the testimonies of the fathers.

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MarginaliaThree causes prouing that these wordes of Christ, Hoc est corpus meū, are not to be taken literally but spiritually.
Places of scripture making agaynst transubstantiation.
1 First by these wordes of the Scripture, where hee sayth: Do this in remembraunce of me: for so much as remembraunce properly serueth not for thynges corporally present, but for thinges rather beyng absent. 

Commentary  *  Close

Luke 22: 19; I Corinthians 11: 23-26 (the institution narrative as given by St. Paul). Martyr held that Christ is spiritually present in the bread and wine, not literally, for otherwise there would be no need to remember Christ, since one remembers only that which is not there. Catholics state that the Eucharist is a memorial that makes truly but mystically present Christ's one sacrifice on the cross, as well as making his body and blood corporeally present.

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2 Secondly, where hee sayth: Vntill I come. Which wordes were vayne, if he were already come by consecration.

3 Thirdly, where Saint Paul sayth: The breaking of bread, is it not the cōmunion of the body of Christ? 

Commentary  *  Close

I Corinthians 10: 16-17. Catholics claim that Christ's one death upon the cross, where he body was broken, becomes truly, mystically present in the Mass. They also receive Christ's true, corporeal, risen, glorified body and blood, which can no longer be broken as it was upon the cross, but Christ's one body can be given to people whenever and wherever they receive the Eucharist.

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