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912 [912]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

and penurie of puruiance, and sodenly of the Turkes inuaded, yet with pure courage and promptnes of heart, susteined the vttermost force and violēce of. xiij. assaultes of that great multitude, for the space of. xxv. dayes together. Although the narration of the author may seme to some incredible, yet thus he writeth, that what tyme the greate ordinaunce and batteryng peeces of the Turkes were planted vppon twoo mountes much hygher then the towne, whereby they within the towne were oppressed both before and behynd, in so much that viij. ensignes of the Turkes were already within the towne: MarginaliaA miraculous example of the Lordes protection, and prouidēce.yet by the reason of wemen and children and other impotent persons, who in the midle of the town were congregate in an house together, such a noyse and clamour went vp to heauē, praying and cryeng to God for helpe, that the Turkes within the walles, supposing a new armye of fresh souldiers to be sent into the towne, for sodeine feare, voyded the towne, and leaped downe from the walles agayne (whiche before they had got) whom no man either pursued or resisted: for neuer a souldiour almost was left on the walles, whiche was not either slayne, or els wounded with the Turkes ordinance. At what tyme, through the Lordes prouidence it so happened, that one Ibrahimus Bassa, nere about þe Turke, seyng both þe towne to be small, and the great destruction of the Turkes in the siege therof, and that the captaine in no case would yelde, persuaded, so the Turke, declaryng how the town beyng so litle was not worth the losse of so many men, in the wynnyng wherof there was no glory, & if he were repulsed, greate dishonour myght folow: MarginaliaThe Turke raiseth his siege fom Gunza.wherby þe Turke being persuaded, did folow his coūsaile, which was this, that Nicolaus the Christē captaine beyng called vnto hym vnder pledges and safe conduict, should receaue þe towne, as of his hand & gift, with cõdition, that he should do no violence to his souldiours left behynd woūded, but should procure such meanes as he could, for þe recuryng of thē: & so he raysing his siege, departed. An other cause 

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This account of Süleyman's retreat in 1532 comes from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history (as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origineet rebus gestis Turcorum [Basel, 1556], p. 208), except that the mention of theColloquies of Augsburg and Ratisbon are from Foxe.

might bee also, whiche moued him so sodeinly to raise his seige: for þt he heard the Palatine not to be farre of in pursuyng after hym, & therfore taking his flight by the mountaines of the Noricians, he returned wt much spoyle of Christian mens goodes, into Cõstantinople. Ex Melchiore Soit. lib. 2. de bello Pãno. MarginaliaThe Emperour Charles and Ferdinandus begyn at length to sturre agaynst the Turke.For so it was prouided the same time in Germany, after the counsaile of Auguste and of Ratisbone (at what tyme the controuersie of Religion bewene þe protestantes and the Papistes, was differred and set of, to the next generall Councell) that Charles the v. and Ferdinandus his brother hauing vnderstãdyng of þe Turke thus raūgyng in Hungary, shoulde collecte of the Germaines, Hungarians, and Spanyardes and others, an hable armye of. 80. thousand footemē, and. 30. M. horsemen, to repulse the inuasiõs of the Turke. MarginaliaThe Turke refuseth to tary the Christiã armye.But Solymãnus hauyng intelligēce of this preparation of þe Christiã power comming toward hym, whether for feare, or whether to espye further oportunitie of tyme, for his more aduauntage and our detriment, refused at that tyme to tary their commyng, and so spedyng hys returne vnto Constãtinople, retired with much spoyle and pray sent before hym, as is aboue premised: Whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1532.

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MarginaliaThe Turke warreth agaynst the kyng of Tunece.Not long after 

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The brief account of the Tunisian campaign, the Ottoman invasionof Persia and the assault upon Corfu come from Wolfgang Dreschler's history asexcerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556, p. 234).

, beyng the yeare of our saluatiõ. 1534. Solymannus intending ij. warres at once, first sent Conradinus Barbarossa the Admirall of his nauies, into Afrike, to warre agaynst the kyng of Tunece: MarginaliaTunece wonne of the Turke.Whom the Barbarossa also dispossessed and depriued of his kyngdome: MarginaliaTunece recouered agayne by Charles the Emperour.but Charles the Emperour, the next yeare folowyng. an. 1535. restored both the sayd kyng agayne into his kyngdome, and delyuered in the same viage. xx. thousand captiues out of seruitude.

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The same tyme þe Turke also sent an other captaine into Hūgarie, to warre agaynst Vaiuoda, MarginaliaTaurus a Citie of Persia takē of the Turkes.while he him selfe taking his course to Persia, plãted his siege agaynst þe Citie Taurus, which he in short space, subdued and expugned. Albeit hee long enioyed not the same: for Tahames kyng of the Persians, sodenly commyng vppon the Marginaliaxx. thousande Turkes slayne of the Persian kyng.Turkes, vnprepared, slue of them. xx. thousãd, & tooke his concubines, to þe great foyle and reproche of the Turke 

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This Ottoman defeat never took place. Süleyman tried to engage theSafavid ruler in battle, but Shah Tahmasb I relied on scorched earth tactics and avoided battle.

.

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Two yeares after this, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1537. Solymannus, who could not bee quyet at home, nor rest in peace, returnyng agayne out of Asia into Europe with. 270. shyppes, great and litle, MarginaliaCorcyra the Iland wasted and spoyled by the Turkes.set vpon Corcyra an Iland belongyng to the Venetians, whiche he besieged x. dayes, wastyng and burnyng the townes and fieldes as he went, beside the destruction of much people therein, whom partly he slue, partly ledde away captiues.

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MarginaliaThe Ile of Zacynthus and Cythara spoyled by the Turkes.From thence 

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The following account of of Süleyman's conquests in the Aegean comes from the account written by Giovanni Crispi, the duke of Naxos, as excerpt-ed in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),pp. 589-90. The horrified descriptions of Turkish cruelty are in Crispi's text and arenot Foxe's insertions.

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he sayled to Zacynthus and Cythara, an other Iland not far of frõ Corcyra, bordering nere to the coastes of Epyrus and Grecia. MarginaliaCaptiues of the Christians.Where he sodenly by night inuadyng the husband men in villages & fieldes, slepyng & mistrustyng no harme, drew them out of their houses and possessions, men & wemen, besides children, to the number of. ix. hundreth, whom he made his bondslaues: burnyng moreouer their houses, and caryeng away all the goodes and catell beyng without þe said Cities of Zazinthus and Cythara. Ex Ioã. Crispo. MarginaliaWarre betwen the Egynetes & the Turkes.From thence these helhoudes turned their course to þe siege and spoyle of Ægina, a rich and populous Iland, lyeng betwene Grecia and Asia. Where first the Æginians dyd manfully in battaile resiste them, and were lyke to haue preuailed: but beyng weryed at length and oppressed with innumerable thousandes of freshe Turkes, whiche still were sent in, to rescue the other whiche were ouercome before, were compelled to flye into the Citie of Ægina. MarginaliaEgina taken of the Turke.Which Citie the cruell Turkes (or rather deuils on earth) with much labour, and violence of their great ordinaunce fet out of their shyppes, subdued and cast downe to the ground: the Citizens and inhabitauntes wherof, MarginaliaThe Citizens of Egina slain of the Turkes.the Turke after hee had burned theyr houses and ransackte their goodes, commaūded to be slayne and killed euery one. MarginaliaThe wemen of Egina miserably entreated and captiued of the Turkes.The wemen both noble and vnnoble, with their infantes, were geuē to the mariners to be abused, and from thence beyng shipped vnto Constantinople, were led away to perpetuall misery & slauery. Whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1537.

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MarginaliaThe Ile Parū and Naxus.In the same iourney Solyman also tooke the Ile in þe sayd sea of Ægeum, called Parū: also the Ile adioynyng to the same named Naxus, and made them to hym tributaries. MarginaliaCyclades subdued of the Turke.
Ex Ioan. Cripso.
The Duke wherof was he which wrote the story both of these Ilandes aforesayd, and also of the other Ilandes called Cyclades, vnder other Dukes. Ex Ioan. Crispo, Duce Naxi. &c.

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This done 

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From here down to the Venetian treaty with the Ottomans, Foxe isdrawing on Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas,De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 234.

, Solymãnus directed his nauie vnto Apulia 
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Not Apulia in in Italy but Napoli de Romania (or Napulia), a Venetianfortress in the Aegean.

,
where he set on land x. thousand footemen, &. 2000. horsemen, which spoyled lykewise and wasted those parties, MarginaliaNote what hurt commeth by the dissension of Christian Princes.while the Emperour, the Pope, and the Venetians were together in warre and dissensiõ. Furthermore, the next yeare folowyng. an. 1538. great attemptes began in Stiria, MarginaliaStiria is a countrey or prouīce nere ioynyng to Austria.but by the resistance of the inhabitauntes, the force of the barbarous Turkes was repulsed: notwithstandyng great spoyles of men and cattell were caryed from thence, and the countrey miserably spoyled. In the whiche yeare also the Turke turnyng into Hungary, gaue battaile vnto the Christians in Sauia: where, through the fraudulent falsehoode of the Captaine Cassianerus (Wolfgangus nameth him Calcianus) beyng (as they say) corrupted with money, our men were put to the worse. an. 1538.

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MarginaliaThe falsehode of the Turke with the Venetians.After that the Turkes had inuaded the Iland of Corcyra abouesaid, the Venetians, with Solyman þe Turke had ioyned truce for a certaine tyme, for the whiche they gaue to the Turke. 300. thousand crownes, with the Citie of Neapolis, & Maluasia in the borders of Macedonia. But within 4. or. 5. yeares the Turke, to get a new stipend of the Venetians, brake his league, and inuaded their dominions: whereby they were enforced to enter new conditions agayne with him.

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MarginaliaNouum castellū in Dalmatia ouerthrowen by the Turke, and the people slayne.In the yeare of our Lorde. 1540. 

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The following accounts of Süleyman's campaign in Hungary in 1540and the Hapsburg campaign in 1542 are taken from Giovann Battisto Ramusio'shistory as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 209-10. Again the horror stories of Turkish savagery are in Foxe's sources and are not the martyrologist's invention.

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the restles Turke makyng his returne toward Hungary, by the way passing by Dalmatia, lay agaynst the towne called Newcastle, beyng defended by the Spayniardes. In þe which

towne
II.ij.
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