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449 [425]

K. Richard. 2. The history of Iohn Wickliffe.

and to cary the same before him. Which being done, and perceiued of the commons: MarginaliaThe towne of Lennam ryseth agaynst the Byshop. the Bishop after that maner went not farre, but the rude people runnyng to shutte the gates, came out with their bowes, some with clobbes and staues, some with other instruments, some with stones, & let driue at the Bishop and his men, as fast as they might: in such sort, that both þe bishop and his horse vnder him with most part of his mē were hurt and wounded. And thus the glorious pride of this ioly prelate, ruffling in hys new scepter, was receiued and welcomed there. That is, was so pelted with battes and stones, so wounded with arrowes and other instruments fit for such a skirmish, that the most part of his men, with his mace bearer, and all running away frō him, the poore wounded bishop was there left alone, not able to kepe his olde power, which went about to vsurpe a new power more then to him belonged. MarginaliaPride wyll haue a fall. Power vsurped will neuer stand. Thus as it is commonly true in all, so is it well exemplified here, which is cōmonly sayd, and as it is commonly sene, that pride will haue a fall, and power vsurped will neuer stand. MarginaliaThe vsurped power of the pope would haue a bridle. In like maner if the citizens of Rome, followyng the example of these Lēnam men, as they haue the lyke cause, and greater to do, by the vsurped power of their Bishop, would after the same sauce handle the Pope, and vnscepter him of his mace and regalitie which nothing perteyneth to him: They in so doyng both should recouer their owne liberties, with more honour at home, and also win much more cōmendation abroad Ex Chron. mon. D. Albani.

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Marginalia1377.
The death of K. Edward.
This tragedy with all the partes therof, 

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End of Edward III's reign

Apart from some closing comments praising Edward III for thwarting papal claims to jurisdiction over and in the English Church, which appeared in all editions from 1570 onwards, the material in this section consisted of a writ sent by Edward III in 1374 ordering that a list be made of English benefices held by foreigners and a list, dated in 1379, of ecclesiastical benefices in England, which were held by the cardinals. These materials came to Foxe from the Tower records and were added to the 1583 edition. Foxe's purpose in presenting these materials was to show that papal authority over the English Church placed much of its revenues in foreign hands and materially weakened both the monarch and the kingdom.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

beyng thus ended at Lennam, 
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I.e., Lynn.

which was little after Easter (as is said) about the moneth of Aprill. an. 1377. the same yere, vpon the 21. day of the month of Iune next after, dyed the worthy and victorious prince king Edward the 3. after he had raigned yeres 51. a Prince no more aged in yeres then renoumed, for many singuler and heroicall vertues, but principally noted and lauded for his singular mekenes and clemency toward hys subiects and inferiours, ruling them by gentlenes and mercy, without all rigour or austere seueritie. Among other noble and royall ornaments of his nature, worthely and copiously set forth of many, thus he is described of some, which may briefly suffice for the comprehension of all the rest. 
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This quotation is from College of Arms MS Arundel 7, a transcript of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora, covering the years 1377-82. (See Thomas Walsingham , quondam monachi S. Albani historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 64 [1874], I, pp. 327-8).

MarginaliaThe commēdation of K. Edward. Orphanis erat quasi pater, afflictis compatiens, miseris condolens, oppressos releuans, & cunctis indigētibus impēdens auxllia oportuna. That is. To the orphans he was as a father, compacient to the afflicted, mournyng with the miserable, releuyng the oppressed, and to all them that wanted an helper in tyme of nede. &c. But chiefly aboue all other thinges, in this prince to be commemorate, in my mind is this: 
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This is Foxe's opinion, not Walsingham's.

that he aboue all other kinges of this realme vnto þe tyme of K. Henry 8. was the greatest bridler of the Popes vsurped power and outragious oppressiōs during all the time of which king, neither the Pope coulde greatly preuaile in this realme, ~& also Ihon Wickleffe was mainteined with fauour and aide sufficient

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King Richard the second.

MarginaliaK. Richard 2. AFter 

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Papal condemnation of Wiclif

Almost all of Foxe's account of Wiclif during the turbulent years of 1377-8 is taken from the version of Thomas Walsingham's chronicle contained in College of Arms MS 7. This MS was printed as the Historia Anglicana and reliably edited by H. T. Riley for the Rolls Society No. 28. 2 vols. (London, 1863-4). Although Foxe had this MS in his possession since the early 1550s - it was a work he drew on extensively for the Commentarii - he seems to have re-consulted it before composing this section of the 1570 edition, as new material from Arundel 7 is added to it. Gregory XI's letter to Richard II, the interventions of Sir Lewis Clifford and the London mob on Wiclif's behalf, Wiclif's protestation of his innocence, his conclusions and his commentary on the articles attributed to him, the deaths of Gregory XI and Archbishop Sudbury, and William Berton's persecution all appear in the Commentarii (fos. 10v-12r and 15r-27r) and are reprinted faithfully in Rerum (pp. 5 and 7-13) and in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. (Gregory XI's bull, Wiclif's commentary and the account of Berton's persecution are taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum but all the other material came from Arundel MS 7). A sharp denunciation of the iniquity of executing people deemed to be heretics was printed in the Commentarii (fos. 12r-15r), reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 6-7) and the 1563 edition, but was dropped thereafter. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the articles from Wiclif's sermons, background to Gregory XI's bull and an expanded version of Wiclif's conclusions, all taken from Arundel MS 7. He also added a summary of the papal schism which broke out after Gregory XI's death, which is taken from Bale's Catalogus. There were no further changes to this material in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

K Edward 3. succeded his sonnes sonne Richard the 2. being yet but yong, of the age of eleuen yeares: who in the same yeare of his fathers 
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Actually his grandfather's steps - Richard II was Edward III's grandson.

decease, with great pompe and solemnitie was crowned at Westminster, an. 1377. Who following his fathers steps, was no great disfauorer of the doctrine and way of Wickliffe: albeit at the first beginnyng, partly through the iniquitie of time, partly through the Popes letters, he could not doe that he would. Notwithstanding some thing he did in that behalfe, more perhaps then in the end hee had thanke for of the Papistes, as more (by the grace of Christ) shall appeare. But as times doe chaunge, so chaungeth commonly the cause and state of men. The byshops seeing now the aged king to bee taken away, during þe time of whose olde age all the gouernment of the Realm depended vpon the Duke of Lancaster. MarginaliaThe byshops take vantage of tyme. And now the sayd byshops agayne seeing the sayde Duke, with the Lord Percy, the Lorde marshal to geue ouer their offices, and to remaine in their priuate houses without intermedlinge, thought now the time to serue them, to haue some vauntage agaynst Ihon Wickliffe, who hetherto vnder the protection of the foresayd Duke, and Lord Marshall had some rest and quiet. Cōcernyng the story of which Wickliffe, I trust (gentle reader) it is not out of thy memory what wēt before. pag. 423. col. 2. how he beyng broght before the bishops, by the meanes of the duke and lord Henry Percy, the councell was interrupted, and brake vp before ix. of the clocke. By reason wherof, Wickliffe at that tyme escaped without any further trouble. Who notwith standyng being by the Byshops forbyd to deale in that doctrine any more, continued yet with his felowes goyng barefoote, and in long frise gownes preaching diligentlye vnto the people. Out of whose sermons these articles most chiefly at that time were collected.

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MarginaliaThe first article collected out of Wickliffes sermons. 

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Foxe took these articles from Arundel MS 7 (see Historia Anglicana,ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Society 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, pp. 324-5). Foxe abridges these articles somewhat, but he is faithful to their general meaning.

That the holy Eucharist after the consecration, is not the very body of Christ, but figurally.

That the church of Rome, is not the head of all Churches more then any other Churche is: nor that Peter hath any more power geuen of Christ, then any other Apostle hath.

Item, that the Pope of Rome hath no more in the keyes of the Church, then hath any other within the order of Priesthode.

Item, if God be: the Lordes temporall may lawfullye and meretoriously take away their temporalities from the churchemen offending, habitualiter.

Item, if any temporall Lord do know the Churcheso offending, he is bound vnder payne of damnation, to take the temporalities from the same.

Item, that the Gospell is a rule sufficient of it selfe to rule the life of euery Christyan man here, without any other rule.

Item, that all other rules vnder whose obseruancies, diuers religious persons be gouerned, do adde no more perfection to the gospell, then doth the white colour to the wall.

Item, that neither the Pope nor any other Prelate of the church ought to haue prisons wherein to punish transgressours.

MarginaliaThe articles of Iohn Wickliffe sent to the pope. Pope Gregory the xi. Beside these articles, diuers other conclusions afterward were gathered out of his writinges and preachinges by the bishops of England, which they sent diligently to Pope Gregory at Rome: Where the sayd articles being red and perused, were condemned for hereticall and erroneous by 23. Cardinals.

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MarginaliaWickliffe called before the Archbishop of Cant. In the meane tyme the Archbishop of Canterbury, sēding forth his citacions, as is aforesayd: called before him þe sayd Iohn Wickliffe in the presence of the Duke of Lancaster and lord Percy, who vpon the declaration of þe Popes letters made, bound hym to silence, forbiddyng hym not to entreat any more of those matters. But then through the disturbance of the Bishop of London and the Duke, and lord Percy that matter was soone dispatched, as hath bene aboue recorded, pag. 423. And all this was done in þe dayes & last yeare of kyng Edward the third, and Pope Gregory the eleuenth.

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MarginaliaAn. 1378. 

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Foxe is taking this date straight from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Society 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 345). Actually the bulls were received in Oxford a few days before Christmas 1377. As Foxe observes, after printing the bull, Gregory XI issued five bulls condemning the opinions of Wiclif; three of which were sent jointly to the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, a further one being sent to Richard II and the last one being sent to the chancellor of the University of Oxford. Foxe is reprinting the copy of the Oxford bull, contained in the Fasciculi Zianiorum.

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The next yeare followyng, which was the yeare of our Lord. 1378. being the first yeare of king Richard the secōd. MarginaliaEdmund Stafford bringer of the popes bull. The sayd Pope Gregory taking his tyme, after the death of king Edward, sendeth his Bul by the handes & meanes (peraduenture) of one maister Edmund Stafford, directed vnto the vniuersity of Oxford, rebuking them sharply imperiously and like a Pope, for suffring so long the doctrine of Iohn Wickliffe to take roote, and not pluckyng it vp with the crooked cicle of their Catholicke doctrine. MarginaliaThe masters of Oxford doubt whether to receiue or reiecte the Popes bull. Which Bull when it came to be exhibited vnto their handes, by the Popes messenger aforesayd: the Proctors and maisters of the Vniuersitie ioyning together in consultation stood long in doubt deliberatyng with themselues whether to receyue the Popes Bull with honour, or to refuse and reiecte it with shame.

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I cannot here but laugh in my minde to behold the authors of this story whom I folow: what exclamations, what wonderinges and maruels, they make at these Oxford men, for so doubting at a matter so playne, so manifest of it selfe (as they say) whether the popes bul sent to them frō Rome was to be receaued or contrary. Which thing to our monkish wryters seemed then such a prodigious woonder, that they with blushing cheekes are fayne to cut of the matter in the middest with silence.

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The copye of this wilde Bull, sent to them from the Pope, was this. 

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Foxe is taking the copy of the bull from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum - see Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos 63v-64r.

¶ Gregory the bishop, the seruant of Gods seruantes, to his welbeloued sonnes, the Chauncellour and Vniuersitie of Oxford, in the diocesse of Lincolne greetyng, and Apostolicall benediction.

MarginaliaThe popes mad Bull sent to Oxford. WE are compelled not onely to maruel, but also to lamēt that you (considering the Apostolicall seate hath geuen vnto your vniuersitie of Oxford so great fauour and priuiledge, & also for that you flowe as in a large sea in the knowledge of the holye Scriptures, and ought to be champions and defenders of the auncient and catholicke faythe,

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without
Oo.iij.
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