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1351 [1350]

K. Edw. 6. Determination of B. Ridley at Cambridge against Transubstantiation.

MarginaliaAnno. 1552. The booke of Theodoret in Greeke was now lately Printed at Rome, which if it had not bene his, it should not haue bene set forth there, specially seyng it is directly against trāsubstantiation: MarginaliaTheodoretus. For he sayth playnely that bread still remayneth after the sanctification.

Gelasius also is very playne in this māner. The Sacramēt (sayth he) whiche we receyue of the body and bloud of Christ, is a diuine matter: by reason whereof we are made partakers by the same of the diuine nature, and yet it ceaseth not still to be the substaunce of bread and wyne. And certes, the representatiō and similitude of the body & bloud of Christ be celebrated in the action of the misteries. &c. MarginaliaGelasius in [illegible text].

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After this he recited certayne places out of Augustine and Cirill, which were not noted.

Isichius also confesseth that it is bread. MarginaliaIsych. Lib. cap. 8.

Also the iudgement of Bertram in this matter is very playne & manifest. And thus much for the second ground. MarginaliaBertrame.

The thyrd ground.

MarginaliaThe thyrd ground. The thyrd grounde is the nature of the Sacrament, whiche consisteth in three thynges, that is, vnitie, nutrition, and conuersion.

MarginaliaCiprian.
Three thinges in a sacrament.
1. Vnitie.
2. Nutrition.
3. Conuersion.
As touching vnitie, Cyprian thus wryteth: Euen as of many graynes is made one bread, so are we one misticall body of Christ. Wherfore bread must needes still remayne, or els we destroy the nature of a Sacrament.

Also they that take away nutrition, which commeth by bread, do take away lykewise the nature of the Sacrament. For as the body of Christ nourisheth the soule, euen so doth bread lykewise nourish the body of man.

Therfore, they that take away the graynes or the vnion of the graynes in the bread, and denye the nutrition or substaunce therof, in my iudgement are Sacramentaries: for they take away the similitude betwene the bread and the body of Christ. For they which affirme transubstantiation are in deede right Sacramentaries and Capernites.

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MarginaliaConuersion. As touchyng conuersion (þt lyke as the bread which we receyue, is turned into our substaunce, so are we turned into Christes body) Rabanus and Chrisostome are witnesses sufficient.

The fourth ground.

Marginalia4. ground.
The reall presence in the Sacrament standeth not with the truth of Christes humanitie.
They whiche say that Christ is carnally present in the Eucharist, do take from hym the veritie of mans nature. Eutiches graūted the diuine nature in Christ, but his humane nature he denyed: So they that defend transubstantiation ascribe that to the humane nature, which onely belongeth to the diuine nature.

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The fift grounde.

The fift grounde is the certayne perswation of this Article of the fayth: He ascended into heauen, and sitteth on the right hand. &c.

Augustine sayth: The Lord is aboue euen to the end of the world: but yet the veritie of the Lord is here also. For his body wherin he rose againe, must needes be in one place but his veritie is spread abroad euery where. MarginaliaAugust. super Ioan. tract. 30.

Also in an other place he sayth: Let the godly receiue also that Sacrament, but let them not be carefull MarginaliaTract. 50.

(speaking there of the presence of the body.) For as touchyng his maiestie, his prouidence, his inuisible and vnspeakeable grace, these woordes are fulfilled which he spake: I am with you vnto the end of the world. MarginaliaMath. 28. But accordyng to the flesh which he tooke vpon him: accordyng to that which was borne of the Vyrgine: was apprehended of the Iewes: was fastened to a tree: taken downe agayne from the crosse: lapped in lynnen clothes: was buryed and rose agayne, and appeared after his resurrectiō, so you shall not haue me alwayes with you. And why? because that as concernyng his fleshe he was conuersant with his Disciples fourty dayes, and they accompanying him, seyng him, but not followyng hym, he went vp into heauen, and is not here, for he sitteth at the right hād of his Father: and yet he is here, because he is not departed hence as concernyng the presence of his diuine maiestie.

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Marke and consider well what S. Augustine sayth: He is ascended into heauē, and is not here, sayth he. Beleue not thē therfore which say that he is yet here stil in þe earth.

Moreouer: Doubt not (sayth the same Augustine) but that Iesus Christ, as concernyng the nature of his manhode is there from whence he shall come. And remember well and beleue the profession of a Christian man: that he rose frō death, ascended into heauen, and sitteth at the right hād of his father, and from that place, and none other (not from the aulters) shall he come to iudge the quicke and the dead, and he shall come, as the Angell sayd, as he was sene go in to heauen: that is to say, in the same forme [illegible text] vnto the which he gaue immortality, [illegible text] ture. After this forme (meaning his humane [illegible text] may not thinke that he is euery where. Marginalia[illegible text]

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And in the same epistle he sayth: Take away from the bodies the limitation of places and they shall [illegible text] and because they are no Marginalia[illegible text]

Vigilius sayth: If the worde and the flesh be both of one nature, seyng that the word is euery where, why then is not the flesh also euery where? For when it was in earth, then verely it was not in heauen: and now whē it is in heauen, it is not surely in earth. And it is so certayne that it is not in earth that as concerning the same we looke for hym from heauen, whom as concerning the worde we beleue to be wyth vs in earth. Marginalia[illegible text]

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Also the same Vigilius sayth: Which thinges seyng they be so, the course of the scripture must be searched of vs, and many testimonies must be gathered to shew plainly what a wickednes and sacrilege it is to referre those thynges to the property of the diuine nature, which do onely belong to the nature of the flesh: and contrarywise, to apply those thyngs vnto the nature of the flesh, which doe properly belong to the diuine nature. Which thyng the transubstantiatours do, whylest they affirme Christes body not to be conteyned in any one place, and ascribe that to his humanity, which properly belongeth to hys diuiniie: as they do which will haue Christes body to be in no one certayne place limited. MarginaliaThe thyrd Conclusion.

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Now in the latter conclusion cōcerning the sacrifice, because it dependeth vpon the first, I will in few wordes declare what I thinke. For if we did once agree in that, the whole controuersie in the other would soone be at an ende. Two thinges there be which do perswade me that this cōclusion is true: that is, certayne places of the scripture, and also certaine testimonies of þe fathers. S. Paule saith. Heb. 9. MarginaliaHeb. 9.
Sacrifice of Christes body.
Christ beinge come an high Priest of good thinges to come by a greater and more perfect taber nacle not made with handes, that is, not of this buyldynge, neyther by the bloud of Goates and Calues, but by his owne bloude, entred once into the holy place, and obtayned for vs eternall redemption. &c. and now in the ende of the world he hath appeared once to put away sinne by the sacrifice of hymselfe.

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And agayne: Christ was once offered to take away the sinnes of many.

Moreouer he sayth: With one offering hath he made perfect for euer those that are sanctified. MarginaliaHeb. 10.

MarginaliaChrist neuer offered but once. These scriptures do perswade me to beleue that there is no other oblation of Christ (albeit I am not ignoraunt that there are many sacrifices) but that whych was once made vpon the crosse.

Marginalia[illegible text] The testimonies of the auncient Fathers which confirme the same, are out of Augustine ad Bonifac. Epist. [illegible text] Againe in his booke of 43. Questions in the 61. question: Also in his 20. booke agaynst Faustus the Maniche cap. 21. And in the same booke agaynst the said Faustus cap. [illegible text] he writeth: Now the Christians keepe a memoriall of the sacrifice paste, with a holy oblation and participation of the body and bloud of Christ.

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Marginalia[illegible text] Fulgentius in his booke De Fide, calleth the same oblatiō a commemoration. And these thinges are sufficient for this time for a scholasticall determination of these matters.

Disputations of Martin Bucer.

OVer & beside these disputations aboue mentioned, other disputations also were holdē at Cambridge shortly after by Martin Bucer vpon these conclusions folowing.

Conclusions to be disputed. 
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The disputations in which Martin Bucer, a leading Continental theologian in exile in England, took part. By the end of 1549 he was made Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge.

MarginaliaConclusions disputed at Cambrige by Martyn Bucer.


1. The Canonical bookes of holy Scripture alone do suffi-
ciently teach the regenerated all things necessarely be-
longing vnto saluation.

2. There is no Church in earth which erreth not as well
in fayth as in maners.

3. We are so iustified freely of God, that before our iustifi-
cation it is sinne, and prouoketh Gods wrath against vs,
whatsoeuer good worke we seeme to doe. Then being
iustified we do good workes.
 

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In principle Catholics would not disagree with the first and third conclusions or points to be disputed, though they differ vehemently with Bucer and other Protestants on how these statements should be understood or interpreted. The second conclusion - that the Church could be wrong in what it teaches regarding the Faith - would be rejected as a denial of Christ's promise to remain with the Church always. That members, including leading members of the Church, could be wicked or act contrary to Christian morals ('manners') is indisputable.

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Dialogue between Custom and Truth

Dialogues were used in classical times as a means of education through a format of imagined conversation between individuals or allegorical figures, rather than that of rote memorisation. Those of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato are the most famous. This format continued to be used throughout the medieval period, such as by the twelfth-century Ailred of Rievaulx in his Spiritual Friendship. Dialogues became an important means of humanist education in the early-modern period, following the example of classical antiquity. Those teaching or writing on philosophy and theology in particular found this method sympathetic in their attempts to inculcate the many complex ideas in these fields of knowledge. It soon became employed for elucidating religious controversy in the Reformation. Thomas More's Dialogue Concerning Heresies holds pride of place among the most-noteworthy in English for what a dialogue could offer the reader: learning in the form of intelligent, witty and engaging discussion or even argument. Of course not all dialogues reached such heights. Many were pedantic or could fall into confessional diatribes. Foxe presents an anonymous dialogue between the allegorical characters of 'Verity' and 'Custom': the Protestant understanding of true religion and a caricature of the Catholic understanding of Church tradition.

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William Wizeman, SJCorpus Christi ChurchNew York CityUSA

MarginaliaDisputers agaynst M. Bucer at Cambrige. In these iij. propositions against Bucer disputed M. Sedgewycke, Yonge, and Pearne 
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The disputants with Martin Bucer, the great reforming theologian who come to Cambridge at the invitation of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and as an exile from the religious conflicts going on in the Empire, were all distinguished Cambridge fellows of Catholic belief. Thomas Sedgwick, Fellow of Trinity College, was the leader in these August 1550 disputations regarding the Eucharist. Under Mary I he became Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity until 1558, when he became Regius Professor of Divinity. He replaced John Young, another Trinity Fellow, in that post. Andrew Perne had been and would again be Vice-Chancellor of the University. Perne and Sedgwick were involved in the exhumation and burning of Bucer's remains in Cambridge as an unrepentant heretic. Sedgwick and Young became recusants under Elizabeth I. Perne embraced the Elizabethan Protestant Settlement of 1559.

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. Which disputations because they are long here to be recited, I minde (the Lord willyng) to reserue them to some other conuenient place. In the meane season because great controuersie hath bene and is yet amongest the learned, and much effusion of Christen bloud about the wordes and meaning of the Sacrament, to the entent that the veritie therof more openly may be explaned, and all doubtful scruples discussed, it shall not be out

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