Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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356 [355]

K. Henry.3. Certaine of the Popes clarkes murdered. Pope Alexander.

MarginaliaThe pope iniurios to the church of England.ped power of the Pope hath violently and presumptuously encroched vpon the Church of England, in geuyng & conferryng benefices and prebendes to his Italians & straungers, to the great damage and ruine of Christes flocke manifold wayes. 

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Papal oppression and Alexander IV

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

This violent iniury and oppressiō of the pope as by no lawfull and gentle meanes could be reformed: so by occasion and meanes inordinate about this tyme, it began somwhat to be bridled. The matter wherof was this, as it is in the collector of Flor. Hist. recited. In the dayes of the raigne of this kyng 44. The Byshop of London named Fulco, had geuen a certaine prebend in the Church of S. Paul, to one maister Rustandus the Popes messenger here in Englād. Who entryng into the professiō of the gray friers, and shortly after dying on the other side of the Sea: MarginaliaA prebendship of Paules geuen both of the pope and of the king at one time to two seuerall persons.the Pope immediatly conferred the sayd prebend to one of his specials, a lyke straūger, as the other was before. About the same instant it befell, that the Bishop also of London deceased, wherby the byshopricke nowe vacant fell into the kings handes. Who hearyng of the death of the forenamed Rustandus, gaue the sayd prebendshyp (geuen of the Pope before) to one Iohn Crakehale his vnder treasurer. Who with all solemnitie tooke his installation, vnknowyng as yet that it was bestowed of the pope before. It was not long after as tyme grew, but this beyng noysed at Rome, forthwith commeth downe a certaine Proctor named Iohn Gras with the Popes embulled letters, to receaue the collation of the benefice by his commission procuratory, geuen by the pope: wherin Iohn Crakhale had bene alredy installed, as is aforesayd, by the kynges donation. MarginaliaThe popes donation preferred before the kinges.This matter comming in trauise before Boniface Archbyshop of Canterbury, he inquiryng and searchyng which donation was the first, findyng the popes graunt to be the former, gaue sentence with him agaynst the kyng: so that in conclusion, the Romane clarke had the aduaūtage of the benefice, although the other had long enioyed the possessiō therof before. Thus the popes man beyng preferred, and the Englishman excluded, after the partie had bene inuested and stalled after the vse & maner, he as thinkyng to be in sure possession of his place, attempted with the rest to enter the Chapter house, but was not permitted so to do: wherupon the Popes clarke geuing place to force and number, went toward the Archbyshop to complayne. MarginaliaTwo Romaine clarkes goyng to complayne were slayne by the wayThis beyng knowne, certaine recluses pursued hym, and so beyng compassed about, one in the thicknes of the throng beyng neuer after knowne, sodenly rushing vpon hym, a litle aboue his eyes so pareth of his head, that he fell downe dead. The same also was done to another of his felowes in fleyng away. This haynous murder beyng famed abroad, straite inquirie therof was made, but the deede doer could not be knowen. Although great suspition was layde vpon Crakhale the kynges Chaplen, yet no proofe could be brought. But most men thought, that bloudy fact to be done by certaine ruffines, or other light persons about the citie or the Court, disdainyng belike, that the Romanes were so enriched with Englishmens liuynges, by whom neither came relief to any Englishman, nor any godly instruction to the flocke of Christ. And therfore, because they saw the Church and Realme of England in such subiection, and so much to be troden downe by the Romanes and the Popes messēgers: they thought therby somthing to bridle, as with a snaffel, the Popes messengers, from their vntemperate rangyng into this land. Ex Flor. histo.

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MarginaliaThe story of Math. paris. here ceaseth.¶ Here by the way is to be noted, that vnto death of this foresayd Fulco Byshop of London, continueth the history of Mathew Paris mōke of S. Albons, which was to the yeare of grace. 1260 The residue was continued by an other Monke of the same house, but not with such lyke commendation, worthy to make any autentike story, as I haue sene it noted in a written booke.

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It were to tedious and curious in order to prosecute what happened in euery yeare, through this kinges raigne: as how it was prouided by the king, that who soeuer could despend. xv. li. land by yeare, should be bound to make the kyng a soldiour: that watch should be kept euery night in Cities: that who soeuer was robbed or otherwise damnified in any country, he that had the custody, should be compelled to make vp the losse agayn, or els to pursue the malefactor, which was an. 1253. witnessyng Flores Hist. Item, how the kyng makyng his viage into Vascone, his expenses were reckened to mount to. xxvij. hundreth thousand Markes, beside. xxx. thousand Markes bestowed vpon his brethren by the mother side, and beside other great giftes geuen abroad. By reason wherof, great taxes and tolonies and tenthes were required of his subiects, especially of the Churchmen: who were wont to receaue tythes of other, now were cōstrained to geue tythes to the laity. Flores Hist. an. 1254. Item, how in the yeare next folowing, the Londo-ners offring a C. li. for a gift to the kyng with a precious cup of gold, at his returne out of Fraunce, were shortly after compelled by the kyng to pay. 3000. Markes, for the scape of a certaine prisoner being a clarke condemned: which clarke beyng graunted of the kyng to the byshop, and he hauyng no prison sufficient for him, borowed of the Londiners to haue him kept in the prison of Newgate, who escapyng thereout, they as is sayd, were demaunded this recompence aforesayd. an. 1255. Item, how the kyng greatly complayning of his debt, the same yeare required the whole tenthes, which should be gathered in. 3. yeares, to be takē vp all at once. To whose request, the nobles and commons agreed to strayne themselues, so that the charter of their liberties and customes might be ratefied, and fully by him cōfirmed. And so for that yeare they were Flores Hist. MarginaliaPope Alexander 3 maketh warreItem, how Pope Alexander the 3. to destroy the Citie Michera, with Kyng Mērrede the sonne of Fridericke the Emperour, sent forth the same yeare Octauianus his Cardinall with a puisaunt army: MarginaliaThe popes armie slaine.who commyng to the Citie with his siege, through the coūsayle of Marchisius one of the chief Captaines, discharged a great part of his host, wherby the most of þe popes army was slayne and destroyed, almost all, saue onely the familie of Marchisius an. 1255. Flor. Mat. Parisiens.

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MarginaliaLewlinus K. of Wales warreth agaynst the kyng.Many other thynges during the tyme of this kyng might be congested, as the rising of Lewlynus kyng of Wales and of the welshmen against the kyng and wasting the land vnto the towne of Chester, who destroyed diuers of the Englishmen horsemen, taken in the Marres, MarginaliaLewlinus & the king cōcorded.with whom at length they fell to agrement by the meanes of Octobonus: and his successors should be called princes onely of Wales, and should do the kyng his homage. And the king of hym to receaue. 3000. Markes. And this beyng stablished in writyng, was cōfirmed by the popes seale. an. 1257. Ex Polychron.

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MarginaliaEx polychronico. lib. 7.About the same tyme, such famine oppressed the land and lacke of victuals, that a somme of corne was then sold for. 26 shillings: in somuch, that the pouerty were forced to eate nettle rootes, thyssell rootes, & whatsoeuer they could get. Ex Eulogio. MarginaliaEx Autore Eulogij.
1257.
Although some referre this to the yeare. 1262.

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MarginaliaPope Alexander to make shifte for money maketh the king beleue hys sonne should be kyng of Apulia.Hereunto moreouer might be adioyned, howe Pope Alexander abusing and mockyng the kynges simplicity, made him beleue that he would make his sonne Edmund king of Apulia, so that he would sustaine the chages and costes therof, to maintayne the warre which thereto should appertaine. Whereby the kyng cast in a sodaine hope, caused his sonne incontinent to be proclaimed kyng of Apulia. And vpon the same sent vp to the Pope all the riches he could wel make in his Realme. And thus was the Realme manifold wayes, miserably impouereshed to enrich the Pope. Ex Flor. Hist. MarginaliaRichard the kynges brother made kyng of Almayne.About which season, Rich. Earle of Exeter the kings brother, was made kyng of Almaine by the Electours.

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Here might bee shewed moreouer, and added to the stories aboue, how the yeare next folowing, which was 1259. (as Nicolas Triuet writeth) the K. entryng into Fraūce, required the restitution of such landes in Normandy and Angew as of old right was due vnto him & wrōgfully withholden from him. But the French kyng agayne alledged, saying: that the countrey of Normādy by old tyme was not geuen away from the crowne of Fraunce, but vsurped, and by force extorted by Rollo. &c. In conclusion, the kyng fearyng and suspectyng the hartes of his nobles, and lookyng for none other but for rebellion at home, durst not try with them, but was compelled to agree with them vpon such peace and conditions as he could get, which was this. MarginaliaWhat ciuill discorde worketh.That he should haue of the French kyng xiij. hundreth thousand of Turen poundes, with somuch landes els, as came to the value of xx. thousand pound in yearely rent: so should he resigne fully and purely to the handes of the French kyng, all such landes and possessions which he had in Fraūce. MarginaliaResignation of the earledome of Normandy and Angeow.Wherby the kyng geuyng ouer his stile and titles which he had in those partes, ceased then to be called Duke of Normādy, or Earle of Angeow.

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Albeit if it be true that Gisburne writeth, the kyng afterward repentyng of his deede, did neuer receaue the money in all his lyfe, neither did he cease duryng his lyfe, to entitle himselfe Duke of Normādy. But after him, his sonne Edward and his successor in their stile left out the title, to be called Duke of Normandy. &c. Ex Gisburn. MarginaliaEx Gualt. Gisburn.

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MarginaliaThe cōflicte & skirmishe betwene the Northern Welchmē, & the Southerne men in Oxford.Beside many other matters omitted, here I ouerpasse also the sore and vehement conflict, not betwene the Frogs & the Myse which Homer writeth of, but the mighty pitched field fought in the yeare of our Lord. 1259. betwene the young studentes and scholers of the vniuersity of Oxford, 

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Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

hauing no other occasion (as I read in Mat. Parisiens.) but onely the diuersitie of the countrey where they were borne. For the Northern men ioyning with the welshmen,

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