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547 [547]

K. Edward. 3. The history of Iohn Wickliffe Actes and Mon. of the church.

therwyse do. And seemed moreouer to be moued against the Archbishop, for that hee was not more stout in the cause, but suffered him so to be cited of the Duke.

MarginaliaB. of Wint. sent for to the conuocation.The Archbishop although hauyng sufficient cause to excuse hym self, wherfore not to send for hym (as also he did) because of the perils whiche might ensue therof: yet beyng enforced and persuaded therunto, by the importunitie of the byshops, directed downe his letters to the foresayd bishop of Winchester, willyng him to resorte vnto the conuocation of the Clergie. Who beyng gladde to obey the same, was receaued with great ioye of other bishops. And at length by the meanes of Alyce Perrys, the kinges peramour, aboue mentioned (gyuing to her a good quantitie of money) the sayd Winchester was restored to his temporalities agayne.

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MarginaliaIohn Wickliffe sent for by the Duke of Lancaster.As the byshops had 

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This summary of Wiclif's opinions is taken from the Chronicon Angliae, pp. 115-16.

thus sent for Winchester, the duke in the meane tyme had sent for Ihon Wicleffe: who as is said, was then the diuinitie reader in Oxford, and had commenced in sondry actes and disputations, contrary to the forme and teachyng of the popes churche in many thinges: who also for the same had been depriued of hys benefice, as hath been aforetouched. The opiniōs, which he began in Oxford, first in his lectures, and sermons to entreate of, and wherefore he was depriued were these. That the Pope had no more power, to excommunicate any man, then hath an other. That if it be geuen by any person to the Pope to excommunicate, yet to absolue the same is as much in þe power of an other priest, as in his. He affirmed moreouer, that neither the kyng, nor any tēporall Lord could geue any perpetuitie to the church, or to any ecclesiasticall person: for that when such ecclesiasticall do sinne, habitualiter, continuyng in the same still, the tēporall powers ought and may meritoriously, take away from them, that before hath been bestowed vpon them. MarginaliaExample of William RufusAnd that he proued, to haue been practised before here in England by Williā Rufus. Whiche thyng (sayd he) if he did lawfully, why may not the same also be practised now? yf he did it vnlawfully, then doth the churche erre (sayth he) and doth vnlawfully in praying for hym. But of his assertions more shall folow (Christ willyng) hereafter. The story which ascribeth to him these assertions being taken out (as I take it) of the monastery of S. Albans, addeth wtal: MarginaliaEx histo. Monasterij D. Albani.that in his teachyng and preachyng he was very eloquent, but a dissembler (sayth he) and an hyprocrite. Why he surmiseth hym to be an hypocrite, the cause was this: first because he resorted much to the orders of the beggyng Friers, frequentyng and extollyng the perfection of their pouertie. Secondly, because he and hys felows vsually accustomed in theyr preachyng to go barefote, and in simple russet gownes. By this I suppose, maye sufficiently appeare to the indifferent, the nature & condition of Wicleffe, how far it was from that ambition and pride, MarginaliaThe slaūderous penne of Polydore.which in slaunderous pen of Polidore Vergil, reporting in his xix. boke of him, that because hee was not preferred to higher honours and dignities of the churche (conceauing therfore indignatiō against the clergie) became their mortall enemie. MarginaliaWickliffe falsly charged with ambition by Polydore.How true this was, he onely knoweth best, and rightly shall iudge both the one and the other. In the meane time, by other circumstancies and partes of his life, we may also partly cōiecture what is to be thought, of that man. But how soeuer it was in him either true or false: yet it had been Polidors part, either not so intemperately to haue abused his penne, or at least to haue shewed some greater autoritie and grounde of that his reporte. For to folowe nothyng els but fleyng fame, so rashlye to diffame a man whose lyfe he knoweth not, is not the parte of a faithfull story writer.

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MarginaliaWickliffe beginneth to touch the matter of the sacrament.But to returne from whence we digressed. Beside these his opinions and assertions aboue recited, 

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This discussion of Wiclif's views on the Sacrament is Foxe's insertion into the text and not from Walsingham.

with other mo, which are hereafter to be brought in order: He began also then some thyng nearely to touch the matterof the Sacrament, prouyng that in the sayd Sacramēt, the accidēces of bread remained not without the subiect, or substaunce: both by the holy Scriptures, and also by the autoritie of the doctors, but specially by such as were most auncient. As for þe latter writers, that is to say such as haue writen vpon that argument vnder the thousand yeares since Christs time, he vtterly refused: saying, that after these yeares Sathan was losed and set at libertie. And that since that time, the life of man hath been most subiect and in daunger of errours: the simple and playne truth to appeare and consist in the Scriptures, wherunto all humaine traditions whatsoeuer they be, must be referred, and specially such as are set forth and published now of late yeares. MarginaliaThe latter wryters of the churche to be misdoubted.This was the cause why he refused the latter writers of decretals, leaning onely to þe Scriptures and auncient doctors: most stoutly affirming out of them, that in the Sacrament of the body which is celebrate, with bread the accidence not to be present without the substance. That is to say, that the body of Christ is not present without the bread, as the common sorte of priestes in those dayes did dreame. As for his argumēts, what they were: MarginaliaThe accidēces not to be in the sacrament without the substaunce.we will shortly at more oportunitie by Gods grace, declare them in an other place. But herein the truth (as the Poete speaketh very truly) had gotten Ihon Wicleffe great displeasure, and hatred at many mens handes: and specially of the monkes & richest sorte of priestes.

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Albeit throughe 

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The following account of Gaunt's protection of Wiclif, Gaunt's angry encounter with Bishop Courtney, and the Londoners rioting against the duke, is all taken from Walsingham's Chronicon Angliae, pp. 117-26. Foxe follows Walsingham's account quite closely but his interpretation of events is the inverse of Foxe's: Walsingham viewed John of Gaunt and Wiclif as vilains, Foxe regarded them as heroes.

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the fauour and supportation of the Duke of Lancaster, and Lord Henrye Percy, he persisted hetherto in some meane quiet agaynste their wooluish violence and crueltie: Marginalia1376.Tyll at last about the yere of our Lord. 1376. the bishops styll vrging and incityng their archbishop Simō Sudbery, who before had depriued hym, and afterward prohibited him also not to styr anye more in those sortes of matters: MarginaliaWickliffe cited to appeare before the bishopes.had obtayned by proces and order of citation to haue him brought before them. Whereunto both place and tyme for hym to appeare after their vsuall forme, was to him assigned.

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The Duke hauing intelligence, that Wickleffe hys client should come before the Bishops, fearing that he being but one, was to weake against such a multitude: calleth to hym out of the orders of Friers, foure Bachelers of Diuinitie, out of euery order one, to ioyne them with Wickleffe also, for more suretye. When the daye was come assigned to the sayde Wyckleffe to appeare, which day was Thursday, the. xix. of Februarye. Iohn Wyckleffe accompanied wyth the foure Friars aforesayd, and wyth them also the Duke of Lancaster, and Lord Henrye Percy, Lord Marshall of Englande, the sayd Lord Percy also going before them to make roome and way where Wyckleffe should come.

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MarginaliaEx hist. Monachi. D. Albani ex accommadato D. Math. Archiep. Cant.Thus Wicleffe (through the prouidēce of God) being sufficiētly garded, was comming to the place, where the bishops sat: whom by the way they animated and exhorted, not to feare nor shrinke a whit at the company of the bishops there present, who were all vnlearned (said they) in respect of him. For so procede the wordes of my foresaid autor, whom I folow in this narration: nether that he should dread the concourse of the people, whom they would them selues assiste and defend, in such sort, as he should take no harme. With these wordes, and with this assistance of the nobles: Wicleffe in hart encouraged, approcheth to the churche of S. Paul in London. MarginaliaStriuyng for the lordes to passe by the people.Where a main prease of people was gathered to hear, what shuld be sayd and done. Such was there the frequencie and throng of the multitude, that the Lordes (for all the puisance of the high Marshal) vnneth 

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I.e., only

with great difficultie could get way through. MarginaliaW. Courtney, byshop of LondonIn so much, that the Bishop of London (whose name was William Courtney) seing the stirre that the Lord Marshall kepte in the churche, among the people, speakyng to the Lord Percy, said that if he had knowne before what mastries 
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I.e. servants or adherents.

he would haue

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kept
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