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1312 [1311]

K. Edw. 6. Boner depriued. Hys appeale not receaued. Masse bookes called in.

Marginalia1549. his protestations, rescusations, and appellations, should vpō mature consideration thereof, geue their directed answeare vpon the same, whether the appellation of the said Boner were to be deferred vnto, and whether the sentence defined agaynst him, stood by the law sufficient & effectuall, or not. MarginaliaThe sentence of Boners depriuation by the Peeres and learned men of the realme, found to be iust and lawfull. Who eftsoones after diligent discussion, and considerate aduisement had of al and singular the premisses, gaue their resolute answeare, that the pretensed appellation of Edmund Boner aforesaid, was nought and vnreasonable, and in no wise to be deferred vnto, and that the sentence by the Commissioners agaynst him, was rightly and iustly pronounced. And this was the conclusion of Boners whole matter and depriuation for that tyme.

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Thus then leauyng doctor Boner a while in the Marshalsey with his keeper, we wyll proceede (the Lorde permitting) further in the course of our storye, as the order of yeres and tyme requireth. MarginaliaThe first trouble of the Lord Protector was about the moneth of Octob. an. 1549. And although the trouble of the Lord Protector falleth here ioyntly with the depriuation of Doctor Boner: yet because he was shortly againe deliuered out of þe same thorough þe Lordes mighty woorking, I wyll therfore delay the tractation thereof, tyll the tyme of his second trouble, whiche was two yeares after: and so in the meane tyme returnyng againe into our discourse, intend by the Lordes leaue, to collect and continue the matters begon, touching the kinges godly proceedinges for reformation of religiō, in the foresaid yere of our Lord, cōcurring . an. 1549.

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MarginaliaDisputation of Peter Martyr, with Doct. Chedsey in Oxforde. And here first a note would be made of Peter Martyr, & of his learned trauailes, and disputation in the Vniuersitie of Oxford the said present yeare, with doct. Chedsey & other moe, about the matter of the sacrament: which was, that the substance of bread and wyne was not changed in the sacrament, & that the body and bloud of Christe was not carnally and bodily in the bread and wine, but vnited to the same sacramentally.

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MarginaliaEcclesiasticall lawes by Acte of Parlament to be compyled by 32. persons.
Statut. an. 3. Edou. 6.
In like manner some touch or mention here also would be made of the ecclesiastical lawes, for the gathering and compiling wherof. xxxij. persons were assigned by acte of parlament the said present yeare. 1549. But because these be rather matters of tractation, then historicall, I meane (God willing) to deferre the further consideration thereof vnto the end of the history of this kinges dayes, and so to passe forward to other matters in the meane while.

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Bookes of Latine seruice called in and abolished. 
Commentary  *  Close
Ridley's reforms

The campaign against altars followed naturally from the abolition of the mass in the Prayer Book of 1549. One of the standard methods of evasion practiced by conservative clergy was to continue the use of traditional altars for the administration of the communion, where, by speaking the words of the rite sotto voce, they could persuade their congregations (and perhaps themselves) that nothing had changed. Cranmer' s campaign was preluded by a sede vacante visitation of Norwich diocese following the resignation of William Rugge in January 1550. This was conducted by Rowland Tayor and William Wakefield, and one of their principal targets was the survival of 'massing'. Cranmer then took advantage of a similar vacancy in London, where Bonner had been deprived on the 1st October 1549 and Nicholas Ridley was not translated from Rochester until 1st April 1550. Thereafter Ridley took up the campaign with enthusiasm. (See Diarmaid MacCulloch,. Tudor Church Militant, 1999, pp.96-9)

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaEuill disposed people thinking to haue their latin seruice againe after the apprehension of the L. Protectour. IT followeth then in story, that certayne of the vulgare multitude, hearing of the apprehension of the Lord Protector, & supposing the alteration of publicke Seruice into English, and administration of the Sacrament and other rites lately appointed in the Church, had been the acte chiefly or only of the sayd Lord Protectour, began vpon þe same to noyse and brute abroad, that they should now haue theire olde Latine seruice, with holy bread and holy water, & their other like superstitious ceremonyes agayn, MarginaliaThe kinges commaundement to the Byshops. wherupō þe K. wt the body & state of þe priuy Coūsell thē being, directed out his letters of request and strait commaundement to the bishops in their dioces, to cause and warne the Dean, & Prebendaryes of their Cathedrall Churches, all Persons, Vicars, and Curats: with the Churchwardens of euery Parishe within their Dioces, MarginaliaBookes of Latine seruice called in. to bring in & deliuer vp all Antiphoners, Missalles, Grailes, Processionals, Manuals, Legendes, Pies, Portuases, Iournals, and Ordinals after the vse of Sarum, Lincolne, Yorke, Bangor, Herforde, or any other priuate vse, and all other bookes of seruice, the hauiing also and commaundinge all suche as should be found stubborne or disobedyent in this behalfe, to be committed vnto warde.

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And because the kinge moreouer was aduertised that there was a slacknes and a frowardnes among the people, refusing to pay toward the finding of bread and wine for the holy Communion, by reason wherof the Communion in many places was omitted, the Bishops in like maner had geuen in charge to prouide for redresse, therof and to punishe them which should refuse so to doe. MarginaliaCommon bread vsed in the holy Communion. Whereby it may appeare to vs now that no wafer cakes but common breade, was then by the kinges appoyntement ordinaryly receyued and vsed in Churches. This was about the latter end of December. an. 1549.

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Takyng downe of aultars and settyng vp of the table in steede thereof.

Marginalia1550.
Takyng down of Altars.
FVrthermore, in the yeare nexte folowyng. 1550. other letters likewise were sent out for the taking downe of altars in Churches, and setting vp the table in steede of the same, vnto Nicolas Ridley, who beyng Bishop of Roche- ster before, was then made Bishop of London, in Boners place. The copie and contentes of the kinges letters, are these, as foloweth.

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The kinges letters to Nicholas Ridley Bishop of London. &c. 
Commentary  *  Close

The Council letter instructing the removal of Altars is not in the Privy Council Register. It must have been in the Letter Book (now lost) to which Foxe was given privileged access. The order to call in and destroy all Latin service books (1576, 1583) was a proclamation issued on 25 December 1549, and printed in P.L.Hughes and J.F. Larkin, Tudor Royal Proclamations, I, p.485. Hughes and Larkin printed it from Edward Cardwell, Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church (1844), I, p.85. The 'reasons why the Lordes boorde should rather be after the forme of a table…' may be Foxe's own compilation. It does not correspond to any other document found.

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MarginaliaThe kinges letter to Nic. Ridley then B. of London. RIght reuerend father in God, right trusty and welbeloued, we greete you well. And where it is come to our knowledge, that being the altars within the more part of the churches of this realme, already vpon good and godly considerations taken downe, there doth yet remaine altars stāding in diuers other churches, by occasion wherof much variance and cōtention ariseth amongest sundry of our subiectes, whiche if good foresight were not had, might perchaunce engender great hurt and inconuenience: we let you wit, that minding to haue all occasion of contention taken away, whiche many times groweth by those and suche like diuersities, and cōsidering that amongest other thinges belonging to our royall office and cure, we do accompt the greatest to be, to mainteine the cōmon quietof our realme, we haue thought good by the aduice of our Counsaile to require you, and neuertheles especiall to charge and commaund you, for the auoyding of all matters of further contention and strife about the standing or taking away of the said altars, to geue substantial order throughout al your dioces, MarginaliaAltars taken downe and destroyed. that with all diligence all the altars in euery church or chappel, as wel in places exempted, as not exempted within your sayd dioces be taken downe, and in the steede of them a table to be set vp in some conuenient parte of the Chancel within euery such church or chappel, to serue for the ministration of the blessed cōmunion. MarginaliaConsiderations to perswade the people. And to the intēt the same may be done without the offence of such our louing subiecte, as be not yet so wel perswaded in that behalfe as we woulde wish, we send vnto you herewith, certaine cōsideratiōs gathered and collected that make for the purpose the which and such others as you shall thinke meete to be set foorth to perswade the weake to embrace our proceedinges in this part, we pray you cause to be declared to the people by some discrete preachers in suche places as you shal thinke meete, before the taking downe of the saide altars: so as both the weake consciences of other may be instructed and satisfied as much as may be, and this our pleasure the more quietly executed. For the better doing whereof, we require you to open the foresaide considerations in that our Cathedral church in your own person, if you conueniently may, or otherwise by your Chancelour, or some other graue preacher, both there, & in suche other market townes and most notable places of your dioces, as you may thinke most requisite. Geuen vnder our Signet, at our Pallace of westminster, the. 24. day of Nouember, the fourth yeare of our raigne.

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Edward Somerset. William North.
Thomas Cranmer. Edward Clinton
William Wiltsher. H. Wentworth.
Iohn Warwike. Thomas Ely.
Iohn Bedford.

Reasons why the Lordes boorde shoulde rather be after the forme of a table, then of an altar.
The first reason.

MarginaliaConsiderations and reasons why the table were more conuenient in the Church then the Altar. FIrst, the forme of a table shal more moue the simple from the superstitious opinions of the Popishe Masse, vnto þe right vse of þe Lordes supper. For the vse of an aultar is to make sacrifice vpon it: the vse of a table is to serue for men to eate vpon. Nowe when we come vnto the Lordes boorde, what do we come for? To sacrifice Christ againe, and to crucifie hym agayne? or to feede vppon hym that was once onely crucified, and offered vp for vs? If we come to feede vppon hym, spiritually to eate his bodye, and spiritually to drinke his bloud, which is the true vse of the Lordes supper, then no man can deny, but the fourme of a table is more meete for the Lordes boord, then the forme of an aultar.

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The second reason.

MarginaliaThe second reason. Item, where as it is sayd, the booke of common prayer maketh mention of an aultar, wherefore it is not lawfull to abolishe that which that booke aloweth: to this is thus answeared: MarginaliaAunswere to certayne cauillers which take holde of the terme of Altar in the kinges booke. The booke of common prayer calleth the thing whereupon the Lordes supper is ministred, indifferently a Table, an Aultar, or the Lordes boorde, without prescription of any forme thereof, eyther of a Table, or of an Aultar. So that whether the Lordes boorde haue the forme of an Aultar, or of a table, the booke of common prayer cal-

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leth
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