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453 [429]

K. Richard. 2. The history of Iohn Wickliffe.

men abusing the same, habitualiter.

☞ The reason therof is playne, for that temporall Lordes ought rather to leane to spirituall almes, which bryngeth with it greater fruite, then to corporall almes the case so stādyng, that some tyme it were a necessary worke of spirituall almes, to chastise such Clerkes by takyng from them their temporall liuynges, which vse to abuse the same to the damnyfyeng both of their soule and body. The case, which the law doth limite in this matter, were the defect of correcting his spirituall head or els for lacke of correctyng the fayth of þe Clerke which so offendeth, as appeareth 16. q. 7. filijs, Dist. 40 cap. Si papa. Marginalia16. q. 7. filijs.

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27. Whether they be temporall Lordes, or any other men whatsoeuer, which haue endued any Church with temporalties. &c.

☞ The truth hereof is euidently sene, for that, nothyng ought to stoppe a man from the principall workes of charitie necessarily, because in euery action and worke of man is to be vnderstand a priuy condition necessary of God his good will cōcurring with all, as it is in the ciuil law de c. Conradi cap 5. in fine collat. x. And yet God forbyd, that by these wordes occasion should be geuen to the Lordes temporall to take away the goodes of fortune from the Church

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18. An Ecclesiasticall minister, yea the Byshop of Rome may lawfully be rebuked of hys subiectes, and for the profite of the Churche be accused, either of the Clergy, or of the laytie.

☞ The proufe of this is manifest hereby, because the sayd Byshop of Rome is subiect to fall into the sinne agaynst the holy Ghost, as may be supposed, sauyng the sanctitude, humilitie and reuerence due to such a father. For so long as our brother is subiect vnto the infirmitie of fallyng, he lyeth vnder the law of brotherly correction. And when the whole Colledge of Cardinals may be slouthfull in ministring due correction for the necessary prosperitie of the Church: it is apparent þt the residue of the body of the church, which possibly may stand most of lay men, may wholesomly correct the same, accuse and bryng hym to a better way. The possibilitie of this case is touched. Dist. 40. Si Papa. if the pope do erre from the right fayth, &c. For like as such a great fall ought not to be supposed in the Lord Pope without manifest euidence: so agayne such an obstinacie ought not to be supposed in hym, possibly being fallen, but that he will humbly receaue the wholesome medicine of his superiour, correctyng him in the Lord. The practise of which conclusion also is testified in many Chronicles. Farre be it from the Church of Christ that veritie should be condemned, which soundeth euill to transgressours and other slouthfull persons, for then the whole fayth of the Scripture were in a damnable case.

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Thus Iohn Wickleffe in geuyng his expositiō vnto his foresayd propositions and conclusions, as is aboue prefixed, through the fauour and diligence of the Londoners, either shifted of the Bishops, or els satisfied them so: that for that tyme he was dismissed and scaped clearely away, onely beyng charged and commaunded by the sayd Byshops, that he should not teach or preach any such doctrine any more, for the offence of the lay people.

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Thus this good man beyng escaped from the Byshops, with this charge aforesayd, yet notwithstandyng, ceased not to procede in his godly purpose, labouryng and profiting still in the Church as he had begon.

Vnto whom also (as it happened by the prouidence of God) this was a great helpe and stay, for that in the same yeare, or in the begynnyng of the next yeare folowyng, MarginaliaThe death of Pope Gregory. 11. the foresayd Pope Gregory xj. which was the styrrer vp of all this trouble agaynst him, turned vp hys heeles and dyed. 

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Foxe is taking his material on the pontificate of Urban VI from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 439-40 and 487.

After whom insued such a schisme in Rome, betwene two Popes, and other succeedyng after them, one striuing agaynst an other: that the schisme therof endured the space of. xxxix. yeares, vntill the tyme of the Councell of Constaunce.

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MarginaliaVrbanus. 6. Pope.
A schisme in Rome.
The occasioner of which schisme first was Pope Vrbane the 6. who in the first begynnyng of hys Popedome was so proude and insolent to his Cardinals, and other, as to Dukes, Princes, and Queenes, and so set to aduaunce his Nephew and kyndred, with iniuries to other Princes: that the greatest number of his Cardinals and courtyours by litle & litle shronke from him, and set vp an other French Pope against him, named Clement, who reigned xj, yeares. And after hym Benedictus the 13. who reigned yeares 26. Agayne of the contrary side after Vrbanus the 6. succeeded, Boniface the 9. Innocentius the viij. Gregorius the xij. Alexander the fift, Iohn. 13.

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¶ Papæ.. yeares. mon. ¶Antipapæ. yeares.
Vrbanus. 6. 11. 8. Clement. 11.
Bonifacius. 9. 14. 9. Benedictus. 13. 26.
Innocētius. 8. 2. 0.
Gregorius. 12. 2. 7.
Alexander. 5. 0. 11.
Iohannes 13. 5. 10.

As touching thys pestilent and most miserable schisme, it would require here an other Ileade to comprehend in order all the circumstances and tragicall partes therof, what trouble in the whole church, what partes takyng in euery country, what apprehending and imprisonyng of Priestes and prelates, taken by land and sea, what shedding of bloud did folow therof. How Ottho Duke of Brunsewyke and prince of Tarentum. was taken and murthered. How Ioane Queene of Hierusalem and Sicilia hys wyfe, who before had sent to Pope Vrbane, beside other gyftes at his coronation, xl. thousande Duckets in pure golde: after by þe sayd Vrbane was cōmitted to prison, and in the same prison strangled. What Cardinals were racked, and miserably wythout all mercy tormented on gibbets to death, what slaughter of men, what battayles were fought betwene the two Popes, whereof 5000. on the one side were slaine, beside the number of them which were taken prisoners. MarginaliaWas not here a holy agreement? Of the beheadyng of. v. Cardinals together after long tormēts, and how the byshop Aquilonensis, beyng suspected of pope Vrbane, for not ryding faster wyth the pope, hys horse beyng not good, was there slayne by the Popes commaundement, sending hys soldiours vnto him, to slay him, & cut hym in peeces. All which thynges, with other diuers moe actes of horrible cruelty, happenyng in the tyme of this abhominable schisme, because they are aboundantly discoursed at full, by Theodorike Niem, Marginalia[illegible text] a Niem. [illegible text]. who was neare to the sayd Pope Vrbane, and present at all hys doinges: therefore as a thyng needles, I here pretermit, referring them who couet to be certefied more amply herein, vnto the. 3. bookes of the sayd Theodorike aboue mentioned. 

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Foxe very probably took these brief mentions of the death of Archbishop Sudbury and of the succession of William Courtenay to his see, from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 461 and II, p. 49).

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MarginaliaRebellion in England by Iacke Straw. About the same tyme, also about iij. yeares after, there fell a cruell dissention in England, betwene the cōmon people and the nobilitie, the which did not a litle disturbe and trouble the common wealth. MarginaliaSimon the archbishop beheaded. In thys tumult, Simon of Sudbury Archbyshop of Canterbury, was taken by the rusticall & rude people, and was beheaded. MarginaliaW. Courtney Archb. of Cant. In whose place after, succeeded William Courtney, which was no lesse diligent then his predecessor had bene before hym, in doyng his diligence to roote out heretickes. Notwithstanding, in the meane season Wickliffes seccte increased priuely, and dayly grew to greater force, 

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Foxe's account of Berton's persecution of Wiclif and his followers is taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos. 36r-39v).

MarginaliaBarton Chauncelour of Oxford.
An. 1380.
vntill the tyme that William Barton Vicechaunceller of Oxford, about the yeare of our lord 1380. had the whole rule of that vniuersitie: who callyng together viij. monasticall Doctours, and iiij. other, with the consent of the rest of hys affinitie, putting the commō seale of the vniuersitie vnto certaine writinges: MarginaliaAn edict agaynst the [illegible text]. he set forth an edict, declaryng vnto euery man, and threatnyng them vnder a greuous penaltie, that no men should be so hardye, hereafter to associate themselues with any of Wicliffes fauthors or fauourers: and vnto Wickliffe hymselfe, he threatned the greater excommunication, and farther imprisonement, and to all hys fautors, vnles that they after iij. dayes canonicall admonitiō or warning, or as they call it, peremptory, did repent & amend. The which thyng whē Wickliffe vnderstood, forsaking the pope and all þe clergye, he thought to appeale vnto the kynges maiestie: but the Duke of Lancaster commyng betwene, forbad hym that he shoulde not hereafter attempt or begyn any such matters, but rather submit hymselfe vnto the censure and iudgement of hys ordinary. Whereby Wickliffe beyng beset wyth troubles and vexations, as it were in the middest of the waues, he was forced once agayne to make confession of his doctrine: in the which his confession, to auoyde the rigour of thynges, he aunswered as is afore sayd, makyng hys declaration, and qualified hys assertions after such a sort, that he did mitigate and asswage the rigour of hys enemies.

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MarginaliaAn. 1382. The next yeare after, 

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Earthquake synod [1382]

Foxe's account of the Blackfriars council and his printing of the condemned articles of John Wiclif came from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum. This material was first published in the Commentarii (fos. 27r-29v) and reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 13-14) as well as all editions of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe also added two stories concerning near-miraculous events associated with Wiclif to the Rerum (p. 13); these stories were reprinted in the 1563 edition and then deleted. In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added additional material from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum and from the register of Archbishop William Courtney.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

which was 1382. by the commaundement of William Archbyshop of Canterbury, there was a cōuocation holden at Lōdon, where as Iohn Wickliffe was also commaunded to be present. But whether he there appered personally, or not, I finde it not in story certaynly affirmed. 
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In fact, Wiclif was not present at the Blackfriars council.

The mandate of the Archbishop William Courtney (sent abroad for the conuentyng together of thys councell) here foloweth vnder written, truely copied out of his owne registers. 
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Foxe's source for this document is indeed Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fo. 25r.

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MarginaliaThe mandate of the Archbishop. Memorandum, that where as well amongest the nobles as commons of thys realme of England, ther hath a

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