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1358 [1357]

K. Edw. 6. A Dialogue. The death of King Edward. Hys Epistles.

MarginaliaAn. 1552. pyng and adoration, and with so much as any man could deuise. 

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The traditions of reservation of the Sacrament, the use of incense, kneeling and adoration of the Host both during and outside Mass were ancient traditions of the Church long before the institution of the Feast of Corpus Christi and votive masses (masses which gave particular honor to an aspect of Catholic devotion through the collects, scripture readings and hymns used).

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For they thought they could not do to much to hym after that the Byshoppe of Rome had allowed hym for a God. But not fully, 200. yeare before that tyme, when this doctrine first began to budde, and yet notwithstandyng had not so preuayled but that a greate number of learned and good men could know the Sacrament to be a Sacrament, and not hymselfe: MarginaliaCarolus Magnus. Charles the great kyng of Fraunce, and Emperour of Rome demaunded of MarginaliaBertramus. a greatelearned man whose name was Bertramus, what hee thought by that straunge kynde of callyng downe Christ from heauen, and turnyng a litle gobbet of bread into his naturall body. To whom Bertrame made aūswere in this wise: Dicimus quòd multa differentia separantur corpus in quo passus est Christus & sanguis quem in cruce pendens fudit, & hoc corpus quod in mysterio passionis Christi quotidie a fidelibus celebratur. Etenim hoc corpus pignus & species est, illud autem ipsa veritas. Apparet ergo quod tem multa differentia separentur, quantum est inter pignus & eam rem pro qua pignus traditur, & quantum inter imaginem & rem eam cuius imago est, & quantum inter speciem & veritatem. This we say, that there is a great difference and separation betwixt the body in the whiche Christ suffered and the bloud whiche he shed vpon the Crosse, and this body whiche euery day is celebrated in the mystery of the Passion of Christ. For this body is a pledge and a similitude, but the other is the very truth it selfe. Ergo, it appeareth that these two are separated a sunder by no lesse difference then is betwene a pledge and the thyng whereof the pledge is geuen, or then is betwene an Image of a thyng and the thyng it selfe whereof the Image is, or then is betwene the forme of a thyng and the veritie it selfe. MarginaliaBertramus. Ioan. Scotus. Druthmarus. This wrote Betramus, Druthmarus and many other, and yet were neuer in all their tyme once reproued of heresie. This wrote Ioannes Scotus also, in whose lyfe tyme men had not eyes to espye his heresies. MarginaliaBertramus condemned for an hereticke 200. yeares after hys death. But about. 200. yeare after his death, he was iudged and condemned for an hereticke, and his bookes burned in a Councell holden at Vercellæ in Lombardy in the yeare of our Lord God. 1015. Since which tyme euen vntill this day although Idolatry had great increase, yet there neuer wanted some good men whiche boldly would professe and set foorth the truth, although they were well assured that their worldly reward should be spyte, malice, imprisonyng, sword, fire and all kyndes of tormentes. Thus so shortly and in so fewe wordes as I could, I haue declared to you what Christ ment by these woordes: This is my body, what the Apostles thought therein, and in what sorte they deliuered them to their successours, in what sense and meanyng the holy fathers and old writers, and the vniuersall and Catholicke Church 
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Protestants attempted to claim the title of 'Universal' or 'Catholic', but Roman Catholics would respond that Protestant teachings could not be found in much of Christendom, and that they virulently disagreed amongst themselves about such fundamental doctrines as Christ's presence in the Eucharist.

hath euermore taken them.

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The ende and deceasse of kyng Edward the sixt.

MarginaliaThe decease of kyng Edward. 6.
An. 1553.
THus hauing discoursed thynges done and past vnder the raigne of kyng Edward, such as seemed not vnfruitefull to be knowen, we will now draw to the ende and death of this blessed kyng, our yong Iosais. Who about a yeare and a halfe after the death of the Duke of Somerset his Vncle, in the yeare of our Lord. 1553. entryng into the. xvij. yeare of his age, and the. vij. yeare of his reigne in the moneth of Iune, was taken from vs, for our sinnes no doubte. Whom if it had so pleased the good will of the Lord to haue spared with longer lyfe, not vnlyke it was by all coniectures probably to bee esteemed by those his toward and blessed begynnyngs, but proceedyng so as he began he would haue reformed such a common wealth here in the Realme of England, as by good cause it might haue bene sayd of him, that was sayd in the old tyme of the noble Emperour Augustus in reformyng and aduaūsing the Empire of Rome: quam quum ille lateritiam (vt aiebat) accepit, marmoream reliquit 

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Death of Edward VI

Suetonius, De vita Caesarum, 2.28.

. MarginaliaEx Suetonio. Whiche Empire hee receiued (he sayd) of brickle slate, but hee left it of fine Marble. But the condition of this Realme and the customable behauiour of Englishe people (whose propertie is commonly to abuse þe lyght of the Gospell when it is offered) deserued no such benefite of so blessed a reformation, but rather a contrary plague of deformation, such as happened after his raigne, as ye shall heare (the Lord graūting) in the next Queenes dayes that followed.

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Thus then this godly and vertuous Impe 

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I.e., 'scion' or royal heir.

, in the tyme and moneth aboue mentioned was cut from vs, of whose worthy lyfe and vertues haue bene partly afore declared. Neuerthelesse, to haue some monumēt of him remayning to testifie of þe good nature & gentle disposition of that Prince, we will adde here for a remembraunce, this litle Epistle of his own hand writyng to the Archbyshop of Canterbury his Godfather as foloweth.

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¶ An Epistle of yong Prince Edward to the Archb. of Canterbury his Godfather.

MarginaliaPrince Edward when he wrote thys Epistle semeth to be very younge, not aboue vij. yeares of age lying then at Antile. I Mpertio te plurima salute colendissime Præsul, & charissime Susceptor. Quia abes longè a me, vellē libenter audire te esse incolumem. Precor autem vt viuas diu, & promoueas verbum Dei. Vale. Antilæ, decimo octauo Iunij.

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Tuus in Christo filius

Edwardus Princeps
 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 350, fn 2: 'Prince Edward, when he wrote this epistle, seemed to be very young, not above seven years of age, lying then at Ampthill'.

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¶ An other Epistle of the yonuge Prince Edward, to the Archb. hys Godfather.

MarginaliaAn other Epistle of Prince Edward to hys godfather. E T si puer sum colendissime Susceptor, nō tamē immemorsum vel officij ergate mei, vel humanitatis tuæ quam indies mihi exhibere studes. Non exciderunt mihi humanissima tuæ littere pridie diui Petri ad me datæ. Quibus ante hac respondere nolui, non quòd illas neglexerim, aut nō meminerim, sed vt illarum diuturna mediatione fruerer, fideliq̀ memoria reponerem, atq; demū bene ruminatis pro mea virili responderem. Proinde affectum erga me tuū verè paternum, quam in illis expressisti, amplector & veneror, optoq; vt multos viuas annos, tuoq̀ pio ac salubri consilio pergas esse mihi venerandus pater. Nam pietatem ante omnia mihi amplectendam & exosculandam esse duco, quoniam diuus Paulus dicti: Pietas ad omnia vtilis est 

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1 Tim. 4:8.

. Marginalia1. Tit. 4 
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I.e., 1 Tim. 4.

.
Optime valeat tua paternitas in plurimos annos. Hartefordiœ tertio decimo Ianuarij.

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Tui studiosissimus EDOVAR-
DVS Princeps
.

The aunswere of the Archbishop to Prince Edwardes Epistle.

MarginaliaAlludit ad verba Terentij in Comœrdia.
The aunswere of Thomas Cranmer Archbyshop of Cant. to the Epistle of Prince Edward.
N On magis poterit ipsa me seruare salus (fili in Christo charissime) quā salus tua 

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An allusion to Terence's Adelphi 4.7, 44.

. Mea vita non dicenda est vita absq; tua et salute & valitudine. Quapropter cū te incolumem ac saluum intelligo, vitā etiam mihi integrā esse & incolumem sentio. Neq; certè absentia mea tam est iniocunda tibi quàm sunt lirteræ tuæ periocundæ mihi. Quæ arguunt tibi iuxta adesse & ingeniū dignū tanto principe, & præceptorē dignum tāto ingenio. Ex quibus tuis litteris te sic litteras video colere, vt interim doctrinæ celestis tua nequaqum minima sit cura: quæ cuicunq; sit curæ, non potest illū quæuis cura frangere. Perge igitur qua via incœpisti Princeps illustrissime, & Spartā quam nactus es hanc orna, vt quam ego per literas video in te virtutis lucem, eadem olim illuminet vniuersam tuam Angliam. Nō scribam prolixius, tum quidē vt me intelligas bteuitate nōnihil affici, tum etiā quod credam te ætate quidē adhuc paruulū paruo gaudere, et similē simili: tū etiā præterea no impolita mea oratio in causa sit, quò generosa illa tua indoles barbariæ vitiū cōtrahat.

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¶ The report of the Princes Scholemaister in commendation of his towardnes to the Archb.

MarginaliaThis letter seemeth to be written by D. Coxe 

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Richard Cox must have discharged a supervisory role in the education of the prince as Edward grew older, because this eminent humanistic scholar received appointment first as dean of Christ Church (1546) and then as chancellor of the University of Oxford (1548). Loach, Edward VI, pp. 11-12.

. R Ight honorable and my singular good Lord, after my most harty commendations: the oportunitie of this messenger forceth me to write at this tyme, hauing litle matter but onely to signifie vnto your grace, that my Lords grace your Godsonse is mery and in health, and of such towardnes in learnyng, godlynesse, gentlenes and all honest qualities, that both you and I & all this realme ought to thinke him and take him for a singular gifte sent of God, an Impe worthy of such a father: for whom we are bound sine intermissione 
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'without intermission'.

to render to God most hartie thankes, with most humble request of his long and prosperous continuance. He hath learned almost foure bookes of Cato to construe, to parse, and to say without booke 
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Cox refers King Edward's mastery of moralistic verses in the four books of Disticha Catonis. It was a set text for younger schoolboys, who then continued their study of Latin with Cato's De officiis and De copia, in addition to Erasmus's edition of Cato's works.

. And of his owne courage nowe in the latter booke hee will needes haue at one tyme. xiiij. verses whiche he konneth 
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'knows'.

pleasauntly and perfectly, besides thynges of the Bible 
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King Edward presumably studied the Bible in Latin and possibly Greek.

, Sattellitium Viuis 
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Satellitium animi ('Escort of the Soul'), a collection of maxims gathered by Juan Luis Vives for the instruction of Princess Mary, whom he tutored and to whom he dedicated this book.

, Æsops Fables 
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The Latin text of Fabulas Aesopi was standard reading for schoolboys.

, and Latin makyng 
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Versification in Latin.

, wherof he hath sent your Grace a litle tast. Dominus Iesus te diutissimè seruet.

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MarginaliaThe order and tyme of the kinges departure. Now to returne agayne from whence we haue digressed, which is to signifie some part of the order and maner of his godly departyng: as the tyme approched when it pleased almyghty God to call this young kyng from vs, whiche was the. vj. day of Iuly, the yeare aboue sayd, about three houres before his death, this Godly child, his eyes beyng closed, speaking to him selfe and thinking none to haue heard him, made this prayer as foloweth.

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The prayer of kyng Edward before his death.

MarginaliaThe kinges prayer at his death. L ORD GOD, deliuer me out of this miserable and wretched life, and take me among thy chosen: how be

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