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803 [803]

K. Henry. 6. Persecution in Northfolke and Southfolke.

If the Pope liue vprightlye as Peter lyued, he hath power to make lawes: otherwise, I beleue he hath no power. But being afteward threatned by the iudge, he acknowledged that he had erred, and submitted hym selfe to the correction of the church, and was abiured, taking an othe that from that time forward he should not hold teache, preache, or willingly defend anye errour or heresie contrary to the determinatiō of the church of Rome, neither mayntayne, helpe, or ayd any that shall teach or hold any such errors or heresies, either priuely or apertly, and for his offence in this behalfe done, he was enioyned this penaunce following.

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¶ The displyng of Iohn Florence.
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As recorded by Foxe, John Florence was a turner of Shelton in the Norwich diocese,who denied the authority of the Pope, and held controversial views on saints' days. After examination he had to do penance in Norwich Cathedral. This case is among the examples that show how Foxe's record supplements the extant evidence of the Norwich Heresy Trials 1428-31 edited by Norman Tanner. Florence's name does not appear in these proceedings, but as Foxe includes information that is not otherwise known (for instance about Hugh Pye) it seems that he had access to records now no longer extant. The name 'Boner' on the scourger holding the flail points to this small cut being prepared with an eye more on Marian prosecutions than the punishment of Wycliffites. This woodcut was later reused . It is possible that the decision to reuse it ensured that its banderole remained blank. (For example, compare 1570, p.782 and p.786 with 1576, p. 636 and p. 640.) CUL copy: Florence is depicted naked, save for a white sheet about his midriff. Note that there are flecks of pinkish red on his back, displaying detail not provided by the original illustration. The empty scroll in the top left of the image is edged with purple. Note that, although black ink is used to add detail to the picture where the paint might have obscured it, the word 'So[m]ner' is not detailed with ink, despite its being somewhat obscured by the blue colour of the man's garments. WREN copy: provides the same detail, although the blank scroll is covered over with blue, in an attempt to erase it. Note that the marginal note accompanying the description of 'the displaying' states that the rod used was white yet there is no effort made to ensure that the rod depicted is indeed white in either the CUL or WREN copy.

Three Sondayes in a solemne procession in the Cathedrall churche of Norwiche, he shoulde be displed before all the people. MarginaliaThe maner of thys displyng was with a whyte rodde, thryse layde vpon the head of the penitenciarye.The lyke also should bee done about hys parish churche of Shelton, three other seuerall Sondayes, he beyng bare headed, bare footed & bare necked, after the manner of a publicke penitentiarie, his body beyng couered with a canues shiert, and canues breches, carying in hys hand a taper of a pounde wayght, and that done he was dismissed.

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¶ Richard Belward of Erisam in the dioces of Norwich.

RIchard Belward of Erisam, in the diocesse of Norwich, was accused for holding and teachyng these errours and opinions here vnder wrytten, contrary to the determination of the church of Rome.

In primis that Ecclesiasticall Ministers and Ordinaries MarginaliaHe meaneth the wicked bishops of that tyme, whose curses God did blesse.haue no power to excommunicate, neither can excommunicate: And albeit that a bishop do excommunicate any man: God doth absolue him.

Item that he held the erroneous opinions & conclusions, that Syr Iohn Oldcastle held whē he was in pryson, and affirmed that syr Iohn Oldcastel was a true catholike man, MarginaliaThys proueth Syr Iohn Oldcastle to be no traytour.and falsly condemned & put to death without any reasonable cause.

Item that such as go on pilgrimage, offering to Images made of wood and stone, are excommunicate because they ought to offer to the quicke, & not to the dead: and that the ecclesiasticall Ministers, that is to saye, the curates, do sell God vpon Easter day, when as they receiue offeringes of such as should communicate before they do minister the Sacrament vnto them.

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Item, that hee counseled diuers wemen, that they should not offer in the church for the dead, neither wyth wemen that were purified.

Item that he blamed diuerse of his neyghbours that refused his doctrine, saying vnto thē: MarginaliaThe worde of the Register.truly ye are fooles that deny to learne þe doctrine of my sect, for your neighbours which are of my sect, are able to confound & vanquish all other that are of your sect.

Item, that the saintes which are in heauen, ought in no case to be prayed vnto, but onely God.

Item that the sayd Richard kepeth scholes of lollardy in the English tounge, in the towne of Dychinghā, and a certayne parchment maker bryngeth him all the bookes contayning that doctrine from London.

The. v. day of Iuly. 1424. the sayd Richard Belward was brought before Iohn, bishop of Norwich sitting in place of iudgement, whereas the foresayd articles were obiected agaynst the sayd Richard, which hee there denied: whereupon the bishop appointed him an other day to purge himselfe, the mondaye nexte after the feast of S. Marget: vpon which day being the. xxiiij. of Iulye, in the yeare aforesayd, he appeared agayne before the byshop, & brought with him. ix. of his neighbours to purge him vpon those articles, and there did solemnlye purge himselfe. And afterward, forsomuch as the sayde bishop suspected the said Richard Belward greatly of lolardy, he commaunded hym there presently to sweare vpō the Euangelistes, that from that daye forwarde he shoulde not wittingly preach, teach, or defend any errour or heresie, contrary to the church of Rome, neither ayd, assist, fauour or mayntaine, priuely or apertly, anye maner of person or persons, that shoulde holde or mayntaine the sayd errors or heresies, In the presence of maister William Bernam, Iohn Wadden, Robert Serle and Ihon Berne Esquire, and other of hys neyghbours whyche came vnto hys purgation.

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MarginaliaIohn Goddesell of Dichyngham.In lyke maner Iohn Goddesel of Dichingam parchmentmaker, was detected and accused vppon the same articles, and therupon brought before the bishop: wheras he denyeng them, purged himself by his neighbors, as Richard Belward before had done, being sworne also in lyke maner, as he was, and so was dismissed and set at liberty, vntil the yeare of our Lord. 1428. when as he was agyaue apprehended, accused and abiured, as shalbe more at large declared in the historye when wee come to that yeare. MarginaliaSyr Hugh Pye priest.Sir Hugh Pye also, chaplain of Ludney, in the dioces of Norwich, was lykewyse accused & brought before the byshop of Norwich the v. day of Iuly An. 1424. for holdyng of these opinions followyng.

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That the people ought not to go on pilgrimage.

Item, that the people oughte not to geue almes, but onely vnto such as begge at their doores.

MarginaliaImage of the crosse not to be worshipped.Item that the Image of the crosse and other Images are not to be worshipped: And that the said Hugh, had cast the crosse of Bromehold into the fire to be burned, whiche he tooke from one Iohn VVelgate of Ludney. Which articles, as is aforesayd, being obiected against hym, he vtterly denied: wherupon he had a day appointed to purge himselfe by the witnes of three lay men and three priestes. That so done, he was sworne as the other before, and so dismissed.

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After this, in the yeare of oure Lord. 1428. kyng Henry the vi. sent down most cruell letters of commission vnto Iohn Exetor and Iacolet Germaine, keeper of the castle of Colchester, for the apprehending of sir VVilliam VVhite, priest,and others suspected of heresie, the tenour wherof, hereafter enseweth.

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☞ The copy of the kinges letters directed to Iohn Exeter, and Iacolet Germaine, keper of the castle of Colchester, for the apprehendyng of Sir William White priest and other, (as they called them) Lollardes.

MarginaliaA letter of the kyng.HEnry by the grace of God kyng of England and of France, Lord of Ireland, to his welbeloued Iohn Exetor, and Iacolet Germaine keper of the castle of Colchester, health. Ye shall vnderstand that we fully trustyng vnto your fidelitie and circumspections, haue ap-

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