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981 [981]

K. Henry. 8. The trouble and death of Thomas Man, Martyr.

and that the person so doing is an heretique.

Marginalia4.
Against the reall presence in the Sacramēt.
Item, that within one of the xij. monethes of the yeare of our Lord 1511. he had ben detected before the Bish. of Lincolne that then was, of diuerse pointes of heresie: as that he had affirmed, that the verie bodie and bloud of Christ was not in the Sacrament of the altare, but materiall bread and wyne: & that he had receaued it at Easter as holie bread: and likewise had affirmed that the Crucifix & other Jmages in the church were not to be worshipped: and also that confeßion made vnto a Priest was of none effecte, with diuers other like opinions and heresies.

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Marginalia5.Itē, that for these & such like pointes of heresie he had bene abiured in S. Marie Church at Oxforde, before. De. Wilcockes Chauncelour vnto the said Bishop of Lincolne, in the moneth of October, in the yeare last abouesaid, and there did renounce them and all other, promising no more to fall into the like.

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Marginalia6.Item, that there also he had taken a solemne othe to do such penaunce as should bee enioyned him by the authoritie of the said Bishop.

Marginalia7.Item, that then he was enioyned to abyde within the monasterie of Oseney by Oxford: and also there to beare a fagot before the first Crosse in the generall proceßion.

Marginalia8.Item, that after a certein time that he had bene within the Monasterie of Oseney, the Bishop of Lincolne (for certeine causes) tooke him into his owne house and seruice, respiting his penaunce for a time.

Marginalia9.Itē, that afterwardes, which was the. 9. daye of Octob. an. 1512. the said Bishops Chauncelour iudicially sitting in the Chapter house of the Priorie of S. Frideswyde in Oxford, did inioyne him that he should tarrie within the said Priorie, and not to go out of the gates therof without licence of the Priour for the time being, vntill he had other commaundement from the Bishop, vpon paine of relapse: and further that he should from thence forth (vpon the like paine) weare a signe of a fagot vnder his vppermost garment.

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Marginalia10.Item, that after his abiuration, and sithens the promises thus done, he was yet againe detected to the Bishop of Lōdon, by open fame, and denounced by worshipfull and credible persons, that he had vsed like false errours and heresies, and had spoken and taught certeine conclusions of heresie, against the Christen faith, and determination of holie Churche: and that he had fallen into the like heresies as before his abiuratiō, both against the Sacrament of the altare, against pilgrimages, and worshipping of Jmages: MarginaliaHe ment some image or picture of the virgine, set vp in some blinde place to be worshipped.and had blasphemed our blessed Ladie, calling her, Mablye. 

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Note that Foxe is careful, in a marginal note, to state that Man denigrated the veneration offered to an image of the Virgin Mary and not Mary herself.

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Marginalia11.Item, that when he wrought with one Iohn Bates in Stratforde Langthorne in Rogation weeke, then three yeares past, and being bydden by the said Bates wife to go and heare the Gospell, he aunswered and said vnto her: I will not come there, go you if ye list, ye shall haue as much meede for it, as to put your finger in the fire, and to burne it.

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Marginalia12.Item, that in times past, for feare of abiuration, he had fled from Colchester vnto Newberie, and after that vnto Hamersham, and there had damnablie accōpanied with heretickes, and had taught heresies among them: and also since the time of his abiuration, he had said, that he and his wife had turned 6. or 7. hundreth people vnto those opinions whiche he was abiured of, and others also, contrarie to Christes faith, and determinations of holy Churche. 

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Even if this number is a wild exaggeration, Man was clearly an influential Lollard with a sizeable following.

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His aunswere vnto these Articles was, that as touchyng the first nyne, he graunted in parte to be true, confessing to the second, that he was a true Christian, and did professe the true Christian faith: but the contentes of the last iij. he vtterly denyed to be true, affirmyng for certeine aunswere vnto the xi. Article: that at the tyme mencioned in þe same, he did not worke in the towne of Stratforde. MarginaliaFalse witnes.Vppon whiche aunswere the Chauncelour called forth two witnesses to be sworne and examined agaynst him, willyng him that if he had any iust matter agaynst any of them, he should refuse them. But to what purpose this hys fayre offer and trimme shewe of vpright Iustice serued, I cannot see. For notwithstādyng that he charged the one of the witnesses with theeft and adultery (for that hauing a wife of his own he did yet runne away with an other mans wife and goodes) and also alleged that the o- MarginaliaFalse witnes receaued against Thomas Man.ther was to yoūg to be a sworne witnes in case of life and death: yet were they both still reteined and allowed by þe Chauncelour, and sworne not to departe awaye or hyde thē selues, but to be alwayes ready to iustifie that whiche they had to say agaynst the sayd Thomas Man: and so for that tyme aswell they, as also all the rest were commaunded to departe, and the prisoner sent agayne to hys prison.

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And here in the order of the othe ministred vnto these witnesses, I finde one note (me thinketh) worthy present remembraunce, both for that it is mencioned in this processe, and also because it somwhat openeth the foolishe, ridiculous, and fayned figuratiue Ceremonyes of the Papistes, who do attribute a spirituall signification almost vnto all their doinges. MarginaliaThe ceremoniall maner of the popysh ministring of their othe.The Register discoursing at large the maner of their othe, hath these wordes. Ad sancta dei Euangelia iurari fecit, tribus medijs digitis erectis & super librum positis in signum Trinitatis & fidei Catholicæ: & duobus (videl police & auriculari) suppositis & suppressis, & sub libro positis, in signum damnationis corporis & animæ, si non deposuerint veritatē in hac parte. That is to say: he caused thē to sweare vpon the holy Euangelistes, with their three middle fingers streatched out right and layd vppon the booke, in signe of the Trinitie and Catholicke faith: and the other two (to wytt the thombe and the litle finger) put downe wardes vnder the booke, in token of dampnation of body and soule, if they did not depose the truth in the matter. This ceremoniall order and exposition of theirs, as it is of their owne fonde inuention, without any grounde or example of the Scriptures of God: so minde I to leaue it still vnto them sleues, with other their apishe toyes and ridicles, as thinges worthy to be laught at, and will now further proceede with the reste of this processe, whiche I haue in hand.

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MarginaliaTho. Man againe called by D. Hed chaūcelour.The xv. day of Februarye, D. Hed the Chauncelour, agayne iudicially sitting in the consistorie at Paules, commaunded Thomas Man to bee brought before him, and there causing the Articles obiected against him by the Bishop of Lyncolne, with his order of abiuration and penaunce, and also his owne Articles last propounded to be first read, he called forth a third wytnes to be sworne and examined vpon the same. But because he would seme to do all thinges by order of Iustice, and nothyng agaynste law, he therefore appointed vnto the sayd Thomas Man certaine doctours & aduocates of the arches, 

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I.e., members of the Court of Arches, the central ecclesiastical court in medieval England.

as his counseillers to pleade in his behalfe. MarginaliaAgnus Lupo cōmißus.Whiche was euen like as if the lambe should be committed to the defence & protection of the wolfe, or the hare to the hounde. For what good helpe could he looke for at their handes, which were both most wicked haters and abhorrers of hys Christian profession, & also stoute vpholders & mayntainers of that Antichristian law, by the which he was, for the same condemned? And that full wel appeared by the good aduice & profitable counsail, which they gaue him against his next examinations. For, aswell vppon the xx. as also the xxiij. dayes of the same moneth of February, in their seuerall Sessions, he seyng his owne negations to their obiections, to take no place agaynst their sworne witnesses, had no other thyng to alledge for him selfe, but that throughe his xx. weekes of harde imprisonnement vnder the Byshop of Lyncolne, hee was forced to recant and abiure: whiche was a poore shift of counsaill, god knoweth: MarginaliaThe subtle practyse of þe Romishe churchmē.And yet. D. Raynes beyng one of his chief assigned aduocates (in stede of aduice) could by hys subtile questioning, then make him to confesse, that certeine talke, wherof one of the wytnesses had accused hym, was spoken about fyue yeares before past: whiche, because it was since his recātation, was rather an accusation of him selfe, then an excusing: and therfore it is easie to iudge with how fauorable and vprightfull hartes they tooke vpon them to be hys aduocates and defenders. The Chauncelour likewise charged him vpō the same xxiij. day, that since his last imprisonement, hee had sayd vnto Robert Clunye the Byshops Somner, and his keper, 
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Bishop Bonner's summoner was also named Robert Cluney; either there was a single long-lived individual, or, more likely, they were father and son.

that as farre forth as hee

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could
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