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1296 [1295]

K. Edward. 6. Troubles and Insurrections in King Edwardes tyme.

MarginaliaAn. 1549. sing of men, they deuised to burne Beacons, and thereby to bryng the people together, as though it were to defende the Sea coastes, and hauing the ignoraunt people assembled, then to poure out their poyson: first begynning with þe rudest and poorest sorte, suche as they thought were pricked wþt pouertie, and MarginaliaFalse lyes forged of Gods true religion. were vnwillyng to labour, and therefore the more readye to folowe the spoyle of riche mens goodes, blowing into their heades, that Gods seruice was layde aside, and new inuentions neyther good nor godly put in place, and so feedyng them with fayre promises, to reduce into the Church agayne their old ignoraunce and Idolatrie, thought by that meanes soonest to allure them to rage and runne with them in this commotion. And furthermore to the entent they would geue the more terrour to the gentlemen at their first rising, least they should be resisted, they deuised that some should be murdered in Churches, some in their houses, some in seruyng the kyng in commission, and other as they might be caught, and to picke quarells to thē by alteration of seruice on the holy dayes. And thus was the platforme cast of their deuise, according as afterward by their confession at their examinations was testified, and remayneth in true recorde.

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Thus they beyng together agreed, Ombler and Dale, and other by their secrete appoyntement, so laboured the matter in the parish of Semer, Wintringeham, & þe townes about, that they were infected with the poyson of this confederacie, in such sort, that it was easie to vnderstād wherunto they would encline, if a commotion were begun. The accomplishment wherof did shortly folow. MarginaliaThe conspiracie of the rebels vttered in dronkennes. For although by the wordes of one drunken felow of that conspiracie named Caluered, at the alehouse in Wintringham, some suspiciō of that rebellion beganne to be smelled before by the Lorde President and Gentlemen of those parties, and so preuented in that place wher the rebels thought to begyn: yet they gaue not ouer so, but drewe to an other place at Semer by the Sea coast, and there by night rode to the Beacon of Staxton, and set it on fire: and so gathering together a rude route of rascals out of the townes nere about being on a sturre, Ombler, Thomas Dale, Barton, and Robert Dale hasted forthwþt with þe rebelles to M. Whytes house, to take him, who notwithstanding beyng on horsebacke, mindyng to haue escaped their handes, Dale, Ombler, and the rest of the rebels tooke hym, and Cloptonhis wyues brother, one Sauage a marchaunt of Yorke, and one Bery seruaunt to Sir Walter Mildmay, MarginaliaFoure men cruelly murdered by the rebels in the North. whiche foure without cause or quarell, sauyng to fulfill their seditious Prophecie in some part, and to giue a terror to other Gentlemen, they cruelly murdered after they had carryed them one myle frō Semer towards the Wolde, and there after they had stripped them of their clothes and purses, leaft them naked behynd them in the plaine fieldes for crowes to feede on, vntyl Whites wife, and Sauages wyfe then at Semer caused them to be buryed.

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Long it were and tedious to recite what reuell these Rebelles kept in their raging madnesse, who raunging about the countrey from towne to towne, to enlarge their vngratious and rebellious bande, takyng those with force which were not willing to go, & leauyng in no towne wher they came, any man aboue the age of. xvi. yeares, so encreased this number, Marginalia[illegible text] that in short time they had gathered three thousand to fauour their wicked attemptes, and had like to haue gathered moe, had not the Lordes goodnes through prudent circumspection haue interrupted the course of their furious beginning.

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MarginaliaThe kings free [illegible text] to [illegible text]. For first came the kyngs gratious and free pardon, discharging and pardonyng them, and the rest of the Rebels of all treasons, murders, felonies, and other offences done to his maiestie, before the xxi. of August, an. 2549. Marginalia[illegible text] Whiche pardon although Ombler contemptuously refused, persistyng styll in his wilfull obstinacie, diswadyng also the rest from the humble acceptyng the kynges so louing and liberal pardon, yet notwithstanding with some it dyd good.

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To make shorte, it was not long after this, but Ombler, as he was ridyng from towne to towne, twelve myles from Hūmanby, to charge all the Constables and MarginaliaOmbler captaine of the rebels taken. inhabitauntes where he came, in the kinges name to resort to Hūmanby, by the way he was espied, and by the circumspecte diligence of Iohn Word the yonger, Iames Aslaby, Rafe Thwinge, and Thomas Constable Gentlemen, he was had in chase, and at last by them apprehended, and brought in the night in sure custodye vnto the citie of Yorke, to aunsweare to hys demerites.

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MarginaliaThe names of the rebels taken [illegible text] at Yorke. After whom within short tyme, Thomas Dale, Henry Barton, the first chieftaynes and ryngleaders of the former commotion, with Iohn Dale, Robert Wright, W. Peycocke, Wetherel, & Edm. Buttry, busie sturrers in this sedition, as they trauayled from place to place draw peo- ple to their faction, were likewise apprehended, committed to warde, lawfully conuicted, and lastly executed at Yorke the. xxi. of Septemb. an. 1549. MarginaliaEx actis iudiciarijs registro exceptis & notatis. Ex actis iudicij publici registro exceptis et notatis.

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MarginaliaThe styrring and rising of the French K. against King Edward. To these pestiferous commotions raised vp againste kyng Edwarde by hys owne subiectes in this yeare aforesayde within the Realme, I might also adioyne the busie sturryng and raging of the French kyng, agaynst our yong and innocent Prince, without the Realme. Who hearyng of these tumultes and violent insurrections of the kynges subiectes, in diuers and sundrye quarters of the Realme, supposing to take the time for his most aduauntage, thought likewise for his part not to be vnoccupyed. Who after he had by his ambassadour made open breche with the kyng, immediately after the reuocation of the sayd ambassadour from hence, entendyng to anoy the king, and make his first inuasion against the Iles of Ierseyand Gernesey, thought to haue surprised our ships and the saide Iles with a certayne number of his ships and Galleys. In the which his assault, he was so hotly saluted by the kynges ships and the Island, that by the confession of them that sawe it, and by the report written to the lord Protector, the French men at least lost a thousand men, their ships and Galleys so spoyled, as being forced to returne home, they were not able then to set out againe.

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MarginaliaEx literis D. Protectoris. Furthermore, out of Fraunce credible woorde was brought to the Lord Protectour (whiche yet in letters appeareth) that into one towne in one vessell were brought at least three score Gentlemen to be buryed: and also an inhibition special geuen out by the kyng, not to speake of the successe in that iourney. This was about the beginnyng of August. 1549.

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MarginaliaEx literis D. Clintoni. The like also might be noted of the losses of the sayde French kyng at Bullenbergh, the eight day of August, the same yeare, as by the Lord Clintons letters may well appeare: but for spending of tyme I passe it ouer. What the meanyng of the French king was in these voyages, or how he intended further to proceede, I haue not herein to deale. MarginaliaThe wonderfull protection of the Lord in defending king Edward. This is certaine and euident, that the mighty arme of God mercyfully fought for king Edward his seruaunt, to defend and deliuer hym from so many hard daungers, so daūgerous and sundrye commotions styrred vp in so many quarters within this Realme, and also without the Realme, and all within the compasse of one yeare, and yet the Lorde aboue fighting for his true seruaunt, dispatched them al, as in story here ye haue heard declared, and is no lesse worthy of all posteritie to be noted.

Matter concernyng Edmund Boner Bishop of London, with declaration of the actes and proces entred against hym in king Edwardes tyme. 
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Edmund Bonner

Bishop Edmund Bonner of London was the first to express his dissent from the Royal Visitation of August 1547. Bonner had been translated to London from Hereford in 1540, and had served Henry VIII as a diplomat. He was a committed supporter of the Royal Supremacy, but also an upholder of the conservative Act of Six Articles. When the Royal Commissioners entered his diocese he received them with a protestation that he would observe the Injunctions only 'if they be not contrary and repugnant to God's law and the Statutes and Ordinances of this church…'. This was construed as contumacy, and he was brought before the Council and committed to the Fleet. He protested that his words had been misconstrued, and submitted. For the next two years Bonner conducted himself acceptably in the eyes of the Council, even taking steps to ensure that the First Prayer Book was observed and used when it came into force in June 1549. However, he became increasingly concerned by the spread of radical preaching within his diocese, and by the appearance of extremist pamphlets. Consequently he took no action against Catholic non-conformity, and this worried the Council, particularly given what was happening in the West Country at that time. In August 1549 they sent for Bonner again and required him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross upon certain articles which were prescribed to him.

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

ANd thus muche hytherto hauyng discoursed touchyng the manyfolde troubles and tumultes raysed vp on euerye side against king Edward, by his vnkinde and vnnatural subiectes, and yet notwithstandyng, the gratious goodnesse of the Lorde euer geuyng hym the victorie: nowe let vs returne againe to Boner Bishop of London, where we leaft hym before, that is, in hys owne house, where he was by the Counsaile commaunded to remayne, as is aboue signified, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 1278. pag. 1277. And nowe for so much as we haue to enter into the storie of the said Boner, for the better vnderstanding of the whole order thereof, it shalbe requisite to ryp vp the matter with the circumstaunces and occasions thereof from the first beginnyng of kyng Edwardes tyme. Where is to be vnderstanded, that king Edward in the first yeare of his reagne an. 1547. the first day of September, for the order of his visitation, MarginaliaSitting of the kinges Commissioners in Paules Church. directed out certaine Commissioners, as sir Antony Cooke, sir Iohn Godsaule knightes, Maister Iohn Goosaule, Christopher Neuinson Doctours of the Lawe, and Iohn Madew Doctour of Diuinitie. Who sittyng in Paules Church vpon their Commission the day & yeare aforesaide, there being present at the same tyme Edmund Bishop of London, Iohn Royston, Polidore Virgil, Peter Van, & others of þe said Cathedrall Church, after the sermon made, and the Commission being read, MarginaliaAn oth mynystred to Boner to forsweare the Pope. ministred an othe vnto the said Byshop of London, to renoūce and deny the Bishop of Rome with his vsurped authority, and to sweare obedience vnto the kyng, accordyng to the effect and forme of þe statute made in the. xxxi. yeare of kyng Henry the eight: also that he should present and redresse all and singular such thinges as were needful within the sayd Church to be reformed. MarginaliaBoner requireth to see their Commission. Wherupon the said Bishop humbly and instantly desired them that he might see their Commission, only for this purpose & intent (as he said) that he might the better fulfill & put in execution the thinges, wherin he was charged by

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