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1383 [1358]

Q. Mary. Disputation appointed at Oxforde touching the Sacrament.

MarginaliaAnno. 1550. Aprill. lyuely voyce of the lord, accordyng as the Lord sayd to Peter: Thou art Peter. &c. And in an other place he entreateth. Tu est cephas, id est, caput. i. Thou art Cephas, that is to say, the head.

Tush, it was not counted an Article (quoth M. Secretary) of our fayth.

Yes, sayd I, if ye cal that an Article of our fayth, which is to be beleued vnder payne of damnation. For he sayeth: Omninò definimus, declaramus, pronuntiamus, omnem creaturam subesse Romano pontifici, de necessitate salutis. i.  

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The English translations of passages from patristic fathers and from the Vulgate, which appear throughout this dialogue, were introduced in the 1570 edition.

We do absolutely determine, declare, and pronounce, that euery creature is subiect to the obedience of the bishop of Rome vpon necessitie of saluation.

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And here when we spake of lawes and decrees M. Roger Chomley thought himself much wronged, that he could not be suffred to speake, the rest were so redy to interrupte hym: and then he vp and told a long tale what lawes were of kings of England made against the bishop of Rome, and was vehement to tell how they alway of the Clergy did flie to him. And here because he seemed to speak of many things beside our purpose, wherof we spake before he was answered of hys owne fellowes, and I let them talke.

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Finally, we departed in peace, and Maister Secretary promised in the ende, that of their talke there should come to me no harme. And after I had made my mone for lacke of my bookes, he sayd they were all once geuen hym: MarginaliaB. Ridleys bookes geuen away.but sith I know (sayd he) who hath them now, write me the names of suche as ye woulde haue, and I wyll speake for you the best I can.

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Vpon the Articles aboue mencioned, and Inquisition made vpon the same, diuers Ministers were diuorced from their wyues. MarginaliaMinisters diuorced from their wiues.Amongest whom was one Iohn Draper, and Ioane Golde his wyfe, in the Diocesse of London, troubled and vexed for the same by Boner Bish. of London, who sent forth a Commission with a processe, to sequester and seperate them, enioynyng also penaunce to the poore woman.

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Besides this Iohn Draper, diuers other also were diuorced the same tyme against their wils, & some contented of their own vncōstāt accord, to be seperated of theyr wiues: as of Chichester one (who because he soone recouered again shall be here nameles) an other named Edmond Alstone, an other Alexander Bull, amongst whom also was Doctor Standish, with many other: whose names together in the ende of this storye of Queene Mary, we maye peraduenture, by Gods grace in a generall Catalogue, together comprehende. 

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Foxe's comment that he planned an appendix listing priests who divorced their wives under Mary (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428) explains his gathering together in his papers lists of clergy deprived for marriage (see BL Harley 421, fols. 56r-63v). Apparently Foxe decided against publishing this appendix, probably because it would have embarrassed too many Elizabethan clerics.

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¶ How Tho. Cranmer Archb. Bishop Ridley, and M. Latimer were sent downe to Oxford to dispute, with the order and maner, and al other circumstances vnto the sayd disputation, and also to their condemnation appertainyng.  
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Block 17: Preparations for the Oxford Disputations

The account of the disputations at Oxford in April 1554 is the heart of Book 10. Foxe took special pains both in acquiring information about the disputations and in shaping it. The number of different versions upon which Foxe was able to draw and his meticulous, almost obsessive care in editing, make the section on the Oxford disputations the most complex in Book 10, if not in the entire Actes and Monuments. The intensive rewriting and editing of Foxe's account of the disputations, while making it difficult to collate, also provide a remarkable look at Foxe's editorial goals and practices.

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Paradoxically, the lengthy account of the preparations for the disputations, which one would expect, given its relative unimportance, to be fairly straightforward, is in fact remarkably intricate. There was nothing on these preparations in the Rerum, but in the 1563 edition Foxe had two separate reports of events, both by eyewitnesses. (The first informant's account was obtained by Foxe while in exile and used, sparingly, in the Rerum, for events during and after the disputation). Both informants were staunch protestants but their accounts are quite different. The first informant's account covers all of the disputations, the second informant merely the events preceding the actual disputations; consequently the second informant's account, although shorter, is more detailed. The second informant may have been connected to Oxford University as he is much more knowledgeable about the reaction of the Oxford faculty to the disputations. In the 1563 edition, Foxe did not have the time to synthesise the two accounts and he printed them separately (pp. 932-36 and 936-38 respectively). In the edition of 1570, Foxe welded the two accounts with remarkable patience and attention to detail.

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But why did Foxe bother with this carefully crafted and detailed account of what were merely the preparations for the disputations? Partly because, as we have seen, Foxe had good sources; but particularly because this detailed account enabled Foxe to set the David versus Goliath theme of the disputations; the pomp and ceremony of the serried ranks of academia defied by three lone men.

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How Thomas Cranmer...

Many of this section's glosses are concerned with the preparations for and early skirmishes in the Oxford disputations. Some of the glosses malign the papists, and Foxe seems quick to highlight the pomp (and the pride implicit in it) of the papists ('The Doctors in theyr scarlet robes', and 'Procession in Oxford. The aray of the solemne procession'). For other attacks on the papists, see 'A grace for Articles', 'A grace for the Cambridge Doctours to dispute agaynst Cranmer, Ridley & Latimer', 'D. Cranmer closed in by the Mayor and Aldermen for running away'.

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MarginaliaAprill. 10. ABout the tenth of Aprill, Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, Ridley B. of London, and Hugh Latimer B. also sometyme of Worcester, were conueyed as prisoners frō the Tower to Wyndsore: MarginaliaD. Cranmer, D. Ridly, & M. Latymer sent downe to Oxford to dispute.and after from thence to the Vniuersitie of Oxford, there to dispute with the Diuines and learned men of both the Vniuersities, Oxford and Cambridge, about the presence, substance and sacrifice of the Sacrament. The names of the Vniuersitie doctors and Graduates, appoynted to dispute against them were these: MarginaliaThe Vniuersitie Doctors appointed to dispute against the Archb. & his felowes.Of Oxford, Doctor Weston Prolocutor, D. Tresham, Doctor Cole, D. Oglethorp, D. Pie, M. Harpsfield, M. Fecknam Of Cambridge D. Yong Vicechauncellour, Doctor Glin, Doctor Seton, D. Watson, D. Sedgewike, D. Atkinson, &c. 
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In the 1563 edition, Foxe began with a list of the disputants (drawn from his first informant) appointed to debate with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, which was quite inaccurate. William Chedsey and Richard Smith were incorrectly listed as disputants, while William Tresham, Owen Oglethorpe, William Glyn and Thomas Sedgwick, who were disputants, were not listed. A 'Thecknam' was listed as one of the disputants; this is probably an error for John Feckenham (or Fecknam), although 'Thecknam' is listed as representing Cambridge, whereas Feckenham represented Oxford (1563, p. 932). This informant did better with the list of those who actually participated in the debate (1563, pp. 933-34), confirming that he was a spectator at the disputations. (It is to be noticed how easily he might have made the mistake in identifying Feckenham, if he only heard the name and did not read it).

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Moreover, Foxe compiles a correct list of the disputants (with one exception) in the 1570 edition (1570, pp. 1591-92; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428-29). It might be thought that he drew on two letters which survive in his papers, firstly a letter from John Young, the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge and the Senate, authorising seven Cambridge theologians to participate in the disputations (BL Harley 416, fol. 39r); and secondly a letter from Young and the Senate to Hugh Weston, notifying that the disputants were being sent (BL Harley 422, fol. 101r). Although Alban Langdale was one of the disputants appointed by Cambridge (and listed in both letters) Foxe does not mention him. (Langdale said nothing during the disputations and Foxe's other sources do not mention him). This omission suggests that Foxe acquired the letters but that he did not consult them.

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The articles or questions wherupon they should dispute were these.

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MarginaliaThree questiōs.1 Whether the natural body of Christ be really in the sacrament after the wordes spoken by the priest or no?

2 Whether in the sacrament after the wordes of consecration, any other substance do remayne, then the substāce of the body and bloud of Christ?

3 Whether in the masse be a sacrifice propiciatory for the sinnes of the quicke and the dead.

Touching the order and maner of all which things there done, with the notes, argumēts, and all circumstances therunto pertainyng, to deduce the matter from the beginnyng, leauyng out nothing (as nere as we may) that shal seme necessary to be added, first here is to be vnderstand that vpon saterday the 7. day of Aprill, the heads of the Colledges in Cambridge beyng congregate together, MarginaliaLetters sent downe from Ste. Gardiner to Cambridge.letters commyng downe from St. Gardiner Lord Chauncellor, were redde with Articles therewith annexed, that should be disputed

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vpon at Oxford: the contentes of the whiche three Articles are sufficiently expressed before, Wherupon in the sayd congregation of the aforesayd Vniuersitie of Cambridge. there was graunted first a grace in this forme proposed by þe Seniour Proctour: Placet vobis vt instrumentum fiat, quod horum iam prælectorum, articulorum doctrina sana sit & catholica, atque, cum veritate orthodoxæ fidei consentiens, & vestro consensu, & suffragijs comprobetur? That is: MarginaliaA grace for Articles.may it please you to haue an instrument made that the doctrine of these foresayd Articles may be sound and Catholicke and consonant with the verytie of the right meanyng fayth, & that the same may bee approued by your consent and voyces? Secondly in the sayd congregatiō, MarginaliaA grace for the Cambridge Doctors to dispute agaynst Cranmer, Ridley, and Latymer.an other grace was geuen and graūted, that Doct. Yong being the Vicechauncellor, D. Glin, Doct. Atkinson, Doct. Scot, & M. Sedgewicke should goe to Oxford to defende the sayd Articles against Canterbury, London, and Latimer: Also to haue letters to the Oxford men, sealed with their common seale: Item, an other grace graunted to M. Sedgewike, to be actuall Doctor, beyng therupon immediately admitted. The fore sayd letters beyng thē drawn out, the third day after (which was the xj. day of Aprill) were read in the foresayd congregation house and there sealed.

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Wherupon the next day after (the xij. of the sayd moneth) the foresayd Doctours, with the full grace of that vniuersitie, set forward to Oxford: MarginaliaThe cōming of the Cambridge men to Oxford.and Commyng thether þe next day after (beyng Fryday, the xiij. of Aprill) were lodged all at the Crosse Inne, with one Wakeclyne,  

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A number of minor but distinct changes were made to this material in the 1570 edition. Some of these appear to have been corrections: e.g. the name of Bonner's servant is given as 'Wakefield' in 1563 (p. 936), but is changed to 'Wakeclyn' (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

beyng sometyme seruaunt to Byshop Boner.

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Anone after their commyng. MarginaliaTheir welcomming to Oxford. Doct. Crooke presented them with wyne for their welcome: and shortly after, two of the Bedelles came from the Vicechauncellour of Oxford, and presented to the Vicechauncellour of Cambridge with a dish of Appels, and a gallon of wyne. After whom next came M. Pye and Fecknam to welcome them. MarginaliaThe Cambridge Doctors reparye to D. Westō.Then after consultation concernyng the deliuery of their letters and instrument of grace (whiche was in Doct. Seton and Watsons keepyng) 

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Foxe stated in 1563 (p. 936) that documents were in Watson's chambers; in later editions he stated that they were in his keeping (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

they went all to Lyncolne Colledge to Doct. Weston the Prolocutor, and to the Vicechauncellour D. Tresham: and there they deliuered their letters, and declared what they had done touching the Articles, letters, and graces. 
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Foxe omitted the phrase 'where they had a junkery but sat not down' from the 1570 edition (cf. 1563, p. 936 with 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429), probably because he thought the phrase too informal or inelegant. (Foxe also purged a marginal note containing the word 'junkery' from the 1570 edition [see textual variant 621M]).

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Halfe houre after 8. they returned to theyr Inne agayn: but first they concluded of a Procession, Sermon, & conuocation to bee had the morowe folowyng, and that the Doctours of Cambridge shoulde bee incorporate in the Vniuersitie of Oxford, and likewise that the Doctors of Oxford should be incorporate in the Vniuersity of Cambridge. MarginaliaThe three prisoners Cranmer, Ridley and Latymer, disseuered.The same day the forenamed prisoners were disseuered, as was sayd afore: Doct. Ridley to Alderman Iryshes house M. Latimer to an other, and D. Cranmer remayned styll in Bocardo.

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On Saterday (beyng the xiiij. of Aprill) at eyght of the clocke, the foresayd Vicechauncellour of Cambridge with the other Doctours of the same Vniuersitie: repayred to Lincolne Colledge agayne, and found the Prolocutour aboue in a Cappell, with the company of the house singyng Requiem Masse, and taryed there vntill the end, MarginaliaCōsultatiō.Then they consultyng altogether in the Maisters lodgyng about ix. of the clocke came all to the Vniuersitie Churche called S. Maries, and there, after short consultation in a Cappel, the Vicechauncellor the Prolocutor, &c. of Oxford, caused the Vicechauncellour of Cambridge & the rest of the Doctors of that Vniuersitie, to send for their scarlet robes, 

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One change appears to have been a typographical error: 'coapes' [copes] in 1563 (p. 937) became 'roabes' [robes] (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

MarginaliaThe Doctors in their scarlet robes brought from Cambridge, saue that Doct. Seton and Watson borowed of the Oxford men. And in this tyme, the Regentes in the Congregation house, had granted all the Cambridge Doctours theyr graces to be incorporate there, and so they went vp and were admitted immediatly, Doct. Oglethorp presentyng them, and the Proctour readyng the statute, & geuyng them their othes.

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That done, they came all into the Quier, and there helde the conuocation of the Vniuersitie. 

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Foxe also omitted the words 'being gremials' (cf. 1563, p. 937 with 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

MarginaliaMasse in pikesauce, in prickesong I would say.They had Masse of the holy Ghost solemnly song in prickesong, by the Quier men of Christes Churche. MarginaliaThe causes of their assembly declared.But first the cause of the Conuocation was opened in Englishe, partly by the Vicechauncellour, and partly by the Prolocutour, declaryng that they were sent by the Queene, and wherfore they were sent: and caused Maister Say the Register, openly to read the Commission. MarginaliaCambridge letters read.That done, the Vicechauncellour read Cambridge letters openly, and then concluded that 3. Notaries, Maister Say for the Conuocation, a Bedell of Cambridge for that vniuersitie and one Maister White for Oxford, should testifie of their doing: MarginaliaThree Notaries assigned. and then willed the sayd Notaries to prouide parchement, MarginaliaSubscribing to the articles.that the whole assembly might subscribe to the Articles, saue those that had subscribed before in the Conuocation house at London and Cambridge, and so the Vicechauncellour began first: after hym the rest of the Oxford men, as many as could in the Masse tyme.

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