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K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

beius (through the power and blessyng of the Lord) 

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The material in round brackets is Foxe's insertion into Peucer's account.

beat him out of the field, and repulsed him from his siege.

MarginaliaAmurathes renounced his dominion, and made him self a Turkishe Monke.After this discõfiture, the saying is that Amurathes, to kepe his vow made before, after his victory at Varna, gaue him selfe into a religious order, lyuyng a contemplatiue lyfe with certayne other Priestes ioyned vnto him, in the forest of Bithynia, renouncing þe gouernemēt of his realme to þe handes of Haly one of his princes (for thou must vnderstãd, good reader, þt the Turkes also be not without their sondry sectes of religion, no more then we Christians are without our Friers and monkes.)

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MarginaliaTwo Christian Warriers in Europe stirred vp of God to vãquishe the Turkes.In the meane tyme while Amurathes this Turkish tyranne was cloistered vp in his monkish Religiõ 

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After the battle of Varna, Murad had retired again to an asceticlife, only to re-ascend the throne in 1446. The reason for Murad's return, however,was to deal with a revolt of the Janissaries and not because of Hunyadi.

, Ioannes Huniades in the kyngdome of Hungarie, and Castriotus Scanderbeius in Grecia, kept great stirre against þe Turkes. By reasõ wherof Amurathes was takē agayn frõ his monkishe vowe & professiõ, & brought agayn into þe field: For first Huniades MarginaliaThys Ioan. Huniades is reported of xx. battailes with the Turke, to lose but two. had rescued þe whole countrey of Hungarie: and had propulsed moreouer all the might of the Turkes farre from Seruia. And although the peuishe practise of Georgius prince of Seruia, had oft tymes disclosed his counsailes vnto the Turkes, wherby twise he was brought in daūger, yet notwithstãding (through the Lordes gracious protection) he was preserued, and deliuered by the sayd George vnto þe Hungariãs agayne, and after that manfully vãquished the Turkes, so that they had no restyng place about those partes of Seruia and Bulgaria, so long as he lyued.

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MarginaliaEpyrus and Macedonia, defēded by Scanderbeius.On þe other side in Grecia, Castriotus Scanderbeius so foyled þe Turke in defense of hys countrey Epyrus & Macedonia, & kept Amurathes so short, þt not onely he was not able to wynne any great towne in all Epyrus: but also commyng from Epyrus in the straites, was so intãgled by Castriotus, that he was forced to geue battaile: MarginaliaAmurathes ouercome by Scanderbeius.In the whiche battaile he was so vanquished, and most part of his armye slayne, that for grief and sorrow conceaued, he falling into a rauing sickenes, was transported out of his pauilion vnto Adrianople, and there in fury and madnes dyed, after he had reigned. 34. yeares. Whiche was about the yeare of our Lord. 1408.

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MarginaliaIanizari among the Turkes.This Amurathes first 

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This description of the founding of the Janissaries is from CasperPeucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), p. 651. This includes the emotive passages on the horrors of Christian children being brought up as Moslems.

ordeined the order of the Ianizarites. Which were þe men children of such Christians as he conquered and tooke captiue: whom hee forced to renounce the faith of Christ, wherin they were baptised, and brought them vp in Mahumetes law, and exercised thē in the same feates of warre as he did his owne people: and after that they came to mens estate, he named them Ianizari (that is to say) souldiours of a straūge coūtrey, and made them to garde his parson. They weare on their head in stead of an helmet, a white attire made of the grossest sorte of woll, and is so manifolde aboute their head, that it cã not be perced with a sword. It hangeth downe on the backe with a tayle, and before on the forehead it is garnished with gold & siluer. They were wont to vse bowes and launces in the fielde, but nowe they vse dagges as our horsemen do.

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At the first institution there were but. 8000. in their garrison, but nowe they be twise so many. This of all bondage and seruitude that the Christians suffer vnder the Turke, is most intolerable and greatly to be of all true Christians lamented. MarginaliaA lamentable slauery of Christen mens children vnder the Turke.For what can godly myndes behold more to their grief, then to see their children pulled from the faith of Christ wherein they were baptized, and by whose bloud they should eternally be saued, and to be instructed and nourished with the blasphemous doctrine of Mahumet, and to be professed enemies of Christ and his churche, to make warre agaynst heauen, and to perish euerlastingly? And finally what a lamentable thyng is it, to see and behold our owne childrē borne of our own bodyes, to become our mortall & cruell enemies, & to cut our throtes with their own hãdes? This seruitude of mynde is farre greater then death it selfe. Which if our princes would well cõsider, it wouldcause them the rather to agree, and bende their whole force and power agaynst this cruell enemy.

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¶ Mahumetes second, the. ix. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaMahumetes the ix. Turke after Ottomannus.AMurathes left 

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There are two basic sources for Foxe's account of the reign ofMehmed II. The first is Casper Peucer's chronicle, which he relies on for theoverall course of the reign. The second is Giovan Ramusio's history as excerptedin Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), which Foxe uses for the siege of Constantinople. This will increasingly become the pattern in Foxe's history of the Turks. As Foxe gets nearer to his own era, he reliesincreasingly on more detailed sources than Munster and Peucer.

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behynde him three sonnes, Mahumete borne of the daughter of Despota, prince of Seruia, beyng. 20. yeares of age. The. 2. sonne called Turcines. The. 3. named Calepinus. MarginaliaThe tyranny of Mahumetes in murtheryng his brethren.This Turcines beyng an infante, and but. 18. monethes old, was strangled at the cõmaundement of the Turke, by his seruaunt Moses, him selfe beyng there present & beholdyng the horrible murther. And when Moses the executour of the murther had desired hym not to pollute his handes with the bloud of his brother: he aunswered that it was the maner of all the Ottomanne Turkes, that all the other brethrē being destroyed, none should be left alyue but one to gouerne the Empire. Wherfore Moses was commaunded by the tyranne, there presently & in his sight, to kill the infante. This horrible facte when the mother of the child vnderstode, she cryeng out and almost madde for sorrow, cursed the tyranne to his face. But he to mitigate the rage of his mother, at her request beyng desirous to be reuenged vpon the executor of her sonnes death, deliuered the sayd Moses bound into her handes: who then in the presence of of the tyranne, thrust him to þe hart with a knife, and openyng his side, toke out his lyuer and threw it to the dogges to be deuoured. The third sonne called Calepinus, whiche was but. vi. monethes old, the foresayd Amurathes his father commended to the custody of Halibassa one of his nobles. MarginaliaHalibaßa a traytour to hys maister.Who to gratifie and please the tyranne, betrayed the infant & brought him vnto him, and therupon he at the tyrannes commaundement was strangled. MarginaliaHorrible paracide of the abhominable Turke.Some affirme that in the steade of Calepinus, an other child was offered vnto the tyranne, & that Calepinus was conueyed to Constantinople, and after the takyng of Constantinople, was caried to Venice & then to Rome to Pope Calixte, where he was baptised, and afterward came into Germanie to Fridericke the Emperour, & there was honorably enterteined & kept in Austrich duryng his lyfe. MarginaliaGods prouidēce can fetch out of the deuills mouth, whom he liste to saue.Where note how þe mercifull prouidence of God, whom he liste to saue, can fetch out of þe deuils mouth. MarginaliaNote here Gods punishment vpon the betrayer of innocent bloud.And note moreouer touchyng þe foresayd Halibassa þe betrayer of þt infant, how he escaped not vnreuenged: For Mahumet vnderstãdyng him to be a mã of great substaunce and riches, through forging of false crimes, with great tormentes put him to death to haue his riches: for this tyranne was geuen to insatiable auarice. 
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On ascending the throne on 1451, Mehmed II had his only brother,Ahmed, murdered. Ahmed's mother was married to a slave.

Thus this bloudy Mahumete began his regiment with horrible murther, after the example of other cursed tyrannes his predecessours.

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Although this Mahumete notwithstãdyng þt he came of a Christē mother being þe daughter of Despota prince of Seruia, and by her was brought vp and instructed frõ his childhode in the preceptes of Christian religion and maners: yet he soone forgettyng all, gaue him selfe to Mahumetes religion 

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Halil Canderli was the Grand Vizier (whom Mehmed inherited from his father Murad) and a powerful Turkish noble. Halil oppossed the attack on Con-stantinople and soon after the city fell, Halil was executed. The story of Halil killinga son of Murad is pure fiction.

, and yet so, that he beyng addicted to neither Religion, became an Atheiste, beleuing and worshippyng no God at all, but onely the Goddesse of good Fortune, irridyng & mockyng the mindes & iudgementes of men, whiche beleue that God by his prouidence, gouerneth and regardeth the state of humaine thynges on earth.

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After that this 

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Up until this point, Foxe was following Casper Peucer, ChroniconCarionis (Wittenburg, 1580), p 652. From here, through the conquests of Constantinople and Pera, Foxe follows Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 191-3.

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Mahumete heard of the victories and conquestes of other his predecessours, and had vnderstandyng how Baiazetes laye. 8. yeares about Constantinople and coulde not wynne it: he dispraising Baiazetes, and disdainyng that so longe tyme shoulde be spente aboute the siege thereof and yet no victorye gotten, bent all his studye and deuise how to subdue the same. MarginaliaMahumete first setteth vppon Athens.But first hauyng a priuye hatred agaynst the Citie of Athens, and hauyng hys handes lately embrued with the bloud of his brethren: this murtheryng Mahumete first of all taketh his viage to subuert and destroy

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the
HH.ii.
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