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1288 [1287]

K. Edw. 6. An vniforme order of Communion set forth.

MarginaliaAn. 1548.

¶ Letters missiue from the Counsaile to the Byshoppes of the Realme, concernyng the Communion to be ministred in both kyndes 
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Cattley/Pratt, V, 843: 'These letters missiue from the Council are given at folio 112 of the Bonner Register, and folio 269 of the Westminster'.

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MarginaliaThe Communiō in both kindes to bee ministred. AFter our most harty commendations to your Lordshippe, where in the Parlament late holden at Westminster it was amōgest other things most godly established that according to the first institution and vse of the primatiue Church, the most holy Sacrament of the body and bloud of our Sauiour Iesus Christ should be distributed to the people vnder the kyndes both of bread and wyne (accordyng to the effect wherof, the kynges Maiestie myndyng, with the aduice and consent of the Lord Protectors grace and the rest of the Counsaile to haue the sayd Statute well executed in such sorte, or lyke as it is agreable with the worde of God, so the same may be also faythfully and reuerently receiued of hys most louyng subiectes to their comfortes and wealth) hath caused sondry of hys maiesties most graue and well learned Prelates and other learned men in the Scriptures, to assemble themselues for this matter: who after long conference together, haue with deliberate aduise, finally agreed vppon such an order to be vsed in all places of the kinges maiesties dominions in the distribution of the sayde most holy Sacrament, as may appeare to you by the booke therof, which we send herewith vnto you. Albeit knowyng your Lordships knowledge in the Scriptures and earnest good will and zeal to the setting forth of all thinges accordyng to the truthe therof, we be well assured, you will of your owne good wil and vpon respect to your duety diligently set forth, this most godly order here agreed vpon and commaunded to be vsed by the authoritie of the kyngs maiestie: yet remembryng the crafty practise of the deuill, who ceaseth not by his members to worke by all wayes and meanes, the hynderaunce of all godlynes, and considering furthermore that a great number of the Curates of the Realme, either for lacke of knowledge cannot, or for want of good mynd will not be so redy to set forth the same, as we would wish and as the importance of the matter and their owne bounden dueties requireth, we haue thought good to pray and require your Lordship, and neuertheles in the kings maiesties our most dread soueraign Lordes name to commaund you to haue an earnest diligēce, and carefull respect both in your owne person, and by all your officers and Ministers, also to cause these bookes to be deliuered to euery Person, Vicar, and Curate within your Dioces, with such diligence as they may haue sufficient time well to instruct and aduise themselues, for the distribution of the most holye Communion accordyng to the order of this booke, before this Easter tyme, and that they may by your good meanes be well directed to vse such good, gentle, and charitable instruction of their simple and vnlearned parishners, as may be to all their good satisfactions as much as may be, praying you to consider, that this order is set forth to the intent there shoulde be in all partes of the Realme and among all men, one vniforme maner quietly vsed. The execution wherof, like as it shal stand very much in the diligēce of you and others of your vocatiō: so do we eftsoones require you to haue a diligent respect thereunto, as ye tender the kings maiesties pleasure, and will aunswer for the contrary. And thus we bid your Lordship right hartily farewell. Frō Westminster the 13. of March. 1548.

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Your Lordships louyng frendes.

Tho. Canterbury. Anth. Wingfield.
R. Rich. W. Peter.
W. Saint Iohn. Edward North.
Iohn Russell. Ed. Wootton.
Hen. Arrundell.

By meanes as well of this letter and the godly order of the learned, as also of the statute and act of Parlament before mencioned, made for the stablishyng therof all priuate blasphemous Masses 

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Book of Common Prayer

Reformers opposed celebration of the Masses by priests who communicated alone because of their sacrificial nature, the exclusion of laity, and the absence of the communal character of 'true' communion. Davies, Worship and Theology, vol. 1, p. 141.

John King

were nowe, by iust authoritye fullye abolished throughout this realme of England, & the right vse of the Sacrament of the most precious bodye and bloud of our sauiour Iesus Christe truely restored in stede of the same. But neuertheles, as at no time any thing cā be so wel don of the godly, but that the wicked will find some meanes subtilly to deface the same: MarginaliaPriuie hinderers of the Gospell. so likewise at this presēt through the peruerse obstinacy and dissemblyng frowardnes of many the inferiour Priestes and Ministers of the Cathedrall and other Churches of this realme, there dyd aryse a marueilous schisme and varietie of fashions in celebratyng the common seruice and administration of the Sacramentes, and other rites and ceremonies of the Churche. MarginaliaDiuision among the priestes about the kinges proceedinges. For some zealously allowyng the kynges procedynges dyd gladly followe the order therof, and others, though not to willynglye admittyng them, dyd yet dissemblingly and patchingly vse some part of them: but many carelesly cōtemning all: would still exercise their old wonted popery.

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Wherof the kyng and his Counsel hauyng good intellygence, and fearyng the great inconueniences and daungers that might happen through thys diuision, and beyng therewithall loth at the first to vse any great seueritye towardes his subiectes, but rather desirous by some quiet and godlye order to bryng them to some conformitie, dyd by their prudent aduises agayne appoint the archbyshop of Canterbury with certayne of the best learned and discrete Byshops and other learned men, diligently to consider and ponder the premisses: and therupon hauing aswel an eye and respecte vnto the most sincere and pure christian religion taught by the holy scriptures, as also to þe vsages of the primatiue church MarginaliaOne vniforme order of Common Prayer. to draw and make one conuenient and mete order, rite, and fashion of common prayer and administration of the Sacramentes, to be had and vsed within this his realme of England, and the dominions of the same. Who after most godly and learned conferences, through the ayde of the holy Ghost with one vniforme agreement dyd conclude, set forth, and deliuer vnto the kyngs highnes, a booke in English intituled: A booke of the common prayer and administration of the Sacraments, and other rites & ceremonies of the church after the vse of the Churche of England. 

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During the five months following its issuance in March 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was published in ten editions by the King's Printer, Richard Grafton, and his associate, Edward Whitchurch. John Oswen published two more in Shrewsbury (STC 16267-76). In retaining the Mass and much of the use of Sarum (the medieval rite employed at Salisbury), this prayer book was a compromise document overseen by Thomas Cranmer to allay opposition by conservatives. It did take the radical step of completing the introducing a new church service wholly in the English language.

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Marginalia A Parliamēt assembled the 2. yeare of K. Edw.
1548.
The which his hyghnes receiuyng with great comfort & quietnes of minde dyd foorthwith exhibite vnto the Lordes and Commons of the Parliament then assembled at Westminster, about the fourth of Nouember, in the second yeare of his raigne and in the yeare of our Lord. 1548. & continuing vnto the. xiiij. day of March then next ensuing.

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Wherupon the Lordes spirituall and temporall, and the commons of that sayd Parliament assembled well & throughly consideryng aswell the most godly trauayle of the kinges highnes, of the Lorde Protector, and other of his Maiesties Counsaile, in gatheryng together the said Archbishop Byshops, and other learned men as the godlye prayers, orders, rites, and ceremonies in the sayde booke mentioned, with the consideration of alteryng those things which were altered and retaynyng those thynges which were retayned in the same booke: as also the honour of God, and great quietnes, which by the grace of God, shoulde ensue vppon that one and vniforme rite and order in such cōmon prayer, rites, and externe ceremonies to bee vsed throughout England, Weales, Calice, and the marches of the same: did first geue vnto hys highnes moste lowly & harty thanks for the same 

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The Act of Uniformity, 1548 (2 Edw. VI, c. 1; Statutes, 4.i.37-39).

, and then most humbly prayed hym that it might be ordeyned and enacted by his Maiestie with the assent of the sayd Lordes and commons in that Parliament assembled, MarginaliaStatut. an. 2. 3. Reg. Edou. cap. 1 
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Cattley/Pratt, V, 721, fn 1: 'For these Acts, see "Actes made in the session of this present parliament, holden the 4th Nov. in the second year of Edward VI. cap. 1 fol. 2. Lond. fol. 1553."'

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and by the authoritie of the same, that not onely all and singular person and persons that had thertofore offended concernyng the premisses (others then such as were then remaynyng in warde in the Tower of London, or in the Fleete) might be pardoned therof 
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Stephen Gardiner was among those who were denied pardon.

, but also that all and singular Ministers and any Cathedrall or Parishe Churches or other places within the Realme of England, Wales Calice, and the marches of the same, or other the kynges dominions, should from and after the Feast of Pentecost next cōmyng be bounden to saye and vse the Mattynes, Euensong, celebration of the Lordes Supper, and administration of ech of the Sacramentes, and all other common and open prayer, in such order and forme as was mencioned in the sayd boke, & none other or otherwise 
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The Act of Uniformity ordered the new service into use on Pentecost or Whitsunday (9 June 1549) in a symbolic recreation of the advent of the Christian church at the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles (Acts 2:1-4). King, English Reformation Literature, p. 151.

. MarginaliaPetition of the Lords & Cōmons in the Parliament to the kyng. And albeit that they were so godly and good that they gaue occasion vnto euery honest and conformable man most wyllyngly to embrase them: yet least any obstinate persons who willingly woulde disturbe so godly an order & quiet in this realme should not go vnpunished, they farther requested, that it might be ordeyned and enacted by the authority aforesayde, that if any maner of person, Vicar, or other what so euer Minister that ought or should say or sing common prayer, mencioned in the sayde booke or Minister the Sacramentes, should after the said feast of Pentecost thē next commyng, refuse to vse the said common prayer, or to Minister the Sacramentes in suche Cathedrall or Parish churches, or other places as he should vse or minister the same, in suche order and forme as they were mencioned, and set foorth in the sayd booke: or shoulde vse wilfully and obstinatly standing in the same, any other ryte, ceremonie, order, forme, or maner of Masse, openly, or priuelye, or Mattynes, Euensong, administration of the Sacramentes, or other open prayer then was mencioned and set forth in the sayde booke: or should preache, declare, or speake any thyng in the derogation, or deprauyng of the sayde booke, or any thyng therin conteyned, or of any parte thereof, and should be thereof lawfully conuicted accordyng to the lawes of this realme by verdict of xij. men, or by hys owne confession, or by the notorious euidence of the facte, shoulde loose and forfeyte vnto the kynges highnesse hys heyres and successours, for his first offence one whole yeres

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