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618 [618]

K. Richard. 2. The story of Walter Brute: The pope Antichrist.

the wyne of Gods wrath which is mixed with the wyne in the cup of his anger, and he shall be tormented in fire and brimstone in the sight of the holy Aungells, and in the sight of the Lambe: and þe smoke of their tormentes shall euer more ascend, although he looke for a recompence, small, meane, or great, of the beast, or ells the nūber of his name. MarginaliaThe rewardes of the beast.The beast doubtles doth recompence his frendes, with his smaller reward, that is, with great giftes and benefices corporall: with a meane rewarde, that is, with great spirituall gifts, in authoritie of blessing, losing, bynding, praying, and exercising other spirituall workes: and with his greatest reward, which after þt they be dead, maketh them to be honoured in earth among the saincts. MarginaliaThe number of the name of the beast.
Dux cleri.
The number of his name according to þe opinion of some men is, Dux cleri, i. the captaine of the clergie, because that by that name he is named, and maketh his name knowē, and that name is 666. This is my opinion of the beast ascending out of the earth, and shall vntill such time as I shall be of the same beast better instructed. And although that this beast doth signifie the Romaine bishops: yet the other cruell beast ascending out of the sea, doth signifie the Romaine Empe-perours. And although that the Dragon being a cruell beast, and the false prophet geuing the marke, muste be throwen into the lake of fire & brimstone to be tormented for euer: I would haue no man to iudge, but I leaue such things altogether to the finall iudgement of Christ to be determined. MarginaliaMartinus pœnitentia rius.But Martine the popes confessour whiche maketh the Chronicle of the Emperours and Popes, reciteth many errours of the popes, more horrible and abhominable then of the Emperours. MarginaliaMo wicked popes then Emperors.For he speaketh of the idolatrous popes, hereticall, simoniacall, and popes that wer murderers, that vsed nigromancie, and witchcrafte, that were fornicators, and defiled with all kinde of vice. But I haue partlye declared how that the popes lawe is contrary to Christes lawe, and howe that he sayth, that he is the chief vicar of Christ in earth: and in hys dedes is contrary to Christ, and doth forsake both his doctrine and life. I can not see who ells may be so well Antichrist, and a seducer of the people. For there is not a greater pestilence, then a familiar enemie.

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MarginaliaMatters of Idolatry.As concernyng Idoles, and the worshipping of them, I thinke of them as Moyses, Salamon, Isayas, Ieremie, and the rest of the Prophetes, whiche all speake agaynst the makyng of Images, as also the worshyppyng of Images. And faithfull Dauid full of the spirite of God, sayth: MarginaliaImages.Let all those be confoūded that worship Images, and that reioyse in Idols, and agayne he saith: Let them be made lyke vnto them that make them, and all such as put their trust in them. Wherfore, I pray God that this euill come not vpon me, whiche is the curse of God pronounced by Dauid the Prophet. Nor I wilbe by Gods grace, neither a maker, nor els a worshipper of Images.

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MarginaliaOthes how far they are tollerable.As concernyng othes, I beleue and obey the doctrine of almighty God, and my maister Iesus Christ, whiche teacheth: that Christian men in affirmation of a truth, shoulde passe the righteousnes of the scribes and Pharisies of the old Testament, or els he excludeth them from the kingdom of heauen. For he saith: Vnles your righteousnes excede the righteousnes of the scribes and pharisies, ye cannot enter into the kyngdome of heauen. And as concernyng othes he sayth. It hath ben sayd to them of olde time, thou shalt not forsweare thy selfe, but shalt performe vnto the Lord those thynges whiche þu vowest. But I say vnto you, thou shalt not sweare at all, neither by the heauen, nor yet by the earth. &c. But let your communication bee, ye, ye, nay, nay, for what soeuer shalbe more then this, procedeth of euil. Therfore, as the perfection of the auncient men of the old Testament was not to forsweare them selues: so the perfection of Christian mē is not to sweare at all, bycause he is so commaunded of Christ, whose commaundement must in no case be bro-ken: although that the Citie of Rome, is contrary to this doctrine of Christ euen as in many thynges she is foūde, contrary to her selfe.

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MarginaliaWhether tēporal goods may be taken away from ecclesiasticall persons offending.As touchyng the takyng away of temporall goodes from those that are ecclesiasticall persons offendyng habitualiter: by suche as are temporall Lordes, I will not affirme any thyng to be lawfull in this matter (as in other matters before) that is not agreable to charitie: And that for bycause, it is a hard matter for a man to take an othermans goodes from him without breakyng of charitie, bycause peraduenture he that taketh away, is the more moued to such maner of takyng awaye by reason of the desire he hath to those goodes, whiche he indeuoreth to take away: or els, bycause of some displeasure or hatred to the person, frō whom he goeth aboute to take away those goods, then that he from whom those goods be taken, should be amended. Therfore vnles he that taketh away, be onely moued of charite to þe taking away of such goodes, I dare not affirme that such takyng is lawfull. And if such taking away procede of charitie, I dare not iudge it vnlawfull: MarginaliaPopes take frō Emperors their benefactors, tēporall dominiō when they offend: Ergo, much more may Emperors take frō popes temporall dominion, whē they offend.because that the bishop of Rome which receaued hys temporall dominion of the Emperour, when the Emperour rebelled and was not obedient to him, he depriued him from his temporall iurisdictions: How much more then may temporall lordes do the same which haue bestowed vpon them many temporall dominions and Lordshyps, onelye to the intent that they might the better intende to serue God & keepe his commaundements. Now if they perceaue that they be agaynst the lawes of God, and that they be ouer busily occupied about worldlye matters: I cannot see but that they may well inough take frō thē those temporal goods, which to a good purpose they gaue them. MarginaliaA prophecy of Walter Brute that temporall goods shall be taken away frō the clergy for the multitude of their sinnes.But if in tyme to come after this, those that be temporall lords shall take from ecclesiasticall persons suche temporalties: let him that desireth to vnderstand thys, reade the prophet Ezechiel in the chapter of the Shepherdes of Israel, which fed them selues in steede of their flocke: and also let him reade the Apocalips of the fall of Babilon. Let hym also reade the Popes decretals against heretickes, and in those he shall finde, that the takyng away of the temporalties from the Clergy, shall come to passe for the multitude of their sinnes.

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Thus reuerende father haue I made mine aunswer of the matter wherof I am accused: beseching you, that as I haue been obedient to your desire, and that euen as a sonne declaryng vnto you the secretes of my heart in playne woordes (although rudely) so I desire to knowe your opinion, and craue your fatherly beneuolence: that now your labour maye be for my instruction and amendement, and not to accusation and condemnation. For lyke as in the beginning I haue promised you, that if any man, of what state, sect, or conditiō soeuer he be, that can shew me any errour in any of my writinges by the autoritie of the holy scripture, or by any probable reasō grounded in the scriptures: I wyll receaue hys information wyllyngly and humbly.

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After that all the foresayde 

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The examination of Brut's articles and Brut's submission are taken from Trefnant's register; see Registrum Johannis Trefnant, Episcopi Herefordensis, Canterbury and York Society (London, 1916), pp. 359-60.

thynges were exhibited and geuen by the foresayd Walter Brute, vnto the foresayd bishop of Hereford: MarginaliaWalter Brute againe commaūded to appeare.he farther apoynted to þe same Walter, the third day of the moneth of October, at Herford, with the continuaunce of the dayes folowyng to heare hys opinion. Which third dai now at hand, being Fridaye in the yeare of our Lorde God. 1393. the sayde Walter Brute, appeared before hym, sitting in cōmission in the Cathedrall church of Hereforde, at sixe of the clock or therabout: MarginaliaBishops and Abbots, with 20. Bachelers of Diuinitie, 12. Monkes, 2. Doctors of law setting vpon Walter Brute.hauing for his assistents in the same place, diuers Prelates and Abbots, and. xx. Bachilers of Diuinitie, whereof. xij. were Monkes, and two doctours of the law. Amongest these was Nicholas Hereford, accompanied with many other prelates and worshypfull men and wyse Graduates in sundrye faculties. Nowe

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