Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1617 [1555]

Queene Mary. Cōuocatiō dißolued. Good Bishops displaced. Lady Iane cōdēned. Forreine mariage.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Precept to Bonner

The wording and close linking of reform to the queen can be seen in the glosses 'Good Byshops displaced' and 'Popish Prelates intruded by Q. Mary'. These are contrasting glosses: the 'displaced' (a word which suggests fault if not illegality) good bishops and the 'intruded' (roughness of dealing, but, again, no illegality suggested by this term) popish prelates.

[Back to Top]
Marginalia1553. Decemb.13. of December, Queene Mary, to take vp the matter, sendeth her commaundement to Boner Byshop of London, that he should dissolue and breake vp the conuocation. The copy of which cōmaundement here foloweth.

¶ The precept of the Queene to Boner Byshop of London, for the dissoluyng of the foresayd Conuocation. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 7: Bonner's Precept and the end of 1553

Generally, if Foxe quotes a document in the 1563 edition which pertains to the London diocese, it came from the London diocesan records, one of the few archival collections which Foxe systematically exploited before the 1563 edition. Mary's precept to Bonner to dissolve Convocation probably came from these records.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaQ. Mary breaketh vp the Cōuocation.MAria. &c. Reuerendo in Christo patri & domino, domino Edmundo London. Episcopo, salutem. Cum præsens conuocatio Cleri Cantuariensis prouinciæ apud Sanctū Paulum London. iam modo tenta & instans existit, certis tamen vrgentibus causis & considerationibus nos specialiter mouētibus, de aduisamento Consilij nostri ipsam præsentem conuocationem duximus dissoluendam: Et ideo vobis mandamus quòd eandem præsentem conuocationem apud Sanctū Paulum prædictum debito modo absque aliqua dilatione dissoluatis, dissoluiue faciatis prout conuenit, significantes ex parte nostra vniuersis & singulis Episcopis, nec non Archidiaconis, Decanis, & omnibus alijs personis Ecclesiasticis quibuscunq; dictæ Cantuariensis Prouinciæ quorum interest vel interesse poterit, quod ipsi & eorum quilibet huic mandato nostro exequendo intendentes sint & obedientes prout decet. Teste meipsa apud Westmonasterium. 13. die Decembris, Anno regni nostri primo.

[Back to Top]

In the dayes of kyng Henry, and also of K. Edward raygning after hym, diuers noble men, bishops and other, were cast into þe Tower, some charged with treason, as MarginaliaThys lord Courtney was sonne to the Marques of Exceter.Lord Courtney and the Duke of Northfolke, (whose sonne L. Henry Earle of Surrey had bene the same time beheaded, a worthy & ingenious gentlman, for what cause, or by whō, I haue not here to deale: this is certain, that not many yeres after his death folowed the beheading of both the Lord Semers, and at last of the Duke of Northumberlād 

Commentary  *  Close

The most interesting of these items is a rather remarkable passage on the execution of the Earl of Surrey: 'a worthy and ingenious gentleman, for what cause or by whom [he was beheaded], I have not here to deale, this is certeine, that not many yeres after his death, followed the beheading of both the L. Semers and at last of the Duke of Northumberland' (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1343; and 1583, p. 1417). This passage, implying that Surrey was unjustly executed and that this injustice was providentially punished, first appeared when Surrey's son (who was Foxe's pupil and patron) was in the Tower awaiting execution.

[Back to Top]
also) some for the Popes supremacie, and suspitious letters tending to sedition, as Tonstall bishop of Durhā, & other for other thyngs: all which continued there prisoners till Quene Maries comming in. Vnto whom the sayde Queene eftsoones graunted their pardon, and restored them to theyr former dignities. MarginaliaSteuen Gardiner Byshop of Winchester made L. Chauncellour of England.Amongest whom also was Gardiner bishop of Wint. whom she not onely freed out of captiuity, but also aduaunsed him to bee high Chauncellour of England. MarginaliaThe Lorde Courtney made Earle of Deuonshyre.Furthermore to the Lord Courtney she shewed such fauour, that she made hym Earle of Deuonshiere: in so much that there was a suspition amongest many, that she woulde marry hym, but that proued otherwyse.

[Back to Top]

The same time Boner also had bene prisoner in the Marshalsey, whom likewyse Quene Mary deliuered & restored to the bishopricke of London agayne, displacing MarginaliaGood Byshops displaced.Doct. Ridley, with diuers other good bishops mo, as is aboue mencioned, as Cranmer from Canterburye, the Archbishop of Yorke likewyse, Poynet from Wint. Iohn Hooper from Worcester, Barlow from Bath, Harley frō Hereford, Tailour from Lincolne, Ferrar from S. Dauids, Couerdale from Excester, Scory from Chichester. &c. wyth a great number of Archdeacons, Deanes, and briefly all such beneficed men, whych eyther were maryed, or woulde constantly adhere to their profession. All which were remoued from their liuinges and other of the contrary Secte set in the same, as MarginaliaPopishe Prelates intruded by Q. Mary.Cardinal Poole (who was thē sent for) Gardiner, Heath, Whyte, Day, Troublefield. &c.

[Back to Top]

And as touching Cranmer, of whom mention was made before, forsomuch as there was a rumour spread of him the same time at London that he had recanted, and caused Masse to be said at Canterbury for purging of him selfe he published abroade a declaration of hys truth and constancie in that behalfe, protesting that hee neither had so done, nor minded so to do: MarginaliaCranmer with Pet. Martyr, and v. other, offer to defend the cause of their doctrine agaynst all men.Adding more ouer, that if it would so please the Queene, he with Peter Martyr, and certayne other whom he would chuse, would in open disputation sustaine the cause of the doctrine taught and set forth before in þe tyme of king Ed-

[Back to Top]

ward, agaynst all persons whomsoeuer. 

Commentary  *  Close

Much of the remaining material, particularly that concerning the rumours that Cranmer had celebrated mass and his public denial of these rumours, would be treated in greater detail later in the Actes and Monuments (cf. 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418; with 1570, p. 1465-66; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1635).

[Back to Top]
But while he was in expectation to haue this disputation obtayned, hee with other Bishops were layd fast in the Tower, and Peter Martyr permitted to depart the realme, and so went he to Argentine. 
Commentary  *  Close

'Argentine', mentioned in 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418, is a slightly anglicised version of the Latin name for Strasburg.

After this, in the moneth of MarginaliaNouemb.Nouember, the Archbishop Cranmer, notwithstanding he had earnestly refused to subscribe to the kinges wyll in disheriting hys Syster Mary, alledging many graue and pithy reasons for her legitimation, MarginaliaD. Cranmer with the Lady Jane arrayned of treason in the Guild hall.was in Guild hall of London arreyned and attaynted of treason, with the Lady Iane and three of the Duke of Northumberlandes Sonnes, whych at the intreatie of certayne persons were had agayne to the Tower, and there kept for a tyme. 

Commentary  *  Close

The description of the arraignment of Cranmer, Jane Grey and Northumberland's sons is taken from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v with 1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418) except for the passage which reads: 'which at the intreatye of certayne persons were had againe to the Tower and there kept for a time'. This passage is excerpted from Thomas Cooper, Coopers chronicle ... vnto the late death of Quene Marie (London, 1560), STC 15218, sig. Yyyy2r. This is Foxe's only borrowing from Coopers chronicle in Book 10 (or, as far as is known, anywhere in the Actes and Monuments).

[Back to Top]
All whych notwythstanding MarginaliaArchbyshop Cranmer quitte of treason.Cranmer afterward beyng pardoned of treason, stoode onely in the action and case of doctrine, whych they called heresie, whereof he was right glad and ioyfull.

[Back to Top]

This being done in Nouember, the people and especially the Churchmen, perceauing the Queene so egerly set vppon her olde religion, they likewyse for theyr partes, to shewe them selues no lesse forward to serue the Queenes appetite (as the maner is of the multitude, commonly to frame them selues after the humor of the Prince and tyme present) began in their Quiers to set vp MarginaliaGoing about of S. Katherine and S. Nicholas.the Pagiants of S. Katherin, and of S. Nicholas, and of theyr processions in latine, after all their old solemnitie with theyr gay gardeuiance, & gray amices. 

Commentary  *  Close

The passages on the restoration of the festivals of St. Catherine and St. Nicholas and of the repeal of the statutes of praemunire and of the Edwardine religious statutes, were added to the 1570 edition (see textual variant 14). The sources cannot be determined; possibly they are an individual's recollections transmitted to Foxe.

[Back to Top]
And when the moneth of December was come, the Parliament brake vp: but first of al such statutes were repealed, whych were made either of Premunire, or touched any alteration of religion, and administration of Sacramentes vnder kyng Edward. In the whych Parlament also communication was moued of the Queenes mariage wyth kyng Phillip the Emperours sonne.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaCardinall Poole sent for.In this meane whyle Cardinall Poole being sent for by Quene Mary, was by the Emperour requested to stay with him, to the intent (as some thinke) that hys presence in Englād should not be a let to the mariage, which hee entended betwene Philip his Sonne and Quene Mary. For the making wherof, hee sent a most ample Abassade, with full power to make vp the mariage betwixt them: MarginaliaMaryage betwene Phillip and Mary concluded.which toke such successe, that after they had cōmuned of þe matter a fewe dayes, they knitte vp the knot. 

Commentary  *  Close

The detaining of Pole by the emperor and the coming of an embassy sent to arrange the marriage of Philip and Mary are recounted by Crowley and reprinted by Foxe (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v with 1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

[Back to Top]
AN. 1554. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 8: Anno 1554

Much of the material in this section is reprinted from Crowley's chronicle. Later in Book 10, after the Oxford disputations, Foxe would draw on yet another chronicle or chronicles to form a political narrative of the early years of Mary's reign. Because he was drawing on different sources which covered roughly the same chronological period, there was a good deal of repetition (and a certain amount of inconsistency) between these different sections of Book 10. For example, Foxe gave one account of the capture of the Duke of Suffolk here (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418) and another, different, account of the same events later in Book 10 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1467). Foxe made no attempt, at any time, to reconcile any of these differing versions of the same events.

[Back to Top]

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Anno 1554

Foxe seems to have been especially concerned to defend the Wyatt rebels against Mary's account of their intentions ('Demaundes pretended to be sent from M. Wyat and hys company to Queene Mary' and 'How he pretended the spoyle of theyr goodes it appeareth in that he comming to Southwarke, did hurt neither man, woman, nor childe, neyther in body nor in a penny of their goodes'). The later dropping of the gloss 'Duke of Suffolke forsooke Quene Mary' (1563) is a possible example of Foxe striving to discredit Mary without explicitly speaking against her.

[Back to Top]
MarginaliaAn. 1554.This mencion of mariage was about þe beginning of Ianuary, & was very euil takē of þe people, & of many of the Nobilitie: who for this and for religion, conspiring among them selues, made a rebellion: whereof Sir Thomas Wyat knight was one of the chiefe beginners. Who being in Kent, said, as many els perceiued, that the Quene and the Coūsell would by forreine mariage bring vppon this realme most miserable seruitude, and establish popish religion. About the. 25. of Ianuary, MarginaliaIanuar. 25. newes came to London of this sturre in Kēt, and shortly after of þe Duke of Suffolke, who was fled into Warwicke shire & Leicester shire, there to gather a power. The Quene therefore caused them both with the two Carewes of Deuonshire to bee proclaymed Traitours: and sent into Kent agaynst Wyat, Thomas Duke of Norfolke. MarginaliaThe Duke of Northfolke sent agaynst M. Wyat. Who being about Rochester bridge, forsaken of them that went with him, returned safe agayne to London without any more harme done vnto him, and with out bloudshed of either party. 
Commentary  *  Close

It might be noted here that in the Appendix of 1563 (p. 1731), Foxe prints a letter from Mary to the third Duke of Norfolk, informing the Duke of Wyatt's defeat. (This letter was removed from the editions of 1570 and 1576, but was reprinted in the 1583 edition). This letter was almost certainly loaned or given to Foxe by the fourth Duke of Norfolk.

[Back to Top]

The brief description of Wyatt's rebellion, Suffolk's capture and the flight of Sir Peter Carew are all taken from Crowley (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sigs. Ffff2v - Ffff3 with 1563, pp. 916-17; 1570, pp. 1579-80; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1419).

There is one interesting piece of re-writing here, however. Crowley described the fate of the Duke of Norfolk's expedition against Wyatt: 'Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who beynge forsaken of them that went with hym, escaped to London agayne with great difficultie, as he thought, although no man followed him' (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v). Foxe, apparently thinking that this made the Duke of Norfolk sound too much like the Duke of Plaza Toro, rendered this: 'Thomas D. of Norfolke, who being aboute Rochester Bridge, forsaken of them that went with him, returned safe to London with out any more harme done unto him, and withoute bloudshed on either partie' (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418). Once again Foxe's loyalty to the Howard family shaped his narrative.

[Back to Top]
Furthermore, to apprehend the Duke of Suffolke, beyng fled into Warwyke shiere, was sent the Earle of Huntington in poste, who entring the Citie of Couentry before the Duke, disapoynted hym of hys purpose. Wherfore þe Duke in great distresse cōmitted him selfe to þe keping of a seruant of his named Vnderwood  
Commentary  *  Close

While Foxe reprinted the account of Suffolk's capture directly from Crowley, in the 1570 edition, he added one detail not in Crowley's account: that the name of the servant who betrayed the duke was Underwood.

in Astley Parke, who like a false traytour bewrayed hym. MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke apprehended.And so hee was brought vp to the Tower of London.

[Back to Top]
In
IIIi.j.
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield