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1336 [1335]

K. Ed. 6. The godly confession of Doct. Redman at his death.

MarginaliaAn. 1551. MarginaliaA grosse opinion to thinke that Christ is corporally eaten in the sacrament. 8 Item, that we receyue not Christes body Corporaliter, id est, crassè: corporally, þt is, to say, grosly, like other meats, and lyke as Capernaites 

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'Capernaite' is a prejorative term for anyone who held an overly-carnal understanding of Christ's Real Presence in the sacramental bread and wine. The term is based on John 6: 52.

did vnderstand it.

Witnesses, Ioh. Yong, Alexander Nowell, Richard. Bur-
ton, Edw. Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Ioh. Wright.

MarginaliaChrist spiritually & truely eaten in the sacrament. 9 Item, that we receiue Christes body sic spiritualiter vt tamen verè: so spiritually, that neuerthelesse truly.

Witnesses Ioh. Yong, Alexander Nowell. Rich. Burton
Edw. Cratford, Ellis Lomas, Ioh. Wright.

MarginaliaTransubstantiation hath no proufe in the old doctors. 10 Item, as touchyng transubstantiation, that there is not in any of the old doctours any good grounde or sure proofe therof, or any mention of it, as farre as euer he coulde perceyue, neither that he seeth what can be aunswered to the obiections made agaynst it.

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Witnesses Ioh. Yong, Rich. Burton, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaChrist can neither be vsed vp nor downe. 11 Item, beyng asked of Maister Wilkes what that was which was lifted vp betwene the priestes handes, he answered: he thought that Christ coulde neyther be lifted vp nor downe. 

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This sounds like a rejection of the Real Presence, but it is not necessarily so. Thomas Aquinas had maintained much the same thing, arguing that Christ was only present in the Sacrament under the species of bread and wine, but his actual location was in heaven.

Witnesses Ioh. Yong, Rich. Burton, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaPriestes mariage lawfull by Gods worde. 12 Item, that Priestes may by the lawe of God marry wyues. 

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Now this, if said, is truly evangelical. Note that JohnYoung and Richard Wilkes, both theological conservatives, did not subscribe to the accuracy of this article.

WitnessesAlexander Nowell, Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaFayth onely iustifieth, a true doctrine. 13 That this proposition: Sola fides iustificat, so that fides signifie Veram, viuam, & acquiescentem in Christo fidem, id est amplexum Christi: that is to say, that onely fayth doth iustifie, MarginaliaTrue faith defined. so that fayth do signifie a true, a liuely, and a faith restyng in Christ, & embracing Christ: is a true, godly, swete and comfortable doctrine, so that it be so taught, that þe people take none occasion of carnall liberty therof. 

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This is less radical than it sounds. No one, Catholic and Protestant, denied that faith alone saved, but were good works inseparable from faith? The ambiguity here comes from the clause that the faith must conform with true doctrine. A Catholic (like John Young) would maintain that this meant acceptance of the teachings of the Church.

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Witnesses Ioh. Youg, Alexander Nowell, Kich. Burton
Ioh. Wright, Edw. Cratford, Rich. Elithorne,
Ellis Lomas.

MarginaliaWorkes be not merite to saluation. 14 Item, that our workes cannot deserue the kyngdome of God, and lyfe euerlastyng.

Witnesses Ioh. Yong, Alexander Nowell, Rich. Burton,
Ellis Lomas, Edw. Cratford, Rich. Elithorne,
Ioh. Wright.

15 Item, that the sayd D. Redman, at such tymes as we the foredsayd persons, which haue subscribed, heard his communication concernyng the foresayd pointes of religiō was of quiet mynd and of perfite remembraunce, as farre as we were able to iudge.

Witnesses Ioh. Yong, Alexander Nowel, Rich. Burton,
Ellis Lomas, Edw. Cratford, Rich. Elithorne,
Ioh. Wright.

¶ Also M. Yong of himself doth declare further touching the former Articles in this wyse. 

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These are John Young's own comments on Redman's points; they may have been added at Young's insistence, in return for his subscribing to Nowell's list of Redman's points.

¶ To the v. Article.

MarginaliaDoct. Yonges testimony of Doct. Redmans doctrine. I N Primis, that D. Redman sayd more, where as S. Augustine sayd: Quòd Iudas idem accepit quod Petrus, MarginaliaIudas receaued the same that Peter did, as Simon Magus receiued the same baptisme as Peter dyd. that Iudas receiued the same that Peter did, he said that he vnderstode that of the Sacramēt, and that after þe same phrase a man might say: Quòd Simon Magus idem Baptisma recepit quod Apostoli, that Simon Magus receyued the same Baptisme that the Apostles did, when he did receiue onely the outward Sacrament to hys condemnation: for he sayd that he thought Christ would not vouchsafe to geue his holy flesh to an vngodly man. And this he sayd was alwayes his mynde, though he knew that other men dyd otherwyse thinke.

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¶ To the vj. Article.

MarginaliaCarying about of the sacrament. Item, he sayd, he neuer lyked the cariage 

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I.e., carrying.

about of the Sacrament, and preached agaynst it about 16. yeares since in Cambridge.

¶ To the x. Article.

MarginaliaTrāsubstātiatiō. Item, when he was demaunded of transubstantiation, he sayd, that he had trauayled about it, and thinkyng that the doubtes which he perceyued did ryse theron shoulde be made playne by the scholemen, did read their bookes, and that after he had read them the opinion of transubstantiation, was euery day Magis and magis languida, that is, weaker & weaker, and that there was no such transubstantiation as they made, adding therto that the whole schole did not know what was ment by consecration, which he sayde was the whole action of the holy Communion.

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¶ To the xiij. Article.

MarginaliaIustification by fayth onely. Item, he sayd that he did repent him that he had so much striued against Iustification by onely fayth.

¶ To the. xiiij. Article.

MarginaliaWorkes merite not eternall life. Item, that workes had their crowne and rewarde, but that they did not deserue eternall lyfe and the kingdome of god, no not the workes of grace: Nam donum dei vita æterna. For euerlasting life is the gift of God.

Although these testimonies aboue alledged may suffice for a declaration touchyng the honest lyfe, sounde doctrine, and sincere Iudgement of Doctour Redman: yet (velut ex abundanti) I thought not to cut of in this place, the testimoniall letter or Epistle of D. Yong written to M. Cheke specially concernyng the premisses. Which Epistle of Doct. Yong, as I receiued it written by his owne hand in the latine tongue, the copy which he himselfe hath not, nor cā deny to be his owne, & is extant to be read in the former booke of Actes and Monumentes, so I haue here exhibited the same faythfully translated into the English tongue, the tenour wherof here foloweth.

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The letter of M. Yong written to M. Cheke concerning Doct. Redman, translated out of Latine into Englishe. 
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This letter, which Foxe claimed was a translation of the autograph, almost certainly passed from Cheke to Cecil, and thence to Foxe. But Cecil probably obtained this letter after the report of Redman's answers was printed or it would have been included. Young's version of what Redman said is basically consistent with the versions given by Wilkes and Nowell, but in his version Redman is less doubtful about the Real Presence in the Sacrament. In Young's version, Redman also accepts Purgatory, while in the third of Nowell's points, Redman denies its existence.

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MarginaliaM. Yonges letter to M. Cheke touching Doct Redman. A Lthough right worshipfull, I am stricken into no litle dampe and dolour of mynde for the vnripe (but that it otherwise pleased almighty God) and lamentable death of that most blessed & learned man Doct. Redman, in somuch that all astonied with weeping and lamenting, I can not tell what to doe or thinke: yet neuerthelesse (perceyuing it to be your worships will and pleasure, that so I shoulde do) I gladly call my wittes together, and purpose by gods grace, here in these my letters, sincerely and truely to open and declare what I heard that worthy learned man speake and confesse at the houre of his death as touchyng the controuersies of religion, wherwith the spouse of Christ is in these our dayes most miserably troubled and tormented.

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Then Doct. Redman, being continually by the space of xx. yeares or somewhat more exercised in the reading of the holy scripture, with such industry, labour, modesty, magnanimitie, and prayers to almighty God tryed and wayed the controuersies of religiō, that in all hys doyngs, as he would not seme to approue that was either false or superstitious, so he would neuer improue that he thought to stand wyth the true worshyp of God. And albeit in certayne poyntes and Articles of his fayth, he seemed to diuerse which were altogether ignoraunt of that his singular grauitie, eyther for softnes, feare, or lacke of stomacke to chaunge his mynde and beliefe: yet they, to whom his former lyfe and conuersation by familiar acquaintaunce with hym was throughly knowen, wyth them also which were present at his departure, may easely perceaue and vnderstand, how in graue & weightie matters, not rashely and vnaduisedly, but wyth constant iudgement and vnfayned conscience he descended into that maner of beliefe which at the tyme of hys goyng out of thys world, he openly professed.

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I gyue your wisdome to vnderstand, that when death drew neare, he casting away all hope of recouery, mynded & talked of no other thing (as we which were present heard) but of heauen and heauenly matters, of the latter day, of our Sauiour Iesus Christ, with whom most feruently he desired to be: whose incredible loue towardes vs miserable sinners, most worthely and not without teares he often tymes vsed to extoll and speake of: MarginaliaExhortation of D. Redmā to them that were about hym. and vs which were there present, he earnestly moued and exhorted to prepare our selues to Christ, to loue one an other, and to beware of this most wretched and corrupt world. And besides that he promysed (calling God to witnes therunto, to whom he trusted shortly to come) if any would demaunde any question, that he would aūswere hym what he thought in his iudgement to be the truth. At what time there were present M. Alexander Nowel, MarginaliaM. Alexander Nowell now Deane of Paules. a man earnestly bent to the true worshipping of God, and one that had alway singularly well loued the sayd M. Redman: to whom he spake on this wise:

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Your excellent learning and puritie of lyfe I haue euer both highly fauoured, and had in admiration: and for no other cause (God be my iudge) I do aske these thynges of you which I shall propound, but that I myght learne and know of you what is your opinion & beliefe touching these troublous controuersies which are in these our dayes: and I shall receaue and approue your wordes as oracles sent from heauen.

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To whom when Doct. Redman had geuen leaue to demaund what he would, and had promised that he woulde faithfully and sincerely aunswere (all affection set aside) what he thought to be þe truth, M. Nowell sayd: I would (quoth he) rightly gladly, but that I feare by my talke and communication I shalbe vnto you, so feble and now almost spent, a trouble and griefe. Thē sayd Doct. Redman replying: what shall I spare my carkas (quoth he) which hath so short a tyme here to remayne? Go to, go to (sayd he) propound what you will. Then M. Nowel put forth certayne questions in order, which I will here declare: whereunto the said Doctor Redman seuerally aunswered, as hereafter followeth.

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The first question that he asked of hym was, what he thought of the Byshop of Rome. Vnto whom D. Redmā aūswered that the Sea of Rome in these our latter dayes

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