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571 [571]

K. Richard. 2. The bookes and articles of Wickliffe condemned. Actes and Mon. of the church.

fayth, being illustrate with the beames of heauenlye light, by the prouidence of God, and being holpen by the helpe and defence of the sayntes and holy men, hath alwayes continued immaculate, and (the darkenes of errours, as her most cruel enemies being put to flight) she hath most gloriouslye triumphed ouer all. But in these our dayes, the old and vncleane ennemye hath raysed vp new contentions and strifes, that the elect of thys world might be knowē, whose prince and captaine in time past was one I. Wickliff a false christian. Who during his life tyme, taught and sowed very obstinatly manye articles, contrary and against the Christian religion, and the catholike fayth. MarginaliaThe Dialoge and trialoge of Wickleffe.And the same Iohn Wicklyffe wrote certain bookes which he called a Dialoge, and a Trialoge, besides many other treatises and woorkes, the which he both wrote & taught, in the which he wrote þe aforesayd, and manye other damnable and execrable articles: The which his bookes for the publication and aduauncemēt of his peruers doctrine, he did set forth openly for euery man to reade. Wherby, beside many offences, great hurt and damages of soules, hath ensued in diuers regions & countries, but specially in the kyngdomes of Englande and Boheme. Agaynst whom, the maisters and doctors of the Vniuersities of Oxforde and Prage, risyng vp in the truth and veritye of God, accordyng to the order of the scholes, wythin a while after dyd reproue and condempne the sayd Articles.

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MarginaliaThe bones of Wkliffe condemned to be burned.Moreouer, the most reuerēt fathers, the archbishops, & bishops, (for that tyme present) of Canterbury, Yorke and Prage, Legates of the Apostolike see, in the kyngdome of England and Boheme, did condemn the bokes of the sayd Wickliffe to be burnt. And the sayde Archbyshop of Prage, commissary of the Apostolike see, did likewise in this behalf determine & iudge. And moreouer he did forbid, þt any of those bokes which did remain vnburned, shuld not be hereafter any more red. And again these thinges being brought to the knowledge and vnderstāding of the Apostolike see, and the general councell: The bishop of Rome in his last councell, condemned the sayd books, treatisies and volumes, commaundyng thē to be openly burned. Most straitly forbidding, þt any mē which should beare the name of christ, should be so hardy either to kepe, read, or expoūd any of þe said bokes or tretises, volumes, or works, or by any meanes to vse or occupy thē: either els to alledge them opēly or priuely, but to their reprofe & infamy. And to the entent þt this most daūgerous and fylthy doctrine should be vtterly wyped awaye out of the church, he gaue commaundement thorowe out all places: MarginaliaWordes of autority without due probation.that the Ordinaries should diligently enquyre & and seeke out by the Apostolike autority and ecclesiasticall censure 

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I.e. a favourer or supporter, but also a protector or patron.

, for all such bookes, treatises, volumes, and workes. And the same so beyng found, to burne and consume them with fyre: prouiding withall, that if there be any such found, which wyll not obey the same: processe to be made agaynst them, as agaynst the fauourers & maintayners of heresies. And this most holy Sinode hath caused the sayd. xlv. articles to bee examined and oft tymes perused, by many most reuerende fathers of the churche of Rome, Cardinals, Bishops, Abbots, maisters of Diuinity and Doctors of both lawes, besides a great nomber of other notable men: MarginaliaAske my felow if I be a thefe.the which Articles being so examined, it was foūd (as in truth it was no lesse) that many, yea a great number of them to be notoriouslye for hereticall reproued and condemned by the holye fathers: MarginaliaSo we here you say.other some not to be catholike, but erroneous: some full of offence and blasphemy: Certayne of them offensiue vnto godly eares, and many of them to be rashfull and sedicious. It is found also, that hys bookes do contayn many articles of like effect and qualitie, and that they do induce and bring into the church, vnsound and vnholsome doctrine, MarginaliaVnholsome because they teach against the pompe of the pope.contrary vnto the fayth and ordinaunce of the church. Wherfore in the name of our Lorde Iesu Christ, this sacred Sinode, ratifieng and approuing the sentences and iudgementes of the Archbishops and councell of Rome: do by this their decree and ordinaunce, perpetually for euermore condemne and reproue, MarginaliaSo thought the souldiours perpetually to kepe downe Christ from risyng.the sayd articles and euery one of them, his bookes which he entituled his Dialoge and Trialoge, and all other bookes of the same autor, volumes, treatises and workes, by what name so euer they bee entituled or called, the which wee will here to be sufficiently expressed and named. MarginaliaO meruaylous sacred Synode.Also we forbyd the reading, learning, exposition, or alledgyng of any of the sayd bookes, vnto all faythful Christians, out so farre forth as shall tend to the reproofe of the same: for MarginaliaRub a geld horse on the backe, and he will winsebyddyng all and syngular catholike persons vnder the payne of curse, that from henceforth they be not so hardy openly to preach, teach, or hold, or by anye meanes to alledge the sayd articles or any of them, except (as is afore sayd) that it do tend vnto the reproofe of them: commaūding all those bookes, treatises, workes, and volumes aforesayde to be openly burned, as it was decreed in the Sinode at Rome, as is afore expressed. MarginaliaAt Rome, &c. neither barrell, better heringFor the executiō whereof duely to be obserued and done, the sayde sacred Sinode doth straytly charge and commaund the ordinaries of the places, diligentlye to attende and looke vnto the matter, MarginaliaThough the sepulcher be watched, christ wil ryse.according as it appertaineth vnto euery mās duty, by the Canonicall lawes and ordinances.

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What were these articles here condemned by thys councell, collected out of all his workes, and exhibited to the sayde Councell, to the number of xlv: The copye of them foloweth vnder written.

¶ Certayne other articles gathered out of Wickliffes bookes by hys aduersaries, to the number of. xlv. exhibited vp to the coūcel of Constance, after his death, and in the same Councell condemned 
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This list of articles is taken from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos 140v-148r. This list is printed accurately in Rerum, pp. 25-7, except that Foxe dropped the Council's commentary on each article, and he garbled the final article beyond recognition. But beginning with 1563 edition, Foxe felt free to omit or modify certain articles.

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MarginaliaOther articles of Wicliffe to the number of 40. condemned by the councel of Const.BEsides þe xxiiij. articles aboue mentioned, there were other also gathered out of his bookes, to the number of xlv. in all, which hys malicious aduersaries peruersly collecting, and maliciouslye expounding, did exhibite vp to the coūcel of Constance: Which to repete all, though it be not here nedefull 
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Caveat lector, this phrase is a warning that Foxe is not reproducing all of these articles.

, yet to recite certaine of them as they stand in that councell, it shall not be superfluous.

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Marginalia25All such as be hyred for temporall liuing to praye for other, offend and sinne in simonie.

Marginalia26The prayer of the reprobate preuaileth for no man 

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In every edition of the Acts and Monuments, Foxe omitted an article following this one, which condemned the doctrine, supposedly held by Wiclif, that all things happen from necessity (i.e. and not by God's will); cf. Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 144r and Rerum, p. 26.

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Marginalia27Hallowing of churches, confirmation of childrē, the sacrament of orders, be reserued to the pope & bishops onely for the respecte of temporall lucre.

Marginalia28Graduations, and doctorships in Vniuersities and Colledges as they be vsed, cōduce nothing to þe church.

Marginalia29The excommunication of the pope and his prelates, is not to be feared, because it is þe censure of Antichrist.

Marginalia30Such as founde & build Monasteries, do offend and sinne, and all suche as enter into the same, be members of the deuill.

Marginalia31To enriche the clergie, is agaynst the rule of Christ.

Marginalia32Siluester the pope, and Constantine the Emperour were deceaued in geuing and taking possessiōs into the churche.

Marginalia33A Deacon or priest may preache the worde of God, without the authoritie of the Apostolicke see 

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Foxe omits the key words here 'vel episcopi autoritate' [or by the authority of a bishop]; cf. Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 147r and Rerum, p. 27. The reason for this alteration was that, in the Church of England, preachers needed to secure licenses from the bishops to preach.

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Marginalia34Such as enter into order, or religion monasticall, are therby vnable to kepe Gods commaundementes, and also to attaine to the kingdome of heauen excepte they returne from the same.

Marginalia35The pope with all his clergie, hauing those great possessions as they haue, be heretiques in so hauing, & the secular powers in so suffring them do not well.

Marginalia36The churche of Rome is the Synagog of Sathan, neyther is the pope immediatlye the vicar of Christ, nor of the Apostles.

Marginalia37The decretalls of the pope be apochripha & seduce from the fayth of Christ, and the clergie that so studye them, be fooles.

Marginalia38The Emperour and secular lordes be seduced, which so enriche the church with such ample possessions.

Marginalia39It is not necessarie to saluation to beleue the church of Rome to be supreme head ouer all churches.

Marginalia40It is but follie to beleue the popes pardons.

Marginalia41All othes which be made for any contracte or ciuile bargaine betwixt man and man, be vnlawful.

Benedict, Fraūces, Dominicke, Bern. with all such as haue been patrones of priuate religion, excepte they haue repented, with suche also as haue entred in to the same: be in a damnable state, and so from the pope to the lowest Noues they be all together heretikes 

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The article following this one read, according to Gratius. 'Omnes religiones indifferentur introductae sunt diabolo' [All religions, without distinction, were invented by the devil]; cf. Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 148r). In the Rerum (p. 27), Foxe changed this to the meaningless 'Omnes religiones privatae, indifferentur, introductae non sunt Christo' [All private religions, without distinction, were not invented by Christ]. In the Acts and Monuments, Foxe simply dropped the offending article entirely.

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