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975 [975]

K. Henry. 8. The storye and murthering of Richard Hunne.
¶ The sentence of the inquest subscribed by the Crowner.

MarginaliaThe sentence of the Inquest. 

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A copy of the document (unknown to Foxe) survives as TNA 9/468, fo. 14r-v. This copy matches the version in STC 13970, reprinted by Hall and then by Foxe.

THe inquisition intendid and taken at the citie of London, in the parish of saint Gregorie, in the warde of Baynard Castel in London the syxt day of December, in the sixte yeare of the reigne of king Henry the eight, before Thomas Barnewel Crowner of our Soueraigne lord the king, within the citie of London aforesayd: Also before Iames Yarford, and Iohn Mondey Shriffes of the sayd citie, vpon the sight of the bodie of Richard Hun, late of London Taylour, whiche was founde hanged in the Lollars tower, and by the othe and profe of lawfull men of the same warde, and of other three wardes next adioyning, as it ought to be, after the custome in the citie aforesayde, to enquire howe, and in what maner wise the sayde Rychard Hun came vnto his death, and vpō the othe of Iohn Bernard, Thomas Sterte, William Warren, Henry Abraham, Iohn Aborow, Iohn Turner, Robert Alen, Willyam Marler, Iohn Burton, Iames Page, Thomas Pickehyll, Wylliam Burton, Robert Brigewater, Thomas Busted, Gylbert Howell, Rychard Gibson, Christopher Crofton, Iohn God, Rychard Holt, Iohn Pasmere, Edmonde Hudson, Iohn Aunsell, Rycharde Couper, Iohn Tynie: the which sayd vpon their othes, that where the sayd Rychard Hun by the commaundemēt of Rychard byshop of London, was emprysoned and brought to hold in a pryson of the sayd byshops, called Lollars towre, lying in the cathedrall churche of saint Paule in London, in the paryshe of saint Gregorie, in the warde of Baynarde Castell aforesayd, MarginaliaRich. Hunne cleared by the Inquest. not to haue hanged him selfe.William Horsey of London Clerke, otherwyse called William Heresie, Chauncelour to Rychard byshop of London, and one Charles Ioseph, late of London Somner, and Iohn Spaldyng of London, otherwyse called Iohn Belrynger, feloniously as felons to our Lord the kyng, with force and armes against the peace of our soueraigne Lorde the kyng, & dignitie of his crowne, the fourth daye of December, the sixt yeare of the raigne of our soueraigne Lorde aforesayd, of their great malice, at þe paryshe of saint Gregorie aforesayd, vpon the sayde Rychard Hun made a fraie, and the same Rychard Hun feloniously strangeled and smodered, and also the necke they dyd breake of the sayde Rycharde Hun, and there feloniously slewe hym, and murthered hym: and also the body of the sayde Richarde Hun afterwarde the same. iiij. daye, yeare, place, paryshe and warde aforesaide, with the proper gyrdell of the same Rychard Hun of sylke, black of colour, of the value of. xij. pence, after his death vpon a hoke dryuen into a piece of tymber in the wall of the pryson aforesayde, made fast, and so hanged hym against the peace of our soueraigne Lorde the kynge, and the dignitye of his crowne: and so the sayd Iury hath sworne vpon the holy Euangelist, that the sayde Wylliā Horsey clarcke, Charles Ioseph, and Iohn Spaldyng of their set malice then, and there, feloniously kylled and murthered the sayd Rychard Hun, in maner and forme abouesayde, against the peace of our soueraigne Lord the kyng, his crowne & dignitie.

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¶ Subscribed in this manner:
Thomas Barnewell, Crowner of the
citie of London.

After that the xxiiij. had geuen vp their verdict sealed and signed with the Crowners seale, the cause was then brought into þe Parlament house, MarginaliaThe Parlament iudging with Richard Hunne.where the truth was layd so plaine before all mens faces, & the facte so notorious, that immediatly certeine of the bloudy murderers were committed to prison, and should no doubt haue suffered that they deserued, MarginaliaThe practyse of Cardinall Wolsey for his clergie men.had not the Cardinall by hys authoritie practised for his catholicke children, at the sute of the Byshop of London. Wherupon þe chaunceler by þe kynges pardon and secret shiftyng, rather then by Gods pardon and his deseruyng 

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This passage, emphasizing that Horsey escaped due to a royal pardon, and not because he was innocent, is a response to Harpsfield's criticisms of Foxe's account of the Hunne affair.

escaped, and went as is sayd to Exeter. &c. Neuerthelesse thoughe iustice tooke no place, where fauour did saue, yet because the innocent cause of Hunne should take no wrong, þe Parlament became suters vnto the kynges maiestye, that wheras the goods of the sayd Hunne were confiscate into the kyngs handes, that it would please his grace to make restitutiō of all the sayd goods vnto the children of the sayd Hunne: vpon whiche motion the king of his gracious disposition did not onely geue all þe foresayd goods vnto the foresaid children vnder his broad seale yet to be sene, but also did send out hys warrantes (which hereafter shall folow) to those þt were the cruell murderers, cōmaundyng thē vpō his hygh displeasure to redeliuer all þe said goods, & make restitution for the death of the sayd Richard Hunne: all whiche gooddes came to the summe of xv. hundreth poundes sterlyng, beside his plate and other iewels.

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¶ The tenure of the kinges letter in the behalfe of Richard Hunne. 
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Foxe does not make it clear, but this letter is from Henry VIII to William Horsey, written after 4 May 1523, when Parliament passed a bill ordering that restitution be made to Hunne's family for his property, which was confiscated when Hunne was condemned as heretic. Henry is ordering Horsey to pay the full cost of the restitution out of his own pocket, instead of having the Church or the Crown pay it.

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MarginaliaThe kings letter for the restitution of Hunnes goods.TRustye and welbeloued we grete you well: whereas by the complaynte to vs made aswell as also in our high court of Parlament, on the behalfe & partie of Roger Whapplot of our Citie of London Draper, & Margarete hys wyfe late þe daughter of Richard Hunne. And wheras you were indicted by our lawes of, and for the death of the sayd Richard Hunne, the sayd murder cruelly committed by you lyke, as by our recordes more at large playnly it doth appeare, about the v. day of Decēber, in the vi. yeare of our reigne, the same we abhorre, neuertheles wee of our especiall grace, certaine science & mere motion, pardoned you vpon certaine considerations vs mouyng for the entent that the goodes of the sayd Richard Hunne, the administratiō of them were committed to þe sayd Roger Whapplot, we then supposed & entended your amendement, and restitution to be made by you to the enfantes the childrē of the sayd Richarde Hunne, aswell for his death as for his goods, embeseled, wasted and consumed by your tyranny and cruell acte so committed, the same beyng of no litle value, and as hetherto ye haue made no recompence, accordyng to our lawes, as myght stand with equitie, Iustice, right, and good conscience, and for this cause due satisfaction ought to be made by our lawes: Wherfore we will and exhorte, and otherwise charge and commaunde you, by the tenure of this, our especiall letters, that ye satisfie and recompence the sayd Roger Whapplot, and the sayd Margarete hys wife, accordyng to our lawes in this cause, as it may stand with right & good conscience, els otherwyse at your farther perill, so þt they shall haue no cause to returne vnto vs, for their farther remedy, eftsones in this behalfe, as ye in the same tender to auoyde our hyghe displeasure: otherwise that ye vpon the sight hereof, to set all excuses apart, and to repayre vnto our presence, at whiche your hether commyng you shalbe farther aduertised of our mynde.

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From our maner. &c.

¶ Defence of Richard Hunne, agaynst Sir Thomas More and Alen Cope. 
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Here, as elsewhere in the Acts and Monuments, Foxe is responding directly to criticisms of his work made by Nicholas Harpsfield in his Dialogi sex, printed in 1566. (Harpsfield's attack on Foxe's account of Hunne is on pp. 847-50). However, Harpsfield's influence on Foxe's account of Hunne was not limited to inspiring this rebuttal. It was almost certainly because of Harpsfield's attack that Foxe consulted the records held by Dunstan Whaplod, Richard Hunne's grandson. Although Harpsfield makes a point of referring Foxe to More's account of the Hunne affair - in his Dialogue Concerning Heresies (CWTM 6, I, pp. 317-20) - he does this largely to profit from More's reputation; a reputation which he even Foxe acknowledges. But for the most part, Harpsfield's arguments against Foxe are his own, and they develop along two lines. The first is a debate over whether Hunne deserves to be classed as a martyr since he did not die for a religious doctrine or cause. The second is over the details of the case. Foxe's polemical strategy is to stick to the documents produced by the inquest. Harpsfield's strategy is to ignore the inquest and to cast doubt on the implausible aspects of Foxe's account: e.g. why would Horsey want to murder Hunne?

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MarginaliaDefence of Richard Hunne.J Doubt not but by these premisses thou hast (Christian reader) sufficiently to vnderstand the whole discourse and story of Richard Hunne from toppe to toe. First how he came in trouble for denying the bearyng sheete of hys young infant departed, then how hee was forced, for succour of hym selfe, to sue a premunire: And therupō what conspiracie of the clergie was wrought agaynste hym, what snares were layd, what fetches were practised, and Articles deuised, to snarle hym in the trappe of heresie, and so to imprison hym. Furthermore beyng in prison, how he was secretly murdered, after his murder hanged, after hys hangyng condemned, after his condēnation burned: and after hys burnyng lastly how hys death was enquired by þe Crowner, & cleared by acquitalle of þe Inquest. Moreouer how the case was brought into þe Parlament, & by þe Parlament the kinges precept obtayned for restitution of hys goods. The debatyng of whiche tragicall and tumultuous story with all the branches, and particular euidences of the same, taken out as well of the publique actes, as of the Byshops registers, & speciall recordes, MarginaliaEx publicis actis.
Ex archiuis et Regist. Lond.
remainyng in the custody of Dustan Whapplot the sonne of þe daughter of the sayd Richard Hunne, 

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Foxe is signalling to his readers - and to Harpsfield - that the documents he is quoting exist and that he is quoting them accurately.

there to be sene, MarginaliaThree purposes considered.I thought here to vnwrappe & discouer so much the more, for iij. especiall purposes.

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Marginalia1.First, as is requisite, for testimonie and witnes of truth falsely slaundered, of Innocency wrongfully condemned, and of the partie cruelly oppressed.

Marginalia2.The second cause moueth me, for Syr Tho. Mores Dialogues 

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More's Dialogue Concerning Heresies which contains More's account of the Hunne affair (CWTM, 6, I, pp. 217-30).

, wherin he dalyeth out the matter, thinking to iest poore simple truth out of countenaunce.

Marginalia3.The third cause which constreyneth me be þe Dialogues of Alanus Copus,  

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Harpsfield's Dialogi sex was printed under the name of Alan Cope, a friend of Harpsfield's and a fellow Catholic cleric. (See the articles on Alan Cope and Nicholas Harpsfield in the ODNB). When he wrote this rebuttal in 1570, Foxe thought that Cope was the author of the Dialogi sex.

whiche two, the one in English, the other in Latine, raylyng and barkyng agaynst Rich. Hunne, do doublewise charge hym, both to be an here-

tique,
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