Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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208 [207]

K. W. Con. Pope Hildebrand. K. W. Conq. Pope Hildebrand.

knowledge of him, beyng their kiyng and magistrate. For in the tyme of his father Henricus. iij. this Hildebrand with other, bounde themselues with a corporall othe: MarginaliaNo bishop of Rome to be chosen without the assent of the Emperour.that so long as the Emperour and his sonne now beyng kyng should lyue, they should neither themselues presume, nor suffer any other to aspire to the Papall seate, without the assent and approbation of the foresayd Emperours: which now this Hildebrand contrary to his corporall othe had done. Wherfore the foresayd Councell with one agreement condemned this Gregory, that he should be deposed: The tenour of which condemnation is thus expressed in Abbate Vrspergense.

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¶ The sentence of the councell of Brixia, agaynst Hildebrand.

MarginaliaAbbas Vrspergensis.BEcause it is not knowen, this Byshop not to be elected of God, but to haue intruded himselfe, by fraude and money, who hath subuerted all Ecclesiasticall order, who hath disturbed the gouernment of the Christiā Empery, manasing death both of body and soule agaynst our Catholike and peaceable kyng: who hath set vp and maintayned a periured kyng, sowyng discord, where concorde was: causing debate amongest frendes, slaunders, and offences amongst brethren, diuorcementes and separation amongest the maryed (for he tooke away the mariage of Priestes, as Henricus Mutius witnesseth) MarginaliaHenricus Mutius.and finally disquietyng the peaceable state of all quyet lyfe: therfore we here in the name and authoritie of God congregate together, with the Legates and handes of xix. bishops, the day of Pētecost at Mentz, do procede in Canonicall iudgement, agaynst Hildebrand, a man most wicked: preachyng sacrilege and burnyng, maintayning periury and murthers, callyng in question the Catholike fayth of the body and bloud of the Lord, a folower of diuination and dreames, a manifest necromanser, a sorcerer, and infected wyth a Pythonical spirit, and therfore departed from the true fayth, MarginaliaNote here the Pope iudged & deposed of the councell.we iudge hym to be deposed and expelled. And vnlesse he hearyng this, shall yeld and depart the seate: to be perpetually condēned. Inacted. vij. Calend. Iulii. feria. 5. indictione. iii.

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This beyng inacted & sent to Rome, they elected Guibertus Archbishop of Rauenna, in the place of Hildebrand, to gouerne the church of Rome, named Clemens iij. But when Hildebrand neither would geue ouer his hold, nor geue place to Clement: the Emperour gatheryng an army to send to Italy, came to Rome to depose Gregory, and to place Clement. MarginaliaThe Pope seeketh succour of his paramour. This first example to fight for remission of sinnes began in Hildebrand.But Hildebrand sendyng to Mathilda the countesse, before mentioned: required (in remission of all her sinnes) to withstand Henry the Emperour, and so she did. Notwithstandyng Henricus preuailyng came to Rome, where he besieged the Citie all the Lent, and after Easter got it, the Romaines being compelled to open the gates vnto him: so he commyng to the temple of S. Peter, there placeth Clement in his Papacy. Hildebrand straight flyeth into Adrians tower with his adherentes. Where he being beset round about at length sendeth for Robert Guiscardus his frend a Norman. In the meane tyme while Robertus collecteth his power, the Abbot of Cluniake, conferryng with Gregory, exhorteth hym to crowne Henricus Emperor in Lateran. Which if he woulde do, þe other promiseth to bryng about, that Henricus should departe with his army into Germany. Wherunto the people of Rome also did likewise moue hym. To whom Gregory answered that he was content so to do (but vpon this condition) that the Emperour would submit himselfe to aske pardon, to amende his fault, and to promise obedience. The Emperour not agreyng to those conditions went to Senas, takyng Clement, new stalled Pope with hym.

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MarginaliaPlatina.
Nauclerus.
Sabellicus.
Crantzius.
Benno, &c.
After the returne of the Emperour, the foresaid Robert Guiscardus approchyng with his souldiers, brast in at one of the gates, and spoyleth the Citie. And not long after deliuereth Hildebrand out of his enemyes handes, and caryed hym away to Campania, where he, not long continuyng after dyed in exile.

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Antoninus writeth, that Hildebrand, as he dyd lye a dying, called to hym one of his chief Cardinals: bewaylyng to hym his fault and misorder of his spiritual ministry, in stirring vp discorde, warre and dissension: whereupon he desired the Cardinall to go to the Emperour, and desire hym of foregeuenes: absoluyng from the daunger of excommunication, both hym and all his pertakers both quicke and dead.

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Thus hast thou (gentle Reader) the full history of pope Gregory vij. called Hildebrād which I haue layd out more at large, and desire thee to marke: because that from this Pope (if thou marke wel) springeth all the occasion of mis- MarginaliaHildebrNd, the fIrst author AND patrone of all misrule that followed in popes.chief, of pride, pompe, stoutnesse, presumption and tyranny, which since that tyme hath reigned in his successors hetherto, in the Cathedrall Church of the Romish Cleargy. For here came first the subiection of the temporall regiment, vnder the spirituall iurisdiction. And emperours, which before were their maisters, now are made their vnderlynges. Also here came in the suppression of Priestes mariage, as is sufficiently declared. Here came in moreouer the authority of both þe swordes, spirituall & seculare into spirituall mens handes. So that Christian magistrates could do nothyng in election, in geuyng Byshoprikes, or benefices, in callyng Coūcels, in hearyng and correctyng the excesses of the clergy, but onely the Pope must do all. Yea moreouer no Byshop nor pastor in his owne parish could excommunicate or exercise any discipline amongest his flocke, but onely the Pope chalenged that prerogatiue to hymselfe. Finally, here came in the first example to persecute Emperours & kings, with rebellion and excommunication: as the clergy themselues hereafter do testifie and witnes in procedyng agaynst Pascalis. Thus these notes being well obserued, let vs (by the grace of Christ) now repayre agayne to our countrey history of England.

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MarginaliaThe death of Wil. Conquerour.About the death of Pope Hildebrand (or not long after) folowed the death of kyng William cōquerour, in the yeare of our Lord. 1090. after he had reigned in England the space of xxi. yeares and x. monethes. 

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William the Conqueror

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

The cause of his sickenes & death is sayd to be this: for that Philip the French kyng vpon a tyme (iestyng sayd) that kyng William lay in childbed and nourished his fat belly. With this the foresayd William hearyng therof, aunswered agayne & sayd, when he should be Churched, he would offer a thousand candels to hym in Fraunce, wherewithall the kyng should haue litle ioy. Wherupon kyng William in the moneth of Iuly (when the corne, fruit, and grapes were most florishyng) entred into Fraunce, and set on fire many Cities and townes in the Westside of Fraunce. And lastly commyng to the Citie of Meaux, where he burnyng a woman beyng as a recluse in a wall inclosed (or as some say, two men Anachorites inclosed) was so feruent and furious about the fire: that with the heate partly of the fire, partly of the tyme of yeare, thereby he fell into sicknes, and dyed vpon the same.

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By the lyfe & actes of this kyng it may appeare true as storyes of hym reporte, that he was wise but gylefull: Riche but couetous: a fayre speaker, but a great dissembler: glorious in victory, and strōg in armes, but rigorous in oppressing whom he ouercome, in leuiyng of taskes passing all other. In somuch that he caused to be enrolled and numbred in his treasury, euery hide of land, and owner therof: what fruite and reuenewes surmounted of euery Lordshyp, of euery towneshyp, castell, village, field, riuer, and wood within all the Realme of England. Moreouer how many parish Churches, how many liuyng catell there were, what & how much euery Baron in the realme could dispēde: what fees were belongyng, what wages were taken. &c. The tenour and contentes of which taskement, yet remaineth in rolles. MarginaliaPestilence in Englād: And morayne of beastes.After this taskyng or nūbring which was the yeare before his death: folowed an exceadyng morrene of cattel, & barrennes of the ground: with much pestilence and hote feuers among the people, so that such as escaped the feuer, was consumed with famine. MarginaliaLondon wyth the Church of Paules brent.Moreouer at the same season among certaine other Cities, a great part of the citie of London, with the Church of Paules was wasted with fire an. 1085.

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In huntyng and in parkes the foresayd kyng had such pleasure, that in the countrey of Southampton, by the space of 30. miles, he cast downe Churches and Towneshypes and there made the new forest: louyng his deare so dearely as though he had bene to them a father: makyng sharpe lawes for the increasing therof, vnder payne of loosing both the eyes. So hard he was to Englishmen, and so fauorable to his owne countrey: that as there was no English Byshop remainyng, MarginaliaWolstane bishop of Worcester.but onely Wolstane of Worcester, who beyng commaunded of the kyng and Lancfrank to resigne vp his staffe, partly for inhabilitie, partly for lacke of þ,e Frēch toūg: refused otherwise to resigne it, but onely to him that gaue it, and so went to the tumbe of kyng Edward, where he thought to resigne it, but was permitted to enioy it still: so likewise in his dayes there was almost no English man, that bare office of honour or rule.

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In so much it was halfe a shame at that tyme, to be called an English man. Notwithstandyng he somedeale fauoured the Citie of London, & graunted vnto the Citizens the first charter, that euer they had, written in the Saxon, with greene waxe sealed, and conteined in few lynes.

MarginaliaEngland peaceable frō theues.Among his other conditions, this in him is noted, that so geuen he was to peace and quyet, that any mayden being laden with gold or siluer might passe through the whole

Realme,
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