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508 [484]

K. Richard. 2. The examination and submission of Walter Brute.

Lord God. 1393. the sayd Walter Brute, appeared before him, sitting in Comission in the Cathedrall Churche of Hereford, at sixe of the clocke or therabout: MarginaliaByshops & Abbots, with 20. Bachelers of diuinitie, 10. Mōks, 2. Doctors of law sitting vpon Walter Brute. hauing for hys assistentes in the same place, diuers Prelates and Abbotes, and 20. Bachelers of Diuinitie, wherof. xij. were Monkes, and two doctours of the law. Amongst these was Nicholas Hereford, accompanied with many other Prelates and worshipfull men and wise Graduates in sundry faculties. Now MarginaliaNicholas Herford, there also present. was the foresayd Walter apposed of his writings aforesayd, and the contēts therin. MarginaliaThe writinges of Walter Brute examined. Earnest were they in picking out of those writings, his heresies, and in shewing his schismes, sundry errours and diuers other thinges. Now, after that they had continued all that day and the two dayes folowyng (that is Friday, Saterday, and Sonday) in their informations and examinations agaynst the same Walter Brute. The same Walter Brute submitted hymselfe to the determination of the church and to the correction of the sayd Iohn Bishop, as it appeareth worde for worde in a scrole written in the English tong: The tenour of which scrole, is as followeth.

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MarginaliaThe tenor of the submission of Walter Brute. ¶ I Walter Brute submit my selfe principally to the Euangely of Iesus Christ, and to the determination of holy kirke, and to the general Councels ef holy kirke. And to the sentence and determination of the foure Doctours of holy write, that is Austen, Ambrose, Ierome, and Gregory. And I mekly submit me to your correction, as a subiect ought to hys Byshop.

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MarginaliaThe submission of Walter Brute openly read at Herford. Which scrole as afore is recited in the English tong, the foresayd Walter Brute read, with a loude and intelligible voyce, at the Crosse in the Churchyard on Monday, that is to say, the 6. day of the sayd moneth of October, before the sermon made vnto the people in presence of the said Bishop of Herford and other aboue written, as also other Barons, knightes and noble men and clergie, and also a great multitude of people. After which readyng of the scrole, the foresaid Tho.s Crawlay bacheler of diuinitie, made the Sermon vnto the people, & toke for his theame the wordes of the Apostle to the Rom. the xj. chap. that is as followeth. Be not ouer wise in your own conceites but stand in feare, &c.

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☞ Out of these declarations and writinges of Walter Brute, the Bishop with the Monkes and Doctors aboue rehersed, did gather and draw out certayne articles, to the number of 37. which they sent to the Vniuersitie of Cambrige to be confuted 

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Summaries of answers to Brut's writings appear in Trefnant's register; they were written by John Neuton, the chancellor of Cambridge University and William Colvyll, one of his predecessors. (See Registrum Johannis Trefnant; Episcopis Herefordensis, Canterbury and York Society [London, 1916], pp. 368-76 and 376-94). But Neuton and Colvyll almost certainly attended Brut's trial rather than, as Foxe states, Brut's writings were sent to them in Cambridge.

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, vnto two learned men, M. Colwill, & M. Newton, Bachelers of diuinitie. Which M. Colwill, & Newton did both labour in the matter, to the vttermost of their cunning, in replying and aunswering to the sayde 37. articles.

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Besides them also, W. Woodford a Frier (who wrote likewyse against the articles of Wickliffe) labouryng in the same cause, made a solemne and a long tractation 

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Woodford did write against Brut, but it is not mentioned in Trefnant's register. Foxe must have picked this up from Ortwin Gratius's pronting of Woodford's list of articles against Wiclif, where Woodford mentions his writings against Brut. (See Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum [Cologne, 1535], fo. 95v). Foxe printed Woodford's list - copying Gratius - in 1570, p.551; 1576, pp. 444-5 and 1583, p. 450.

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, compilyng the articles of the sayd Brute, to þe number of 29. All which treatises, as I wish to come to the readers hande, that the slendernes of them might be knowen: so it may happen percase, that the same beyng in my handes may hereafter be further published, with other like tractations moe, as conuenient tyme for the prolixitie therof may hereafter, better serue then now.

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What after this became to this Walter Brute, or what end he had, I finde it not registred: but lyke it is, that he for this time escaped. Certain other 

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Archbishop Courteney's persecution of Lollards

In the 1570 edition, Foxe introduced further material from the register of John Tefnant, bishop of Hereford: a letter denouncing the former Lollard Nicholas Hereford, another letter purportedly written by Satan to the English clergy, two bulls from Boniface IX and two letters of Richard II. Foxe also added to this edition: documents related to Archbishop William Courtenay's visitation of Leicester in 1389 (taken from Courtenay's register) an account of Peter Pateshull's attack on the friars (which Foxe took from College of Arms MS Arundel 7) and a summary of Archbishop Thomas Arundel's funeral sermon for Richard II's queen Anne of Bohemia (which Foxe took from a MS in the Durham Cathedral Library). All of these documents added to the picture Foxe wished to create of the ubiquity of Lollard beliefs and the savage persecution they encountered.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

writings I finde moreouer, which albeit they beare no name of this Walter, nor of any certain author: yet because they are in þe same register adioyned to the history of him, I thought therfore most fit here to be inserted. Of þe which þe one was a letter sent to Nicholas Hereford a little aboue specified: who beyng at the first a great folower of Iohn Wickliffe, as appeareth before pag. 437. was now in the number of them which sate vpon this Walter, as is in the next page aboue recorded. The copy of this letter, bearing no name of any speciall author, but onely as sent by a certaine Lollard (as þe register doth terme him) is written in maner and forme as followeth. 
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As we have seen, Nicholas Hereford was one of Wiclif's earliest disciples at Oxford. He had been forced to recant and apparently he was one of the scholars Bishop Trefnant summoned to examine Walter Brut. This anonymous letter, however, appears to have been written, not only to upbraid Hereford for backsliding, but to defend William Swinderby's teachings; possibly Hereford had publicly attacked those. Foxe copied the letter from Trefnant's register; see Registrum Johannis Trefnant, Episcopi Herefordensis, ed. W. W. Capes, Canterbury and York Society (London, 1916), pp. 394-6.

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¶ Here followeth the Copy of a letter sent to maister Nicholas Hereford, by a Lollard, as in the Register it is sayd.

FOr as much as no man that putteth hys hande to the plough and looketh backe, is mete for the kyngdome of God, as our Sauiour Christ sayth: What maruell is it, although maister Nicholas Herford, which at the first (by the visitation of the spirit of God peraduenture) put hys hand, that is, gaue his diligence, vnto the plough, that is, to the sowyng of the word of God and holy scripture, as well in preaching as in doyng good workes: is now so blynde and vnskilfull to expound the Scripture, that he knoweth not what is vnderstood by the kyngdome of heauen. Truely it is no maruayle, MarginaliaNicolitan. O thou that art maister of the Nicholitanes, which like Nicholas the most false deacon, hast left or forsaken the infallible knowledge of the holy Scripture. For the true knowledge of the Theologicall veritie is shut vp as well from thee as from all the other Nicholitans followyng thy conditions, for as much as thou goest not in by the dore to expound the same Euangelicall veritie. Therefore when thou dydst recite this other day, first, the pharisaicall and hypocritical woe (nothing at all to any purpose) thou shouldst haue sayd iustly in this sort, both of thy selfe, and others thy followers and religious Antichristes: Wo be vnto vs Scribes and Pharisies, which shut vp the kyngdome of heauen, that is to say, the true knowledge of the holy Scripture, before men by our false gloses and crooked similitudes: and neither we our selues enter into the same kingdome or knowledge, nor suffer other to enter into it. Wherfore, it semeth vnto the faithfull sort, that wrongfully, falsly, and without any reuerence, ye haue expounded that text of Gregory. 1. q. 1. that is to say, Marginalia11. q. 1. ca. Quicunque studet. Quicunque studet. &c For this is the true vnderstāding of the same. Knowing first that there be some priestes after the thyng, and name onely, and doth shew that this is true: that whosoeuer studieth to receiue the holy order by geuing of mony: He is not a priest, secundum rem, & nomen But to say the truth, he desireth to be called a priest, that is to be a priest Secundum nomen tantum. And such a priest which is a priest in name onely, is no priest. No more then S. Mary paynted is S. Mary: Nor a false doctour a doctour, but no doctour: And a man painted is not a man, but no man. And thus such a priest in name only, is not a priest. Because that all faythfull men do firmly beleue with S. Gregory that no man buying the holy orders, may then be called a priest as he sayth, 1. q. 1. They that buy or sell holy orders can be no priestes. Whereupon is written. Anathema dandi, & Anathema accipiendi That is Simoniacall heresie. And it followeth, how therfore, if they be acursed and not blessed, can they make others blessed? And when that they be not in the body of Christ, how can they either receiue or deliuer the body of Christ? He that is acursed, how can he blesse? as though he would say. It is impossible. As Pope Vrbanus sayth. 1.q. 1. Marginalia1. q. 1. Si qui a Simoniacis. Si qui a Simoniacis. &c. Where he sayth thus. They that willingly know and suffer them selues to be consecrated, nay rather execrated of those that are infected with Simony: we iudge that their consecration is altogether voyde. Also Pope Leo in 2. q. 1. sayth in this wyse. MarginaliaEx Leone Papa 2. q. 2 Grace, if it be not freely geuen or receiued, is not grace. Spirituall vsurers do not receiue freely: Therfore, they receiue not the spirituall grace, which specially worketh in the ecclesiasticall orders. If they receiue it not, they haue it not: if they haue it not freely, they cannot geue it frely. And by this it is more clearer then the lyght, that they which know so much and receiue orders by spirituall vsuryor symonie: Are neither priestes nor deacons, neither after the maner nor character. For if such character or marke were otherwise geuen in geuing orders, it were requisite alwayes that there should be a certayne grace imprinted in the man, But there is no such grace geuen or imprinted as afore is manifest. Therfore there is no such Character to be fayned. Therfore, such Character or marke abydeth not in hym, for as much as he neuer had nor hath the same. And yet furthermore in the same place. What then do the simoniacall prelates geue? And he maketh aunswer truly euē that which they haue, as the spirit of lying. How proue we this? Because that if it be the spirite of veritie, as the same veritie doth testifie from whom it cōmeth, it is freely receaued. And it foloweth for the whole purpose no doubt: It is conuicted to be the spirite of lying, which is not freely receaued.

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By this it appeareth manifestly to the faythfull sorte, that those which weetingly & simoniacally are made priestes, for as muche as they receiue not the Character of the Lord but onely the spirite of lying, and the marke of Simon Magus, and of Iudas the traytor, that they bee not priestes neyther according to the marke nor manners. Nor such doe no more make the sacramentes of the Churche, then other laye men may in the tyme of necessitye, nor yet so truely, duringe their hereticall naughtynesse. And yet in deede (brother myne) vniuocè natura, but yet æquiuocè in moribus. MarginaliaBrother in nature In maners no brother. I do not wryte thus sharpely vnto you, throughe anger, or any vnperfect hate: but though the perfect hate of your horrible heresie, and denying the faith of Christ, that I may say with Dauid in the Psalm: Perfecto odio oderam. &c. And I am very sory for you, that you which in tymes past haue

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