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589 [589]

K. Richard. 2. The story of Walter Brute with his declarations. Actes and Mon. of the church.

euen as they were geuen, are true and catholike

MarginaliaMatters obiected against Walter Brute.Item, as touching the matters obiected agaynst him by them that stood by, concerning the sacrament of the altar: he said, that after the sacramental woordes: there doth remayne very bread, and the substance thereof after the consecration of the body of Christ, and that there do not remaine accidencies without substaunce or subiect, after the consecration of the body of Christ. And touching this matter, the doctors hold diuers opinions.

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MarginaliaThe pope Antichrist.Furthermore, as concerning the Pope, he said, held, and aduouched: that he is the verye Antichrist, because that in life and maners he is contrary to the lawes, doctrines, and dedes of Christ our Lord.

All and euerye of these thinges were done, euen as they be aboue written and rehearsed in the yeare of our Lord, pontifical office, moneth, day, and place aforesaid, at supper time of the day aforenamed, then and ther being present the worshipfull and discrite men,

MarginaliaWitnesses against Walter Brute.syr Walter Ramsbury, chiefe of the sayde cathedrall church of Hereforde, Roger Hoore Chanon of the same church, Walter Wall, chaplen of the sayde Churche of Hereford, being a vicar of the Chorall, and certayne other wytnesses worthy of credite, that were specially called and desired to the premisses. Ex Regist. Herford.

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MarginaliaRichard Lee Register and writer hereof.And I Richard Lee Whelare, clerke of Worceter, being a publique notarie, by the authoritie apostolique: was personally presēt at all and singular the premisses, whilest that (as is before rehearsed) they were done and a doing, in the yeare of our Lorde. 1391. pontificall office, moneth, day, place, and the houre aforesayd: and I did see, write, and heare all and singular those thyngs thus to be done, and haue reduced them into thys publique maner and forme: and being desired truely to testifie the premisses, haue sealed the said instrument, made hereupon, with myne accustomed seale and name.

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MarginaliaThe forme of the second instrument.In the name of God, amen. Be it plainly knowen to all persons, by this present publique instrument: that in the yeare from the incarnation of our Lord after the course and computatiō of the church of England. 1391. the indiction fiftene, in the iij. yeare of the pontificall office of the most holy father in Christ, and our Lord, lord Boniface Pope by the prouidence of God, the 9. and in the xix. daye of the moneth of Ianuary. Walter Brute layman, of Hereford dioces, personallye appearing before the reuerend father in Christ and Lord, Lord Iohn by Gods grace bishop of Hereford, in the presence of me being a publique notarie, and one of the witnesses vnder written: MarginaliaMatters and cōclusions ministred against Walter Brute. This conclusiō seemeth to bee falsely collected, as were before the articles of W. Swinderby.Did say, holde, publish, and affirme, the conclusions hereafter written, that is to say: that christen people are not bound to paye tythes, neyther by the lawe of Moyses nor by the lawe of Christ. 

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Foxe has a marginal note here claiming that this article is false. As Brut's later response will show, it is accurate, but Foxe did not want his godly proto-Protestant subverting the economic foundations of the Church of England and endangering the livelihood of its preachers.

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Item, that is not lawfull for Christians for anye cause in any case, to sweare by the creator neyther by the creature. 

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Although, in a marginal note, Foxe denounces this article as false, Brut's defence of his beliefs, will show that the chargewas not without foundation. The denial of the legitimacy of oaths characterized the Anabaptists and Foxe did not want his godly Lollards identified with Anabaptists.

MarginaliaThis conclusiō also is not rightly gathered.Item, he confessed openly and of his owne accord, that within the same moneth of Ianuary, he did eate, drink, & communicate with William Swynderby, not being ignoraunt of the sentence of the said reuerend father: wherby the same William Swinderby was pronounced an heretique, a schismatique, & a false seducer of the common people. Which conclusions, the same reuerend father caused to be written, and in writing to be deliuered to the same Walter. Which when he had sene and red, he said also that he did maintaine and iustifye them according to the lawes aforesayd. These thinges were done in the chamber of þe said bishop of Hereford, at his manere of Whytburne of the said dioces of Hereford: MarginaliaWitnesses against Walter Brute.thē being there present the same bishop abouesaid, Maister Reynold of Wolsten Chanon of Hereford, Sir Philip Dileske person of the parishe church of Blamuwryn, Thomas Guldefelde person of the church of Englysbyknore, Iohn Cresset person of þe church of Whyt-borne, and Thomas Wallewayne housholde seruaunt: for witnesses speciallye called and desired to the premisses of the diocesses of Hereford and S. Asse.

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MarginaliaBenedict Come Register, witnes and writer of this instrument against Walter Brute.And I Benedict Come, clerke of the dioces of S. Asse, publicque notary by the Apostolicque authoritie for the dioces of S. Asse, was personally present together with þe witnesses before named, at all and singular these & other thynges here premissed whilest they were so done and a doyng, and dyd see, heare, and write those thynges so to be done, as is before mēcioned: and did write the same and reduce them into this publicque forme, and with my wonted and accustomed seale and name, haue sealed it, being desired and required truly to testifie the premisses.

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At the last, the aforesayd Walter Brute, did present and cause to bee presented to vs (at diuerse places and tymes assigned by vs to the same Walter, to aunswere to the former conclusions and articles) diuers scrolles of paper written with his owne proper hande, for his aunsweres to the same articles and conclusions aboue written: he partly appearyng by his owne selfe, before vs sittyng in our iudgement seate, and partely by his messengers specially appointed to þe purpose: of which scrolles, the tenours do folow in order worde by worde, and be on this maner.

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MarginaliaCertaine exhibites of Walt. Brute in writyng presented to the B. for his defenceIn the name of the father, and the sonne, and the holy ghost. Amen. 

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Walter Brut's initial response to the charges against him is taken from Trefnant's register; see Registrum Johannis Trefnant, Episcopi Herefordensis, ed. W. W. Capes, Canterbury and York Society (London, 1916), pp. 285-9. What is truly startling in this response - and what ialmost certainly is the reason why Trefnant demanded a further explanation by Brut of his beliefs - is identification of the papacy itself, and not an individual pope, with Antichrist. This was a Protestant common-place, but a much rarer belief in the Middle Ages.

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I Walter Brute, sinner, layman, husbandman, and a Christiā MarginaliaWalt. Brute a Briton borne.(hauyng mine ofspryng of the Britons, both by my father and mothers side) of the Britons haue been accused to the B. of Hereford, that I did erre in many matters, concernyng the catholique Christen faithe: by whom I am required, that I should write an aunswere in Latine to all those matters. MarginaliaProtestatiō made.Whose desire I will satisfie to my power, protestyng first of all, before God and before all the worlde: that like as it is not my mind thorough Gods grace, to refuse the knowen truth for any rewarde greater or smaller, yea bee it neuer so byg, nor yet for the feare of any temporall punishement: euen so it is not my minde to mainteyne any erroneous doctrine for any commodities sake. And if any man, of what state, sect, or condiciō soeuer he be, will shew me þt I erre in my writynges or sayings by the authoritie of the sacred Scripture, or by probable reason grounded in the sacred Scripture, I will humbly and gladly receiue his information. MarginaliaNo writer or doctor without his errour the scripture onely excepted.But as for the bare wordes of any teacher (Christ onely excepted) I will not simply beleue, except he shalbe hable to stablishe them by the truthe of experience, or of the Scripture: MarginaliaErrour in the Apost.for because that in the holy Apostles elected by Christe, there hath ben founde errour by the testimonie of the sacred Scripture, because that Paule him selfe dothe confesse that he rebuked Peter, for that he was woorthye to bee rebuked, Galat. the 2. chap. MarginaliaErrors in the Doctors.There hath been errour found in the holy Doctors that haue been before vs, as they themselues confesse of themselues. MarginaliaErrors and contrarieties among the popishe writers.And oftentimes it falleth out, þt there is errour found in the teachers in our age: who are of contrarye opinions amongst themselues, and some of them doe somtimes determine one thing for truth, and others do condemne the selfe same thing to be heresie or errour. Which protestation premised, I will here place ij. suppositions or cases for a grounde and a foundation of all thinges that I shall say, out of which I would gather out two probable conclusions stablished vppon the same, and vpon the sacred Scripture. By which conclusions, when as they shall be declared after my manner and fashion, it shall plainlye appeare what mine opinion and iudgement is concerning all matters that I am accused of. MarginaliaBrute modestly excuseth his lernyng.But because I am ignorant and vnlearned, I will get me vnder the mightie defences of the Lorde. O Lord I will remember thine onely righteousnes.

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MarginaliaThe first case or supposition.God the father almighty vncreate, the maker of heauen and earth, hath sent his sonne (that was euerlastingly begotten) into this worlde: that he should be incarna-

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