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920 [871]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

it is, þt the Turke him selfe was much more bestial, thē was the very brute Oxe: Whiche beyng a beast shewed more sense of humanitie to a dead man, then one man dyd to an other. Ex Leonie. Chalcondyla.

MarginaliaThe Byshop with the Citizēs of Methone slaine of the Turke.
Ex Andrea de Lacuna, & aliis.
Ex Ioanne Fabro, in oratione ad Regem Henr. viij
To this crueltie adde 

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This story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerptedin Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),p. 232. The slaughter of 500 inhabitants in Methoni (but not the death of thebishop) is also given in Andrea de Lacuno's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine, p. 219.

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moreouer, that besyde these v. hundreth Methonians thus destroyed at Constantinople, in the sayde Citie of Methone, all the townes men also were slayne by the foresayd Captayne Omares, and amōg them their Byshop lykewise was put to death. Ex Andrea de Lacuna, et ex Vuolfgango et aliis.

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Ioan Faber in his oration 

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The examples of Turkish depredations in Serbia, are taken from an oration by Johannes Faber, urging Christian unity against the Turk, printedin Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne,1535), fo. 237r.

made before Kyng Henrye the viij. at the appoyntement of Kyng Ferdinandus, and declaryng therein þe miserable crueltie of the Turkes toward all Christians, as also towarde the Bishops and ministers of the Churche, testifieth howe that in Mitilene, in Constantinople, and Trapezunda, what Byshops, and Archbishops, or other ecclesiasticall and religious persons the Turkes coulde finde, they broughte them out of the Cities into the fieldes, there to bee slayne lyke Oxen and Calues. The same Faber also wrytyng of the battayle of Solyman in Hungarye, where Ludouicus the king of Hungary was ouerthrowen, declareth that viij. byshops in the same fielde were slayne. And moreouer, when the Archbyshop of Strigon, and Paulus the Archbyshop Colossensis were found dead, Solyman caused them to be takē vp, and to be beheaded, and chopte in small peeces. an. 1526.

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MarginaliaThe crueltie of the Turke in Euboia.What Christian hart will not pitie the incredible slaughter done by þe Turkes in Euboia, where as the sayd Faber testifieth, þt innumerable people were sticked & gored vpon stakes, diuers were thrust through with a hoate yron, children and infantes not yet wayned from the mother, were dashed agaynst the stones, and many cut asonder in the mydest. Ex Ioan. Fabro. et aliis.

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But neuer did coūtrey tast 

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Most of this story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history, asexcerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), p. 230. The details, however, of the Serbian prince being killedand then flayed, come from Johann Faber's oration, excerpted in Ortwin Gratius,Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535).

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and feele more the bytter and deadly tyranny of the Turkes, then dyd Rasia, called Mysia inferior, & nowe Sernia. Where (as writeth Wolfgangus Dreschlerus) MarginaliaThe prince of Seruia slayne and slayne of the Turke.the prince of the sayd countrey being sent for, vnder fayre pretēce of wordes and promises, to come & speake with the Turke, after he was come of hys own gentlenes, thinkyng no harme, was apprehended & wretchedly and falsely put to death, & his skynne flayne of, his brother and sister brought to Constantinople for a triumphe, and all the nobles of hys countrey (as Faber addeth) had their eyes put out. &c. MarginaliaLet neuer Christen prince trust the Turke.

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MarginaliaThe Turks styrred vp of the deuill to fight agaynste Christ.Briefly to conclude, 

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These concluding remarks on Turkish 'butchery' and the introductory remarks on Ottoman enslavement of Christian captives are Foxe's own.

by the vehement and furious rage of these cursed caitiffes, it may seme that Satan the olde dragon, for the great hatred hee beareth to Christ, MarginaliaThe Turks are butchers of the Christians.hath styrred them vp to be the butchers of all Christē people, inflaming their beastly hartes with such malice and crueltie agaynste the name and Religion of Christ, that they degeneratyng from the nature of men to deuils, neither by reason will be ruled, nor by any bloud or slaughter satisfied. Like as in the primitiue age of the Church, and in the tyme of Diocletian, & Maximinian, when the deuill saw that he could not preuaile agaynst the person of Christ which was risen agayne, he turned all his fury vppon his sely seruauntes, thinkyng by the Romane Emperours, vtterly to extincte the name & profession of Christ, out from the earth: So in this latter age of the worlde, Satan beyng let lose agayne, rageth by the Turkes, thinkyng to make no ende of murderyng and kyllyng, till hee haue brought (as he entendeth) the whole Churche of Christe, with all the professours thereof, vnder foote. But the Lord (I trust) will once send a Cōstantinus to vanquishe proude Maxentius: Moses to drowne indurate Pharao: Cyrus to subdue the stoute Babylonian.

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MarginaliaThe miserable state of the Christian captiues vnder the TurkeAnd thus much hetherto touching our Christiā brethrē, which were slayne and destroyed by these blasphemous Turkes. Now for so much as, besides these aforesayd, many other were pluckt away violently frō their coūtrey, frō their wiues & children, frō libertie, & from all their possessions, into wretched captiuitie, and extreme penurie, it remaineth lykewise to entreate somewhat also concernyng þe cruel maner of the Turkes handlyng of the sayd Christian captiues. MarginaliaThe bying and sellyng of Christen Captiues vnder the Turkes.And first is here 

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The entire description which follows, of Ottoman treatment of theircaptives, comes from Bartolomaeus Georgevits, De origine imperiiTurcorum, asexcerpted in Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran(Basel, 1550), III, pp. 175-9. Foxe abridges this account but otherwise follows itfaithfully.

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to be noted þt the Turke neuer commeth into Europe to warre agaynst the Christiās, but there foloweth after his armie, a great number of brokers or marchauntes, such as bye men & children to sell agayne, bryngyng with them long cheyns, in hope of great chetes: In the which cheins they lynke them by 50. & 60. together, such as remaine vndestroyed with the sworde, whom they bye of the spoyles of them þt robbe & spoyle þe Christian coūtreys: Which is lawfull for any of þe Turkes armye to doe, so þt the tenth of their spoyle or praye (what soeuer it be) be reserued to þe head Turke, that is, to the great master thefe. 
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This description of the Ottoman sultan as a master thief is one ofonly two interpolations Foxe made into Georgevits's description of Ottomantreatment of their captives. The addition of this adjective, 'blasphemous', is one of only two interpolations that Foxe made to Georgevits's description of Ottoman treatment of their captives.

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Of such as remaine for tithe, if they be aged (of whom ve MarginaliaChristian captiues tithed of the Turke.ry fewe be reserued alyue, because litle profite commeth of that age) they be sold to the vse of husbandry or kepyng of beastes. If they be yong men or wemen, they be sent to certein places, there to be instructed in their lāguage & Artes, as shal be most profitable for their aduaūtage, and such are called in their tōgue Sarai: and the first care of þe Turkes is this, to make them renye the Christian religion, & to be circūcised: and after that, they are set and appointed, euery one, as hee semeth most apte, either to the learnyng of their lawes, or els to learne þe feates of warre. Their first rudimente of warre, is to handle þe bowe, first beginnyng with a weake bow, and so as they grow in strength, commyng to a stronger bowe, and if they mysse the marke, they are sharpely beaten: and their alowaunce is ij. d. or iij. d. a day til they come and take wages to serue in warre. Some are brought vp for the purpose to be placed in the number of the wicked Ianizarites, MarginaliaO wickednes passyng all miserye.that is, the order of þe Turkes chāpions, whiche is þe most abhominable conditiō of all other. Of these Ianizarites, see before, pag. 879. And if any of the foresaid yong men or children shall appeare to excel in any bewtie, hym they so cut, that no part of that whiche nature geueth to man, remaineth to be seene in all his bodye, MarginaliaO misery aboue all miseries. wherby, while the freshnes of age continueth, he is cōpelled to serue their abhominable abhomination: and when age cōmeth, then they serue in steade of Eunuches to wayt vpon matrones, or to kepe horses and mules, or els to bee scullyans and drudges in theyr kytchyns.

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MarginaliaThe seruitude of young wemen captiues.Such as be yong maydens & bewtifull, are deputed for concubines. They which be of meane bewtie, serue for matrones to their drudgery worke in their houses & chābers, or els are put to spynning and such other labours, but so þt it is not lawfull for them either to professe their Christian Religiō, or euer to hope for any libertie. And thus much of them, whiche fall to the Turke by tithe.

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The other which are bought & sold amōgest priuate subiectes, first are allured with fayre wordes and promises to take circūcision. Which if they will do, they are more fauorably entreated, but all hope is takē frō them of returning agayne into their countrey, whiche if they attempt, þe paine therof is burnyng. And if such, commyng at length to libertie, wil mary, they may: but then their children remayne bonde to the Lord, for him to sell at his pleasure: and therfore suche as are wise amongest them wyll not marye. They whiche refuse to be circumcised, are miserably handled; for example wherof, the author (whiche geueth testimonye hereof) doth inferre his owne experience.

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Such captiues as be expert in any manuall arte or occupation, can better shift for thē selues: but cōtrariwise they which haue no handy craft to liue vpon, are in worse case: MarginaliaEx Bartholomeo Georgieniz Peregrino lib. de afflicti onibus Christianorum sub Turea.And therfore such as haue bene brought vp in learnyng, or be priestes or noble men, and such other, whose tender educatiō can abyde no hardnes, are the least reputed, and most of all other, neglected of hym that hath the sale or keepyng of them, for that he seeth lesse profite to ryse of them, then of the other: and therefore no cost of rayment is bestowed vpō thē, but they are caryed about bare head, & bare foote, both sommer and wynter, in frost and snowe. And if any faynt, and be sicke in the waye, there is no restyng for hym in any Inne, but first he is driuē forward with whippes, & if that will not serue, hee is set peraduenture, vppon some horse: or if his weakenes be such that he can not sitte, then is he layd ouerthwart the horse vpon his bely, lyke a calfe, and if he chaunce to dye, they take of his garment such as he hath, and throw hym in a dytch.

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In the way moreuer, beside the common cheyne, whiche doth inclose them all, the handes also of euery one are manicled, whiche is because they should not harme their leaders, for many tymes it happened that x. persons had the leadyng of 50. captiues: and when night came, their feete also were fettered, so that they lodged in no house, but laye vpon the ground all nyght.

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MarginaliaThe miserable calamitie of Christen wemen beyng in captiuitie vnder the Turkes.The yong wemē had a litle more gentles shewed, beyng caried in panyars on þe day tyme. But whē night came, pitie it was to heare þe miserable cryeng out of such as were inclosed within, by reason of the filthy iniuries which they suffered by their cariers, in so much that the young tender age of vij. or viij. yeares, as well of the one sexe as of the other, could not saue them from themost filthy villany of the bestiall Turkes.

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MarginaliaThe maner of Christian captiues, how they are brought to markettes and solde.When the mornyng commeth, they are brought forth to the market, to sale, where the byer, if he be disposed, pluckyng of their garmentes, veweth all the bones & ioyntes of their body: and if he lyke them, he geueth his price, and caryeth them awaye into miserable seruitude, either to tillyng of their grounde, or to pasture their cattell, or some o-

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ther
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