Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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228 [227]

K. Henry .2. Fredericus Emper. K. Henry .2. Fredericus Emper.

you shall here anone after we haue prosecuted such matter, as necessarily apperteineth first to the continuation of our English story.

¶ Kyng Henry the second.

MarginaliaAn. 1154.
K. Henry the second.
HEnry the second of that name, the sonne of Ieffray Plantagenet, and of Maude the Empresse & daughter of kyng Henry the first, began his raigne after kyng Stephen, and continued, 35. yeares. The first yeare of his raigne he subdued Ireland, and not long after MarginaliaThomas Becket chauncelor of England.Thomas Becket was made by hym Lord Chauncellour of England. This kyng cast down diuers Castels, which were erected in the tyme of Kyng Stephen. He went into the North partes, where he subdued Williā kyng of Scotland: who at that tyme held a great part of Northumberland vnto new Castel vpon Tyne: and ioyned Scotland to his own kyngdome from the South Oceane to the North Iles of Orchades. Also he put vnder his dominion þe kyngdome of Wales, and there let to fall downe many great woodes, and made the wayes playne. So that by his great manhode and policie, the segniorie of England was much augmented with the addition of Scotland, Ireland, the Iles Orchades, Britaine, Poytow and Guyan. Also he had in his rule, Normandy, Gascoyn, Angeo, and Chinon: also Aluerne and the Citie of Tholousse he wan, and were to him subiect. Ouer & besides (by the title of his wife Elenore daughter to þ,e earle of Poytow) he obtained þe Moūtes Piranie in Spayne: so that we read of none of his progenitours, which had so many countreyes vnder his dominion.

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MarginaliaAn. 1157.In England were sene in the firmament, ij. sunnes, or as it is in Chronica chronicarum, in Italy appeared three sunnes by the space of, iij. houres in the West: and the yeare folowyng appeared iij. moones: wherof the midle moone had a red crosse ouertwhart the face. Wherby was tokened (by the iudgement of some) the great schisme, that after fell amōg the Cardinals for the election of the byshop of Rome: or els rather the busines betwene Fredericus the Emperour and the popes: wherof partly now incidently occasion geueth vs to discourse. After that I haue first written of MarginaliaGerhardus.
Dulcinus.
Gerhardus and Dulcinus Nauarensis, who in their tyme accordyng to their gift did earnestly labour & preach agaynst the Church of Rome: defendyng and maintayning, that prayer was not more holy in one place then in an other: that the Pope was Antichrist: that the Clergy and prelates of Rome were reiect: and the very whore of Babylon prefigured in the Apocalips, &c. Peraduenture these had receiued some light of knowledge of þe Waldenses. Who at lēgth with a great number of their followers were oppressed and slayne by the pope. MarginaliaEx historia Gisburnensis.And although some inconuenient points of doctrine and dishonesty in their assēbles be agaynst them alleaged, of some: yet these tymes of ours do teach vs sufficiently, what credit is to be geuen to such popish slaūders, forged rather vpon hatred of true Religion, then vpon any iudgement of truth. Illyricus in his booke De testibus, referreth the time of these two, to the yeare of our Lord, 1280. but as I find in the story of Robert Guisburne: MarginaliaAn. 1158.these two, about the yeare of our Lord, 1158. brought 30. with them into England: who by the kyng and the Prelates, were all burnt in the forehead, & so driuen out of the realme: and after (as Illyricus writeth) were slayne by the pope.

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MarginaliaFredericus Barbarossa Emperour.And now accordyng to my promise premised, the tyme requireth to proceede to the history of Fridericus the first (called Barbarossa) successor vnto Conradus in the Empire, who marched vp to Italy, to subdue there certaine rebels. 

Commentary  *  Close
Frederick Barbarossa

The legend that Pope Alexander III trod on the neck of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa has no basis in fact. It was first circulated by partisans of Alexander III and it was widely repeated throughout the Middle Ages. It was seized upon by the Protestants and joined the humiliation of Emperor Henry IV at Canossa as a classic example of the overweening pretensions of of the papacy to secular jurisdiction. Foxe's account of Barbarossa first appeared in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without change in subsequent editions. Apart from Barbarossa's letter to his subjects, proclaiming his authority to be superior to that of Pope Hadrian IV - and which comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausbourg, 1562), pp. 247-9 - this entire account is taken from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 178-80 and 200-2.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

The pope hearyng that, came with his cleargy to mete him by the way, in a towne called Sutrium, thinkyng by him to finde ayde agaynst his enemies. The Emperour seyng the byshop: lighteth of his horse to receiue him, holdying the stirrup to the Prelate on the left side, whan he should have held it on þe right: MarginaliaThe pope displeased, that the Emperour did not hold hys right styrrup.wherat þe pope shewed himself somwhat agreued. The Emperour smilyng, excused hymselfe that he was neuer accustomed to hold stirrups. And seyng it was done onely of good wil and of no duety, the lesse matter was, what side of the horse he held. MarginaliaThe Emperour holdeth the popes stiyrup.The next day to make amendes agayne to the Byshop: the Emperour sendyng for him, receiued him holdyng the right stirrup to the prelate, and so all the matter was made whole, and he the popes owne white sonne agayne.

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After this, as they were come in and sate together: Hadrianus the pope begynneth to declare vnto him, how his auncitors before him (such as sought to the sea of Rome for the crowne) were wont alwayes to leaue behynde them some speciall token or monumKt of their beneuolence, for the obteyning therof: MarginaliaThe popes olde practise in setting princes together by the eares.as Carolus Magnus in subduyng the Lōbardes: Ottho, the Berengariās: Lotharius, the Nor-mandes, &c. Wherfore, he required some benefite to proceede likewise from him to the Church of Rome, in restoryng agayne the countrey of Apulia, to the Church of Rome. Which thyng if he would do, he for his part agayne would do that which appertained to him to do: (meaning in geuing him the crown) for at that tyme the Popes had brought the Emperonrs, to fetch their crowne at their handes.

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Frederike with his princes perceyuyng, that vnlesse he would of his owne proper costes & charges fetch in agayne Apulia out of duke Williams handes, he could not spede of the crowne: was fayne to promise to all that the pope required, and so the next day after was crowned.

This done, the Emperour returneth into Germany, to refresh his army & his other furnitures, for the subduing of Apulia. In the meane while, Hadrianus not thinkyng to be idle: first geueth forth censures of excommunication agaynst William Duke of Apulia. Besides (not content with this) sendeth also to Emanuell emperour of Cōstantinople, incensing him to warre agaynst the foresayd William. The duke perceauyng this, sendeth to the pope for peace, promising to restore to him whatsoeuer he would.

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MarginaliaWarre more gainefull to the Pope then peace
Warre styrred vp by the Pope.
But the Pope through the inalignant counsell of his Cardinals, would graūt to no peace: thinkyng to get more by warre. The Duke seyng nothyng but warre, prepareth himself with all expeditiō to the same. To be brief, making all his power out of Sicilia, he arriueth at Apulia, & there putteth Emanuell the Emperour to flight. This done, he procedeth to the Citie Bonauenture, where the pope with his Cardinals were lookyng for victory. He plantyng there his siege, so straitly pressed the City: MarginaliaThe pope driuen to entreate for peace.that the pope with his Cardinals were glad to intreate for peace, which they refused before. The Duke graunted to their peace vpon certaine conditions: that is, that neither he should inuade such possessions as belonged to Rome, and that the pope should make hym kyng of both Siciles. So the matter was concluded, and they departed. The byshop commyng to Rome, was no lesse troubled there about their Consuls and Senators. In so much, that when his curses and excommunications could not preuayle nor serue, he was fayne to leaue Rome, and remoued to Ariminum.

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The Emperour all this while, sittyng quietly at home: began to consider with himselfe, how the Pope had extorted from the Emperours (his precedessors) the inuestyng and induyng of Prelates: how he had pylled and poled all nations by his Legates: and also had bene the sower of seditions through al his Impery: MarginaliaThe godly proceedings of Fridericke the Emperour agaynst the Pope.he began therfore to require of all the Byshops of Germany homagium, and othe of their allegiance: Commaundyng also the popes Legates, if they came into Germany without his sendyng for, not to be receiued. Charging moreouer all his subiectes, that none of them should appeale to Rome. Besides this, in his letters he set and prefixed his name, before the Popes name. Wherupon the Pope beyng not a litle offended, directed hys letters to the foresayd Fridericke Emperour, after this tenor and forme as foloweth.

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¶ The copy of Hadrianus the Popes letters, to Fridericke the Emperour.

MarginaliaA letter of Pope Hadrian, to the Emperour Fridericke.HAdrianus Episcopus seruus seruorum Dei, Friderico Imperatori saluten, & Apostolicam benedictionem. Cætera vide in periori æditione. In English.

Hadrian byshop, seruaunt of the seruantes of God, to Fridericke Emperour health and Apostolicall benediction. The law of God, as it promiseth to them that honour father and mother long lyfe: so it threateneth the sentence of death to them that curse father and mother. We are taught by the word of truth, that euery one which exalteth hymselfe, shalbe brought low. Wherfore (my welbeloued sonne in the lord) we maruell not a litle at your wisdome: in that you seme not to shew that reuerence to blessed S. Peter and to the holy church of Rome, which you ought to shew. For why, in your letters sent to vs, you preferre your owne name before ours: wherin you incurre the note of insolencie, yea (and rather to speake of it) of arrogancie. MarginaliaThe Emperours name before the Popes.What shoulde I here recite vnto you, the othe of your fidelitie, which you sware to blessed S. Peter and to vs, and how you obserue and kepe the same? Seyng you so require homage and allegiance of them that be Gods, and all the sonnes of the high God, and presume to ioyne their holy hands with yours: working contrary to vs? Seyng also you exclude (not onely out of your churches, but also out of your cities) our Cardinals, whom we direct as Legates from our side: what shall I say then vnto you? Amend therefore, I aduise you, amend: for while you go about to obtayne of vs your conse-

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