Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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200 [199]

K. William Conq. Lanfrancus. Contention in Rome. Hildebrand.

MarginaliaA councell holdē at London, and what were the actes therof.In this tyme (and by the procuryng of this Lancfrancus) the. ix. yeare of this kyng: a coūcel was holden at Lōdon, where among the actes therof, these were the principall thynges concluded.

1. For the order of sittyng: that the Archbyshop of Yorke should sit on the right hand, and the Byshop of London of the left hand: or in the absence of Yorke, Lōdon should haue the right, and Winchester the left hand of the Archbyshop of Cant. sittyng in counsell.

2. The second, that Byshops should translate their sees from villages into Cities: Whereupon those sees aboue named were translated.

3. That monkes should haue nothyng in proper: And if any so had, he dying vnconfessed, should not be buryed in the Churchyard.

4. That no Clarke or Monke of an other dioces, should be admitted to orders, or retayned without letters commendatory or testimoniall.

5. That none should speak in the Coūcell except bishops and Abbots, without leaue of the Archmetropolitanes.

6. That none should marry within the vij. degree with any either of his owne kinred, or of his wiues departed.

7. That none should either buy or sell any office within the Church.

8. That no sorcery nor any diuination should be vsed or permitted in holy church.

9. That no byshop nor abbot, nor any of the clergy: should be at the iudgemēt of any mans death or dismembryng, neither should be any fautor of the sayd iudicantes.

MarginaliaByshops of England about to driue out mōkes and to place priestes agayne in their steede.Moreouer in the dayes of this Lancfrancus, diuers good byshops of the realme began to take part with priestes agaynst the Monkes, in displacyng these out of their Churches, and to restore the maryed Priestes agayne: in somuch that Walkelmus Bishop of Wint. had placed aboue xl. Canons in stede of monkes for his part: but this godly enterprise was stopped by stout Lancfranke the Italian Lombard. This lusty Prelate sate xix. yeares, but at latter end he was not so fauored of William Rufus, and dyed for sorrow. Although this Italian Franke beyng Archbishop: had litle leysure to write, yet somethyng he thought to do, to fet out his famous learnyng, and wrote a booke agaynst Berengarius, intitulyng it: Opus Scintillarum. MarginaliaOpus Scintillarum Lancfranci.The old Church of Cant. he plucked downe & builded vp the new.

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MarginaliaAn. 1074.
Hildebrandus seu Gregor. 7.
Hildebrand the cause of all thys stoutnes & pride in prelates.
After the death of Pope Alexander aboue mentioned, next to him folowed Hildebrand surnamed Gregory the vij. 

Commentary  *  Close
Gregory VII

Although Gregory VII (1073-85) was only one of a number of reforming popes in the late eleventh century who sought to suppress clerical marriage and to end secular jurisdiction over the Church and its clergy, he was the one who most profoundly impressed contempories. Partly this was due to his dramatic conflict with Emperor Henry IV, but partly to his forceful personality and his complete inability to compromise. To Protestant reformers the causes for which Gregory had fought so hard were iniquitous and his spectacular, if ephemeral, triumph over Henry IV at Canossa made him the epitome of the antichristian pope inversing God's natural order. Their ability to demonize Gregory was enhanced by the emnities that Gregory had aroused in many of his contemporaries and the numerous hostile accounts they wrote about him.

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Foxe's account of Gregory first appeared in the 1563 edition and most of it is based on two sources. From Platina's history of the popes Foxe obtained his general narrative background, including the account of Canossa and the events leading up to it as well as the events leading up to Gregory's second excommunication of Henry, the excommunication itself and Gregory's expulsion from Rome. (See Bartomoleo Sacchi Platina, Historia de vitis Pontificum Romanorum, ed. Onuphrio Panvinio [Venice, 1562], fos.131r-135v. Foxe may have drawn on Platina - a writer whom he felt to be biased in favour of the papacy and whom he did not utilize often - not only for his detailed account, but because this material was so controversial that Foxe felt safer relying on, and citing, an account by a Catholic author. This way, if criticized, Foxe could declare that he was merely repeating what an internationally respected Catholic writer had stated. As it was, however, Foxe felt free to insert his own opinions into Platina's text, as when he declared flatly - and baselessly - that Matilda of Tuscany was Gregory VII's lover).

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Almost everything else in this account is drawn from Matthis Flacius's Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausburg, 1562], pp. 205-6, 211-212, 223-4 and 227-8. Because Flacius, while rich in anecdotal detail and documentation, did not providemuch in the way of background information, Foxe also drew on the annals of Lambert of Hersfeld for the synods at Mainz and Erfurt and clerical resistance to Gregory'sdrive for clerical celibacy. (See 'Lamberti Hersefeldenses annales a 1040-1077' inMonumenta Gemaniae Historiae, Scriptorum V [Hanover, 1845], pp. 217-18 and 30.This was an unusual source for Foxe to consult and he followed up references by Baleand Flacius to check it for himself. Again, this scrupulousness and care was probablydue to Foxe's concern about criticism, due to the controversial nature of the material.And Foxe could not resist including an unfounded account by Bale of Gregory VII, on his deathbed, repenting his wickedness; see Bale, Catalogus, p. 160.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe - who had already printed a letter by Cardinal Benno, a staunch opponent of Gregory VII, describing the pope as a sorcerer - addedfurther letters by the Cardinal, detailing Gregory's crimes, including sacrilege againstthe Host and attempts to assassinate Henry IV. These letters were reprinted fromFlacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 220-5. No further changes were made to this account in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

This Hildebrand as he was a sorcerer, so was he the first and principall cause of all this perturbation that is now and hath bene, since his tyme in the Church: by reason that through his example, all this ambition, stoutnes and pride, entred first into the Church of Rome, & hath euer since continued. For before Hildebrandus came to Rome, workyng there his feates: settyng vp and displacyng what Byshops he lysted: corruptyng them with pernicious counsell, and settyng them agaynst Emperours: vnder pretēce of chastitie destroying matrimony: & vnder the title of libertie, breakyng peace and resistyng authoritie: before this (I say) the Church of Rome was in some order, and Byshops quietly gouerned vnder Christen Emperours, and also were defēded by the same. MarginaliaThe obedience of Byshops in auncient tyme to Emperours.As Marcellus, Meltiades, and Siluester were subdued, and vnder obedience to Constantinus. an. 340. Syricius to Theodosius. an. 388. Gregorius to Mauritius. an. 600. Hilarius to Iustinian. an. 528. Adrianus and Leo to Carolus Magnus: an. 801. Paschalis and Valentius to Ludouicus Pius. an. 830. Sergius. 29. vnto Lotharius. an. 840. Benedictus the iij. and Ioannes the ix. vnto Ludouicus sonne of Lotharius. an. 856. But agaynst this obedience and subiection Hildebrand first began to spurne, and by his example taught all other Byshops to do the lyke.

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In somuch, that at length they wrought and brought to passe, to be lawfull for a few curtisās and Cardinals (cōtrary to auncient ordinaūce and statutes decretall) to chuse what Pope they list, without any cōsent of the Emperour at all. And where as before it stode in the Emperours gift, to geue and graunt Byshoprikes, Archbishoprikes, benefices and other Ecclesiasticall prefermentes within their owne limites, to whom they lyst: Marginaliawhat Popes haue done.now the Popes through much wrastlyng, warres and contention, haue extorted all that into their owne handes, and to their assignes: yea, haue pluckt in, all the riches & power of þe whole world. MarginaliaPopes more than Princes.And not contēt with þt, haue vsurped & preuailed so much aboue emperours: that, (as before) no Pope might be chosen wtout the confirmation of the Emperour: so now no Emperour may be elected without the confirmation of the Pope, takyng vpon thē more than Princes, to place or displace Emperours at their pleasure, for euery light cause: to put down MarginaliaFridericus primus, shent for holdyng the Popes left stirrup.or to set vp when, & whom they lysted: as Fridericus primus, for holdyng the left styrrup of the Popes sadel, was persecuted almost to excommunication. The which cause moueth me to strayne more diligence here, in settyng out the history, actes, and doyngs of this Hildebrand: from whom, as the first patron and founder, sprong all this ambitiō and contention, about the liberties & dominion of the Romane Church: to the intent, that such as can not read the Latine historyes, may vnderstād in English, the originall of euils: how, and by what occasion they first began, and how long they haue continued.

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And first how this Hildebrand hitherto had behaued himselfe before he was Pope, I haue partly declared. For though he was not yet Pope in name, yet he was there Pope in deede, & ruled the Popes and all their doynges, as hym lysted. Item what wayes and fetches he had attempted euer since his first commyng to the Court of Rome, to magnifie and mayntaine false libertie, agaynst true authoritie: MarginaliaEx Auentino & alij.what practise he wrought by Councels, what factiōs and conspiracies he made in styrryng vp popes agaynst Emperours, striuyng for superioritie: and what warres followed therof, I haue also expressed. Now let vs see further (by the helpe of Christ) the worthy vertues of this princely prelate after he came to be pope, as they remayne in histories of diuers and sondry writers described.

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¶ The tragicall history of Gregory the vij. otherwise named Hildebrand.

MarginaliaGregorye the vii.
Ex Auentino.
THe wordes of the latin history be these: Hactenus pontifices Rom. commitiis curiatis, calatis, a sacerdotibus, equitatu, plebe, Senatu. &c. In englishe: Hitherto the Byshops of Rome haue bene elected by voyces, & suffrages, of all sortes and degrees, as well of the Pristes and the Clergy, as of the nobilitie, people, and Senate, all cōuenting and assemblyng together. And this election so I finde to stand in force, if so be it were ratified and cōfirmed, by the consent of Romane Emperours: who had authoritie to call and to assemble all these, as well, as Byshops together, vnto councels, as case required. MarginaliaThe state & maner of the old church in tymes past.Vnder the authoritie and iurisdiction of these emperours, were contayned both in Germany, Fraunce, Italy, and through the whole dominion of Rome, all Patriarches, Byshops, masters of Churches and monasteries, by the decree of councels, according to the old custome of our aunceters as is declared in a certayne story, in the lyfe of Carolus Magnus. The holy and auncient fathers (lyke as Christ our Lord wyth his disciples and Apostles both taught and did) honoured and esteemed their Emperours, as the supreme potestate next vnder God in earth, set vp, ordayned, elected, & crowned of God, aboue all other mortall men, and so counted them, and called them their Lordes. To them they yelded tribute, and payd their subsidies. Also prayed euery day for their life. MarginaliaReuerence & obedience in olde time geuen to princes.Such as rebelled against them, they tooke as rebels and resisters against God hys ordinance, & Christian piety. The name of the emperour then was of great maiesty, and receiued as geuen from God. Then these fathers of the church neuer intermedled, nor intangled themselues wyth politike affayres of the common weale: MarginaliaThe maners & vertue of the forfathers described.much lesse they occupied martiall armes, and matters of cheualry. Onely in pouerty and modesty, was all their contenciō wyth other Christians, who should be poorest, and most modest amongest them. And the more humblenes appeared in any, the higher opiniō they cōceiued of hym. The sharpe and two edged sworde they tooke geuen to the Church of Christ, to saue, and not to kill: to quicken, & not to destroy: and called it the sword of the spirite, which is the word of God, the life and light of men, and reuoketh from death to lyfe, making of men, Gods: of mortall, immortall. Farre were they from that, to thrust out any Prince or Kyng (though he were neuer so farre out of the way, yea an Arrian) from his kingdome: or to cursse him, to release hys subiectes from their oth and their allegeance, to chaunge & translate kyngdomes, to subuert Empires, to pollute thēselues wyth Christen bloud, or to warre with their Christiā brethren for rule and principallity. This was not their spirit and maner then, but rather they loued & obeyed their Princes. Againe, Princes loued them also, like fathers and fellow princes with them of the soules of men. MarginaliaThe ambitious presumption of HildebrandNow thys Gregorius the seuenth, otherwise named Hildebrandus: trusting vpon the Normanes, which then rufled about Apulia, Calabria, and Campania: trusting also vpon the power of Machtilda, a stout woman thereabout Rome: and partly agayne, bearing himselfe bold, for the discord among the Germaines: first of all other (contrary to the maner of elders) contemning the authoritie of the emperour, inua

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