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913 [913]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

towne, because they refused to yelde them selues, all the inhabitantes and the souldiours were put to the sworde & slayne euery one. This Nouum Castellum or Newcastle was a stronge forte of the Christians, whiche beyng now in the Turkes power, he had great aduauntage ouer all those quarters of Dalmatia, Stiria, Carinthia, and Hungaria. From thence he proceded further, kepyng his course into Hungary, where he planted hys power agaynst the Citie of Buda.

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MarginaliaThe contentiõ in Hungary betwene Ferdinãdus and Vaiuoda and his successours.This Buda was a principall citie in Hungarie, about which great contention had bene (as ye heard before) betwen Ioannes Vaiuoda, and Ferdinandus. By reason wherof þe Turke occasioned by Vaiuoda, came into Hūgary and deliuered þe Citie to Vaiouda. This Vaiouda lyuyng not long after, left behynd hym a sonne, whom beyng an infant he cõmitted to the gouernaunce of one Georgius Monachus: Who beyng left tutour vnto the infant, reduced all Transiluania, Buda, Pesta, with other parties of Hungary, whiche belonged to Vaiouda before, to the subiection of the child. Ferdinandus hearyng therof, in a great hast & anger, leuyed an armye to recouer his landes in Hungarie, and so layd siege to Buda. Monachus seyng his part to weake, first sent his legate to Ferdinãdus, desiring him to talke & conferre wt hym vpon matter, as he pretended, perteinyng to the behoffe of them both. MarginaliaThe communication betwen Monachus and Ferdinandus.Wherupõ both the parties beyng agreed, the place and maner of their conuētion was appointed, and also the day and tyme assigned. Thus the parties (accordyng to the agreement) conuentyng together with their armyes, withdrawyng a litle a side, as they were entred in communication, sodenly among Ferdinandus men, happened a dagge to be heard, whiche by the heate of the day (as is thought) losing of his owne accord, gaue a cracke. MarginaliaWhat hurt may come of rashe suspicion.The sound wherof commyng to the eares of Monachus, hee supposing the same to haue bene discharged against him, in great anger drew out his sword, byddyng Ferdinandus auaunt with his doublyng dissimulation, saying that he would neuer any more trust the promisses of Christians, and immediatly vpõ the same, MarginaliaThe Turke called agayn into Hūgary by the dissension betwene Monachus, and Ferdinandus.sent to Solymannus the Turke, for ayde against þe Christians, promising that he would surrēder to him free possession of Hungary, if he would come and vanquish the armye of Ferdinandus lyeng about the siege of Buda. The Turke maketh no long tarieyng, but taketh þe occasiõ, and with a mighty power, flyeth into Hungary, and eftsones dischargyng the host of Ferdinãdus, & puttyng them of frõ the siege of Buda, getteth the Citie into hys owne handes, cõmaundyng the sonne of Vaiuoda with his mother, to folow after his campe.

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MarginaliaThe cowardly viage of Ioachimus Duke of Brãdeburg, agaynst the Turke.In the historye of Ioannes Ramus it foloweth, that when Solyman the Turke had thus preuailed agaynst þe Citie of Buda aforesayd, and agaynst other parties more of Hungarie, by the assēt of the Empire, one IoachimusDuke of Brandeburg, prince Elector was assigned with a puissant armie of chosen souldiours of all nations collected, to recouer the Citie of Buda from the Turke, and to deliuer the other parties of Christendome from the feare of the Turke 

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This occurred in 1542.

. an. 1542. Whiche Ioachimus at his first settyng foorth, appeared so couragious and valiant, as thoughe hee would haue conquered the whole worlde: But this great heate was so slaked in short tyme by the Turke, that before any great ieoperdie was offered vnto him, he was glad to be discharged of þe viage, & with shame enough, returned home agayne. And would God he had left behynd him in the field, no more but his owne shame. For the enemies hauyng intelligēce before of his cowardly departure, thinkyng to woorke some point of mastry or victory before his goyng, did set vpon the ryght wynge of hys armie (whiche chiefly consisted of Dutch men of low Germany 
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I.e., soldiers from the Low Countries.

) out of the whiche they tooke awaye with them aboue. 500. strong and valiant souldiours, not kyllyng thē, but caryeng thē away, alyue. For whom it had bene much better to haue stand to their weapon & to haue dyed manfully vpon the Turkes, then by yeldyng thē selues, to be disgarnished of weapon & ar- Marginalia500. Christen souldiours taken and caryed awaye of the Turkes.mour, and so to bee left to the cursed curtesie of the foule Turkes. To whom what curtesie was shewed, by the sequele did appeare. For after þe Turkes had led thē out of Hūgary into their owne dominiõ, after a most horrible & beastly sort they disfigured & mãgled them, and so sent thē abroad through all Grecia to be witnesses of þe Turkes victorie. MarginaliaThe horrible punishements practised of the Turkes agaynste the Christians.Their kynd of punishement was this: first they had their right arme thrust through wt an yron red hoate wherby they should be vnable and vnmeete to all labour, and warfarre. Secondly their heades were shauen to the very sculles, after the maner of our Friers and monkes, when they are newly shauen. Thirdly they had all theyr pryuye members cut of from their bodyes, to the entent to make them vnfrutfull for propagation: which wound was so greuous vnto them, that the greatest part of them dyed therupon, the few that recouered the torment therof, ledde a life more bytter and more miserable then death it selfe. And this kynde of crueltie 
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This comparison of the Turks to Pharoah, and the cry for a new Moses,are Foxe's interpolations into Ramusio's account.

was executed in order vpon them all. In much lyke sorte did cruell Pharao exercise his tyranny agaynst þe people of God in Ægypt: who to destroy the generation of them, caused all the male children to be drowned in the ryuer. Whereby it is the more to be hoped, that seyng the tyranny of this Turkish Pharao, is come to such an extremitie, the mercyfull goodnes of God will the more shortly send some Moses or other vnto vs for our spedy deliueraūce. This was by þe cruell Turkes done. an. 1542. witnessed by Ioãnes Ramus, MarginaliaEx Ioan. Ramo, de rebus Turcicis. lib. 2.whiche not onely writeth the story, but by the testimonie also of his owne eyes recordeth the same to be true, beholdyng with his eyes one of the same number in the Citie of Vienna, who hauyng wife and children in Bruxelles, either for shame or sorrow, had no mynd to returne home to his owne house. Ex Ioan. Ramo.

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MarginaliaThe falsenes of the Turke in kepyng no promise with the Christians.But to returne agayne 

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Foxe took the following account of Ottoman conqusts, and allegedatrocities, in Hungary during 1542-44, down to the Ottoman invasion of Persia (in1548) from Martin Stella's letters, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 605-620. Stella was a contempor-ary to these events, who lived in Vienna, and wrote letters to his brothers in 1543 and1544, describing Turkish campaigns in Hungary.

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to þe Citie of Buda, frõ whēce we haue digressed, here is not to be pretermitted, what falsehode and what crueltie the Turkes vsed toward the Christiãs there, after their victorie. For after that Solyman the Turke vpon the yelding and submission of men of Buda, had geuen to them his promisse of safetie and of lyfe, within short tyme, the sayd Turke pyckyng a quarell with them for sellyng Oxen vnto the Christians, and for barganyng with them, slue all the Magistrates of the sayd Citie of Buda: lyke as in all other Cities, where soeuer the Christians yelded vnto hym, he neuer, or very rarely kept hys promise with them, neither did euer any Christians spede better with the Turke, then they which most constantly did resiste him.

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MarginaliaAn horrible example of the beastly crueltie of the false Turke.And as his promise with þe Magistrates of Buda was false and wretched: so his crueltie with the souldiours thereof was much more notorious & abhominable. For in the expugnation of Buda, among the rest which were slayne, ij. cohortes or bandes of Christiã souldiours, came alyue to his handes. To whom when he semed at the first to graunt pardõ of life, he commaūded to put on their armour agayne, and to dispose them selues in order and battaile array after þe warlike maner of þe Christiãs. Which when they had accomplished readyly, accordyng to his cõmaūdemēt, and he rydyng about the rankes of them, had diligently vewed & beholdē thē a certaine space, at length he cõmaunded thē to put of their armour againe. Which done, certain of the tallest and strongest of them he pyked out, the residue he commaunded by his souldiours commyng behynd them, with swordes to be cut in peeces and slayne. Of the other whom he had elected & chosen, some he set for markes and buttes to be shot at: some he apointed to his ij. sõnes for them to flashe with their swordes, and to trye their strength, whiche of them could geue the deper wound (& as they termed it) the fayrer blow, wherby moste bloud might folowe out of their Christian bodies. MarginaliaEx Epist. Marti. Stellæ. de succeßibus Turcarum &c.Ex Mart. Stella. De successibus turcarum.

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After the wynnyng of Buda, the Turke purposyng not so to cease before he had subdued and brought vnder his obediēce all Hungary, proceding further with his armey, first brought vnder a strong hold of the Christians named Pestum or Pesta, where a great number of Chri-

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