Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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325 [324]

K. Henry.3. Fredericke.2. Emp. Pope Innocentius.3.

therefore was an earnest suter for him to the Pope to haue hym released, yet neyther he, nor the kyng of England by any meanes could obtayne it. MarginaliaHow Friderike the Emperour might haue serued in good stead agaynst the Saracens but the Pope would not suffer hym.And although the Emperor hymselfe offred to Pope Innocent wyth all humble submission to make satisfaction in the Councell of Lyons, promising also to expugne all the dominions of the Saracens, and neuer to returne into Europe agayne, and there to recouer, whatsoeuer the Christians had lost, so that the pope would onely graunt hys sonne Henry to be emperour after hym: MarginaliaThe tyranny and deuelishe mischiefe of the Pope agaynst the Emperour.yet the proude Pope woulde not be mollified, but would needes proceede agaynst hym with both swordes, that is, first wyth the spirituall sword to accurse him, and then with the temporall to depose hym frō his Emperiall throne. Through the occasion wherof, not only the french kyngs power went to wracke, but also such a fire of mischiefe was kindled agaynst all Christendome, as yet to thys day can not be quenched. For after this ouerthrow of the French kyng and his army, the Christians of Antioch and of other Christien regions thereaboutes, being vtterly discouraged, gaue ouer their holdes and cities. Wherby the Saracens, and after them the Turkes, got such an hand ouer Christendome, as to this day we all haue great cause to rue and lament. Besides this, where diuers Christians were crossed to go ouer and helpe the French kyng, the Pope for money dispensed wyth them to tarry styll at home.

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But as I sayd, the greatest cause was, that the Emperour, which could haue done most, was deposed by the Popes tyranny, wherby all those Churches in Asia were left desolate. As touching the which Emperour Friderike, because we haue diuers and sundry times made mētion of hym before, and for that hys story is straunge, hys actes wonderous, and hys conflictes tragicall, which he sustayned agaynst iiij. or v. Popes one after an other, I thought not out of story in a whole narration to set forth the same, for the reader to consider, what is to be iudged of thys Cathedrall Sea of Rome, which hath wrought such abominable mischiefe in the world, as in the sequele of the story folowing faithfully translated out of Latin into Englishe is to be seene.

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¶ The whole tragicall history of Fridericke. 2. Emperour, translated out of the Latine booke of Nic. Cisnerus 
Commentary  *  Close
Frederick II

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

MarginaliaWhat house Friderick came of.FRidericke the second, came out of the auncient house of the Beblines or Gibellines: which Gibellines came of the most famous stocke of the french kinges & Emperours.

MarginaliaWhat father and mother.He had Friderike Barbarossa to his graundfather, whose sonne Hēricus the 6. was emperour after him: who of Constantia, the daughter (or as some wright the neece) of Roger the first, kyng of Sicile: he begatte thys Friderike the second.

MarginaliaThe tyme and maner of his birth.This Constātia was 50. yeares of age before she was conceiued with him: whome the Emperour Henry 6. to auoyde all doubt and surmise that of her conception and childing might be thought, and to the perill of the empire ensue: caused his regall tēt to be pitched abroade in a place where euery man might resort. And when the time of his queenes trauaile approched, Cōstantia (in presence of diuers ladies, matrones, & other Gentle womē of the empire, a great number) was brought a bedde & deliuered of this Friderike: the vij. day before the Calendes of Ianuary, in þe yeare of Christes incarnation, 1193. who by inheritaunce was kyng of Naples, Apulia, Calabria, and Sicilia.

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Henricus his father shortly after he was borne, obtained of the princes electors: that by their othe to him geuen, they would chuse his sonne Friderike for their emperour after his decease, and so did, and immediatly called him Cesar, being yet but in his cradle.

This Henry when he dyed (which was shortly after þe birth of Friderike) committed the protection of him to Constantia his wyfe, to Phillip his brother chiefe gouernour of Hetruria, and to the Byshop of Rome, then Innocentius the third.

MarginaliaWhat patrones he had.Constantia, not long after the death of Henry her husband being sickly and growinge into age, and thereby not so well able to gouerne the troblous and vnquiete state of þe Empire, resigned and willed by her testament, the safetye both of her sonne Friderik and also of his dominions, to the protection and gouernment of Innocēt the 3. thinking thereby safely to haue prouided, &c.

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This pope Innocent, assone as he had the protection of the young emperour and his Segniories: became in steade of a patron and protector, to him and to his dominions both MarginaliaThe conspiracies of pope Innocent against Friderike during his minoritie.
The 1. conspiracy.
an enemy and conspiratour. The examples are many: One is, he perswaded Sibil the late wyfe of Tancredus (whō Henry put from the kingdome of Sicile) to recouer þe same agayne, and that she shuld thereunto require Phillip the French kynges ayde: Wherupon, one Waltherus being of the noble house of the earles of Brenno which in þe prouince of Barrencecis had great lyuing, and marieng with Ateria the eldest daughter of Trancredus once kyng of Sicile as is sayd: now by the instigation, counsell, and ayde of þe French kyng with the pope (well hoping to recouer the kyngdom) entred and inuaded with great power Cāpania, and Apulia. At whiche tyme also the same worthy protectour Innocentius the third, sent his legates with letters of excommunication against all those that would not admit and take the sayd Waltherus for their kyng. MarginaliaThe 2. cōspiracie.

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An other was, that where the princes Electours and other nobles as before is sayd had promised by their othe to Henricus, that they would make Friderick his sonne emperour after his dissease (whome þe pope saw to put their indeuour therunto to bryng to passe) absolued thē all frō the othe which they had taken and geuen for the election of Fridericke the emperour, as one not content he should obtaine the same: And further, he raysed slaunders and MarginaliaThe 3. cāspiracie.defamations against Phillip, whom the electours had chosen to gouerne the empire during the minority of Friderike hys nephew. He wrote his epistle (which is yet extant) to the duke Barthold of Zaringia to be emperor: Who, for that he gaue place to Phillip, he went aboute to procure, that Otho the son of Henry Leo should be made emperour, and þt the princes and lordes electours of Germany, would crowne him forth with after þe maner of Aquisgraue. MarginaliaThe 4. cōspiracie.He depriued all such byshops as he knew to fauour Philip as emperour, in the defence of his nephewes right. But Phillip, whose cause was better, his skill in martiall affaires greater, & in power & strength mightier: after diuers & great conflicts to the maruelous disturbaunce and vastation of the whole empire, by gods help he put þe other to þe worse. All which calamities & mischiefes Conradus Lichtenanus at that tyme lyuing, in his Annales most pitifully complaineth of: and accuseth the B. of Rome & his adherentes to be the chiefe authors and deuisours of this great & lamentable mischiefe: as such, that for to make themselues rich by the spoyle therof, sought by all meanes and desired the same.

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MarginaliaThe 5. cōspiracie.Not long after a peace was concluded betwene Phillip and Otho, and Phillip reconciled againe to the pope: MarginaliaPhilip slayne.who within a while after betwene Otho and hym was murdered in hys chamber and slayne. And then was Otho agayne brought to the imperiall seat, and new elected for Emperour, with the counsel and consent of thys Innocent the thyrd: MarginaliaVariance betwen Otho & the pope.and so continued till that a great variaunce and discorde chaunced to rise betwene the said Otho & the pope. Wherupō, Innocentius sought by all meanes, how against hym in likewise, he myght worke mischiefe and bring hym to hys end. The occasion of this sodayne chaunge and alteration my author maketh no mention of, but that Otho (now beyng of great power) inuaded and destroyed these dominions of Friderike, as Flamminia, Picenum, Vmbria, Hetruria, but chiefly Campania, and Apulia, for that those properly appertayned to the inheritaunce of Friderike.

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Thus you see, how first by the counsell and consent of Pope Innocentius and by his instigation, beside hys secret conspiracies: thys good Friderike and hys dominions were hurt and indamaged. Then agayne, through hys default what damage he sustayned by Otho, who by hym and hys meanes was made so strong as he was: notwithstanding, the great trust he was put in for the protection both of Fridericke and his dominions.

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MarginaliaWhat learning & knowledge he was of.At this tyme, Friderike was come to the age of xx. yeares: who in hys youth by the prouision of Constantia hys mother, was so well instructed in letters, and in other artes and vertues so imbued: that at these yeares there appeared and did shyne in hym, excellent giftes both of wysdome and knowledge.

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MarginaliaWhat vertues indued he was wyth.He was excellently well seene in the Latine & greeke tongue: although at that tyme learnyng began to decay & barbarousnes to increase. He had also the Germain tōgue, the Italian tounge, and the Saracen tongue. He dayly exercised and put in practise those vertues which nature had planted in hym, as pietie, wisedome, iustice, and fortitude: in so much, that well he might be compared and accompted amongest the worthiest and most renowmed Emperours his predecessours.

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Fazellus (the historician of Sicilia in thys tyme) writeth, that Fridericus was agayne after thys had in great honour and estimation wyth Innocentius: but yet not-

withstan-
Dd.i.
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