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898 [898]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

The Greciãs then terrified with this sinister aduersitie, required truce of the Turke, but when that would not be graunted, they procured vnto them Mustaphas, the other brother to Amurathes, being of the age of. xiij. yeares: who likewise beyng armed of the Grecians, got the Citie of Nice in Bithynia, from Amurathes his brother: MarginaliaThe Turke murdereth his brotherAlbeit it was not long but he was circumuēted in the same Citie, and brought to Amurathes: who caused him lykewise to tast of the same whippe, as the other Mustaphas had done before 

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Mustapha, the younger brother of Murad II, was defeated and strangled at Bursa in 1423.

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MarginaliaAmurathes set agaynste the Grecians.Amurathes beyng now out of all feare and doubt of brethren and kynsfolke to rise agaynst hym, conuerted all his power agaynst the Grecians: MarginaliaThracia subdued to the Turke.and first raungyng through out Thracia, where diuers Cities yelded vnto him, whiche before belonged to the Emperour of Constãtinople, MarginaliaThessalonica subdued.frõ thence he set forward to þe noble & famous Citie Thessalonica, beyng then vnder the leage and protection of the Venetians. This Thessalonica is a Citie in Grece, borderyng vpon Macedonia, to the citizens wherof S. Paul writeth, MarginaliaThe defection spokē of S. Paul declared. 2. Thess. 2.forshewing vnto them in his 2. Epistle, of a defection to come before þe cõming of þe day of þe Lord. 2. Thess. 2. By the which apostasie or defectiõ, what the holye Apostle doth meane, this storie of the Turkes may easely declare 

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This sentence is not is not from Casper Peucer, but is Foxe repeating his exegesis of 2 Thess. 2: 1-4. In an unusual piece of exegesis, Foxe is is interpreting the 'defection' usually regarded as a reference to apostasy by exegetes, of the conversion to Islam of regions in the Middle East and North Africa that were formerly Christian.

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. MarginaliaPhocis, Attica, Bœotia, Ætolia, Acarnania, Corinth, brought vnder the Turke.After Thessalonica was subdued, Phocis with all the countrey aboute Athens, Bœotia likewyse, Ætolia, Acarnania, with all þe region beyond Peloponesus, vnto the coast of Corinthe, to whom S. Paul also wrote other ij. Epistles, were brought in bondage and slauery vnto the Turke. MarginaliaIoannes CastriotusIn Epirus and in that quarter that adioyneth to Macedonia, named Albania, reigned thē one Ioannes Castriotus: who perceauyng hym selfe to weake to matche with the Turkes power, made with the Turke this couention, MarginaliaCroia geuen to the Turke.that he should haue Croia, a famous Citie, in Grecia, MarginaliaThe three sonnes of Castriotus, hostages with the Turke.and also gaue to him his. iij. sonnes for hostages, to wytte Constantinus, Reposius, and Georgius. In this George such towardnes of noble courage, such vigour of mynde, and strength of body singularely did appeare, that the Turke caused hym more frely to bee instructed after the Turkishe Religion and maner, in hys owne court: MarginaliaGeorgius Scanderbeius, Alexander the great.Where hee beyng traded vp, did so shoote vp as wel in feates of actiuitie, as in strēgth of body, that hee excelled all his equals: in so much that hee was named Scanderbeius, whiche soundeth as much as Alexander Magnus.

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After this Alexãder was growen vp to mature ripenes of age, & was well trayned vp in feates of warre, he was sent out by the Turke, to warre agaynst Caramannus of Cilicia, the Turkes enemie. MarginaliaThe valiãt Actes of Georgius Scãderbeius.In which expedition he spedde him self most manfully, fightyng hand to hãd, first with a footemã of Scythia, then with an horseman of Persia, being chalenged by them both to encounter, first with the one, after with the other: whõ he so valiãtly ouerthrew, þt he wãne great renoūe wt the Turke: In so much that he trustyng to the Turkes fauour, whē he heard of þe deceasse of his father, durst aske of þe Turke the graūt of his fathers dominion to be geuē vnto him. Whiche request although Amurathes the Turke dyd not denye him: yet notwithstandyng he perceauyng the matter to be dalied out with fayre wordes, by subtil meanes and policie * Marginalia* Georgius Scanderbeius stealeth away from the Turke īto his coūtrey.slypt out of þe Turkes court, & came to Epirus his owne inheritaunce: MarginaliaCroaia recouered.where first by forged letters he recouered Croia, The other Cities of their volūtarie minde yelded them selues vnto him. MarginaliaEpyrus, and Macedonia recouered from the Turke.Who then gatheryng vnto him the people of Epirus & Macedonia (which were not so many in number, as with good willyng mindes they stoocke vnto hym) MarginaliaThe valiãt Actes of Georgius Scãderbeius, agaynste the Turkes.so mãfully and valiantly behaued him selfe, that agaynst all the puissance both of Amurathes, and also of Mahumete, hee maynteined his owne, repulsed their violence, and put to flight their armyes, many yeares together. But to returne agayne to the course of Amurathes victories, after he had thuspreuailed (as is before signified) against þe East partes of Europa & Grecia, & had conuēted thus for þe dominion of Epirus, MarginaliaIllyria, or Sclauonia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Liburnia, Albania, Bosna, spoyled and wasted by the Turke.hee inuaded Illiiicum, (otherwise called now Sclauonia) cõteyning in it Dalmatia, Croacia, Istria and Liburnia: which countreys after he had spoyled and wasted, he continued his course to Albania, and Bosna. In whiche regiõs when he had subdued a great part, & had led away an innumerable multitude of captiues, he moued further to VValachia & Seruia, vpon hope to conquere all Pãnonia.

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MarginaliaGeorgius Despota prince of Seruia.There reigned at the same tyme in Seruia a certaine prince named Georgius Despota, who made great sute to the Turke for truce and peace, promising to geue hys daughter to mariage: MarginaliaAn vngodlye graunt of a Christian father to mary hys daughter to the Turke.for by the Turkes law they may mary as many wiues, as they lust. It was not long after Amurathes had maryed the daughter of Despota, but he, contrary to his league and promise, made warre vppon Despota hys father in lawe, and expelled hym out of hys kyngdome, MarginaliaScopia, Nouomonte, Sophia, Mysia, subdued of the Turke.takyng from him diuers Cities, as Scopia, Nouomonte, Sophia and all Mysia. MarginaliaGeorgius Depota fled into Hungary.Georgius him selfe fled into Hungary, leauyng behynd him his sonne to defende the towne of Synderonia 

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Up to this point, Foxe's account of Murad II is taken almost entirelyfrom Peucer. Here he adds an atrocity story taken from Christophe Richer's historyof the Turks, which was printed along with Bibliander's edition of the Koran (Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran [Basel, 1550], III, p. 203).

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. Amurathes vnderstandyng of the flight of Despota his father in law, cõpassed the Citie of Synderonia, with a strong siege, which whē he in few dayes had expugned, MarginaliaThe cruelty of the Turke vpõ his wiues brother.he tooke his wiues brother, sonne of Despota, and without regarde of all mercy and affinitie, after the barbarous tyranny of the Turkes, put out hys eyes, with a basē red hoate set before his eyes, and after that led him aboute with him, in derision and despite of hys cowardly father. Ex Christof. Rhicherio Gallo. & Gasp. Peucero, & alijs.

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Seruia beyng thus wonne & gotten, Amurathes thinkyng to go further into Hungarie, MarginaliaBelgradum besieged of the Turke.besieged the Citie called Belgradū, and no doubt, had also suppressed the same, had not the prouidence of God foūd a meanes, that partly through slaughter of his men, partly for lacke of victuall and other forage, hee was compelled to raise his siege and retire.

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MarginaliaIoannes Huniades, Vaiuoda.In the meane tyme Ioannes Huniades (of whom mētion was made before, pag, 853) had got great victories agaynst the Turkish power, and had recouered part of Seruia, and all Muldauia: agaynst whom Amurathes the Turke, with a mighty armye, moued into Pannonia. But Huniades with the power & ayde of Ladislaus, kyng of Polonia (but specially by the power of the Lorde) dyd soone infringe the puissance of the Turke, and gaue hym the ouerthrow, recoueryng vnto the Christians þe greatest part of Seruia and Bulgaria.

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MarginaliaFyue victories of Ioan. Huniades agaynst the Turke, gotten in one day.In this battaile Huniades had 

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This account of the 'winter war' of 1443 and events through thebattle of Varna is taken from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp,1541), fos. 22v-25v.

fyue sondry conflictes with the Turkes vpon one day, and with fyue victoryes put them to the worse, MarginaliaThe great Bassa or duke of the Turkes ouerthrowen by Huniades.& towarde night did so discomfite and ouerthrow the great captaine of Amurathes, called Bassa, þe Duke of Anatolia (whiche is otherwise named Asia Minor) that he slue of the Turkes that day, to the nūber of. 30. thousand. Amurathes, although hee was not a litle thereat discouraged, yet dissembling his feare, with stout countenaunce sent for Carambeius hys principall stay & captaine, with a new power brought out of Asia, to assiste hym in his warres. MarginaliaThe victoryes of Huniades agaynst Carambeius the great captaine of the Turkes.This Carambeius, in the downes of Transyluania, Ladislaus the foresayd kyng of Polonie (the Lord so workyng) through the industrie of Ioãnes Huniades, so receaued and with such celeritie oppressed hym vnprouided, that all his stoute & sturdie armie either was slayne downe right, or els put to flight, and disparcled, Carambeius the captaine being him self taken prisoner in the same fielde 
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These victories were won in the 'winter war' of 1443. Although Vladislav III and Hunyadi won several victories, the weather forced them to retreat.Their campaign was, however, hailed as a success in Europe.

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MarginaliaThe greate Turke brought to a greate distres.These victories of Huniades stroocke no litle terrour to Amurathes, in somuch that for distresse of minde hee was ready to destroye him selfe (as some doo write) but being cõfirmed by Halibæus Bassa his coūsailer, he kept him selfe within the streites of the moūt Rhodope. Who

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then
HH.i,
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