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154 [154]

King Offa. K. Kenulfus. The first planting of the Popish Masse.

to Brightricus that was kyng of Westsaxons. And for that in his tyme was variance betwene him and the Frenchmen, in so much that the passage of Marchauntes was forbydden: therfore he sent Alcuinus a learned man, MarginaliaThis Alcuinus is cōmended for hys learning next to Aldelmus & Bede aboue all englishe Saxons. vnto Charles the great, then king of Fraunce, to common the meanes of peace: which Charles had after that the said Alcuinus in great fauour and estimation, and afterward made him Abbot of Turonia in Fraunce.

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MarginaliaEthelbert king of Eastangles wrongfully murdred by Offa. About the latter tyme of the raigne of Offa, kyng of Mercia: Ethelbert beyng then kyng of Eastangles (a learned and a right godly Prince) came to the court of Offa: prouoked by the counsell of his Nobles, to sue for the Mariage of his daughter: well accompanied lyke a prince, with his men about him. Wherupon, the Queene conceauyng a false suspicion, and fearyng that which was neuer mynded: that Ethelbert with his companye, vnder the pretence and made matter of Mariage, was come to worke some violence agaynst her husband, and the kyngdome of Mercia, so she perswaded with kyng Offa: MarginaliaThe vayne suspicion & wicked counsell of a woman.
Ex historia Iornalensi & Malmesberiensi
and certeine of her counsell that night, that the next day followyng, Offa caused him to be trayned into his palace alone from his company, by one called Guymbertus: who tooke him and bound him, and there stroke of his head, which forthwith he then presented to the Kyng and Queene. And thus the innocent kyng Ethelbert was wrongfully murthered, about the yeare of our Lord. 793. but not without a iust reuēge at Gods hād. MarginaliaCruell murder reuēged. For as the story recordeth, the foresayd Queene worker of this vilanie, liued not iij. monethes after: and in her death was so tormented, that she was fayne to byte and rent her toung in peeces with her owne teeth. Offa vnderstandyng at length the innocencie of this kyng and the haynous cruelty of his fact: gaue the tenth part of his goodes to holy Church: and to the Church of Hereford, in remembrance of this Ethelbert, he bestowed great landes. Moreouer, builded the Abbey of S. Albons, with certaine other monasteries besides. And so afterward he wēt vp to Rome for his penance, where he gaue to the Church of S. Peter a peny through euery house in his dominion, which was called commonly Romeshot, or Peter pence, payed to the Church of S. Peter: MarginaliaOffa & Kinreds of kinges made mōkes at Rome. and there at length was transformed from a kyng to a monke, about the yeare of our lord. 794. with >Kenredus kyng of Northumberland aboue mētioned, although some stories deny that he was Monke.

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MarginaliaEgfretus kyng of Mercia. After Offa kyng of Mercia, whē he had raigned xxxix. yeares, succeded his sonne Egfretus, who raigned but foure monethes: of whom thus writeth the forsayd Alcuinus: MarginaliaAlcuinus Osberto patritio. Non arbritor quòd nobilissimus iuuenis Egfretus propter peccata sua mortuus sit: Sed quia pater suus pro confirmatione regni eius multum sanguinem effudit. &c. MarginaliaThe fathers fault punished in the childe. That is: this noble young man dyed not so much for offences of his owne, as for that his father had spilled much bloud, to confirme him in his kyngdome.

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Next to which Egfretus, succeeded Kenulphus in the said kyngdome of Mercia, which Kenulphus keepyng and retaining the hatred of Offa his predecessour agaynst the Cātuarites, made warre agaynst them: MarginaliaEgbert kyng of Kent takē prisoner. where he tooke Egbert their kyng, otherwise called Wren, whom he bound and led prisoner to Mercia. MarginaliaA princely example of clemency in a noble kyng. Notwithstandyng shortly after beyng mollified with Princely clemency in the towne of MarginaliaThe Church of Winchcombe builded by kyng Kenulphus. Winchcombe, where he had builded the same tyme a Church: vpoō the day when he should dedicate the same, in the presence of. xiij. Bishops: and of Cutbert, whō he had placed in the same kyngdome of Canterbury before: and. x. Dukes, and many other great estates: MarginaliaEgbert kyng of Kent, released out of prison. Kyng Kenulphus brought the sayde Egbert kyng of Kent out of prison into the Church, where he enlarged him of imprisonement, and restored him to his place agayne. At the sight whereof not onely Cutbert the foresayd kyng reioyced, but also all the estates and people beyng there present, made such an exclamation of ioy and gladnes, that the Church, (and not onely the Church, but also the streetes) range withall. At whiche tyme such bountefulnes of giftes and iewels was then bestowed, that from the highest estate to the lowest, none departed without somethyng geuen, accordyng as to euery degree was thought meete. MarginaliaA place of Fabian doubted. Although Fabiā referreth this story to king Offa, yet causes there be, why I assent rather to Malmesbery and to Polychronicon, whiche attributeth the same to Kenulphus the second kyng of Mercia, after Offa.

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A litle before in speakyng of certaine Bishops of Rome, mention was made of pope Constantine the first: Pope Gregory the second: Pope Gregory the third: and of Pope Zachary, which deposed Childerike, and set vp Pipinus the French king. &c. Next after this Zachary, in order followed MarginaliaPope Steuen the second. pope Stephē the second: to whom þe foresaid Pipinus, to gratifie againe þe sea of Rome, for this their benefite shewed to him: gaue and contributed to the sayd sea of Rome, the ex- archat or Princedome of Rauenna: the kyngdome of the Lumbardes: & many other great possessions of Italy: with all the Cities therto adioyning vnto the borders of Venice. MarginaliaThe donation of Pipinus falsely taken to be the donation of Constantine. And this donation of Pipine, no doubt if the truth were rightly tried, should be found to be the same, which hetherto falsely hath bene thought to be the donation of Constantine. For els how could it be, that the exarchat of Rauēna could belong all this while to the Emperours of Constantinople, if Constantine before, had geuen it and all Italy from the Empire, to the sea of Rome.

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To this Pipinus, as witnesseth Polychronicon. MarginaliaEx Polychr. lib. 5. cap. 25. was sent first into Fraunce, the inuention of the Organes out of Grecia, by Constantine Emperour of Constant. 757.

Next to this Stephen the ij. succeeded Paule the first, who followyng his predecessours, MarginaliaPope Paule the first.
Images agayne maintained by the Pope against the Emperour.
thundred out great excōmunications agaynst Constantinus the Emperour of Constantinople, for abrogatyng and pluckyng downe Images set vp in Temples. Notwithstandyng this Constantine neglectyng the Popes vayne curses perseuered in his blessed purpose, in destroying Idolatrie till the end of hys lyfe. MarginaliaA lay mā Pope who was deposed, & had his eyes put out. Then came to be Pope, Constantinus the second a lay mā, and brother to Desiderius the kyng of Lombardy: for the which cause he was shortly deposed, and thrust in a monastery, hauyng his eyes put out.

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MarginaliaPope Steuen the third. In whose stede succeeded Steuen the iij. who ordeyned that after that, no lay man should be Pope: MarginaliaThe Councell of Constantinople the 7. condemned of the Pope, for condemning images.
This Pope also ordeined Gloria in Excelsis to be song in the masse at S. Peters altar by the Cardinals.
condemning moreouer the Councell of Constātinople the vij. for hereticall: because in that Councell the worshippyng of Images was reproued and condemned. Contrary to the whiche Councell, this Pope not onely maintayned the filthy Idolatry of images in Christen Temples: but also aduaunced their veneration, commaundyng them most Ethnically to be incensed. &c. At this tyme Carolus Magnus called Charles the great a litle before mentioned, began to raigne, by whom this Pope caused Desiderius the Lumbard kyng, to be depriued.

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MarginaliaPope Hadrian the first.
Images agayne maintained by the Pope to be mens Kalēders
Then in this rase of Popes, 

Commentary  *  Close

The material here is particularly interesting because it indicates Foxe's engagement with the Golden Legend, a source that he had specifically singled out for ridicule in his prefatory letter 'ad doctorem lectorem'. Foxe singled out the passage concerning the introduction of the Gregorian Missel (Jacobus De Voragine, The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints, William G. Ryan (ed. & trans.), 2 vols. (Princeton, 1993), vol. 1, p. 183) and singled it out for harsh commentary: 'I neede not admonish thee to smell out the blinde practices of these night crowes, to blinde the worl with foreged inuencions, in steede of true stories'.

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after this Steuen the iij. commeth Hadrianus the first, who likewise folllowyng the steppes of his forefathers the Popes, added and attributed to the veneration of Images more then all the other had done before: writyng a booke for the adoration and the vtilitie proccedyng of them, commaundyng them to be takē for lay mens Calēders, holding moreouer a Synode at Rome agaynst, Fœlix, and all other that spake agaynst the settyng vp of such stockes and Images. And as Paul the first, before him made much of the body of Petronilla S. Peters daughter: MarginaliaThe body of S. Peter clothed in siluer. so this Hadrian clothed the body of S. Peter all in Siluer, and couered the altar of S. Paule with a Palle of Gold. This Pope Hadrian was he, whom we declared in the former part of this treatise, to ratifie and confirme by reuelation, MarginaliaThe order of the Romish Massebooke whē it came in. the order of S. Gregories Masse, aboue the order of S. Ambrose Masse: for vnto this tyme which was about the yeare of our Lorde. 780. the Liturgie of S. Ambrose was more vsed in the Italian Churches. The story wherof, because it is Registred in Durandus, Nauclerus, and Iacobus de Voragine, MarginaliaEx Durando Nauclero. Iacob. de Voragine, in vita Greg. I thought here to inserte the same, to this especiall purpose, for þe reader to vnderstād þt tyme, whē this vsuall Masse of the Papistes began first to be vniuersall and vniforme, and generally in Churches to be receaued. Thus it followeth in the story by the foresayd authours set forth. Iacobus de Voragine, in the life of Pope Gregory the first telleth a tale concernyng this matter.

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In tymes past (saith he) when the seruice, which Ambrose made, was more frequented & vsed in Churches, thē was the seruice which Gregory had appointed: the Bishop of Rome thē called Adrian, gathered a Coūcell together: in the which it was ordained, that Gregories seruice should be obserued and kept vniuersally: which determination of the Councell, Charles the Emperour did diligently put in execution while he ranne about by diuers prouinces, and inforced all the Clergy, partly with threatnynges, and partly with punishmentes, to receiue the order. And as touching the bookes of Ambrose seruice, he brent them to ashes in all places, and threw into prison many Priests that would not consent and agree to the matter. Blessed Eugenius the Byshop commyng vnto the Councell, founde that it was dissolued iij. dayes before his commyng. Notwithstandyng through his wisedome, he so perswaded the Lord pope, that he called agayne all the Prelates that had bene present at the Councell, and were now departed by the space of three dayes. Therfore when the Councell was gathered agayne together, in this all the fathers did consent and agree, that both the Masse bookes of Ambrose and Gregory should be layd vpō the altar of blessed Peter the Apostle, & the church doores diligently shut, and most warely sealed vp with the signets of many and diuers Byshops. Agayne, that

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they
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