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555 [531]

K. Henry. 4. The Sermon of R. Wimbeldon, preached at Paules Crosse.

hys rabble, easily erre in the fayth, and yet is the Christian fayth preserued whole and safe, in the faithfull members of Christ, whiche are his true church: But the Pope and all his rablement, cannot proue that they be any part of this church. MarginaliaThe pope and his cardinalls no part of the true ChurchAlso, that the Pope withall his fautors, may as welbe deceaued by a liyng spirite, as was Achab and all his Prophetes: and that one true Prophete, as was Micheas, may haue the veritiy shewed vnto him contra auxilium. Also, that all good christians ought to cast from them the Popes lawes, saying: Let vs breake their bandes in sonder, and let vs cast from our neckes, those heauy yokes of theirs. MarginaliaThe Canon lawe full of heresie.Also, that where these prelates do burne one good booke, for one errour perhappes contayned in the same: they ought to burne all the bookes of the Canon law, for the manifold heresies contayned in them.

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¶ And thus much out of a certaine old written booke in parchment borowed once of I. B. which booke conteyning diuers aūcient records of the vniuersitie: semeth to belong somtimes, to the library of þ Uniuersitie, bearing the yeare of the compilyng therof. 1396. Whiche computation if hym or that he recanted before Thomas Arundell Archbishop at Saltwood, where he was imprisoned.

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Wherefore to continue 

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Henry IV and Gregory XII

Generally Foxe's material on individual popes came either from John Bale's Catalogus or Matthias Flacius's Catalogus testium veritatis. In the case of Gregory XII and Alexander V, however, Foxe took all of his information from College of Arms MS Arundel 7, which was one version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora. The only exception to this is the discussion of the duration of the Great Schism, which comes from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 439-41. Everything else, including the letter from Henry IV to Gregory XII, comes from Arundel 7. (See Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, pp. 275, 279-80, 281 and 284). Foxe's account of Gregory XII first appeared in the 1570 edition and it was reprinted, without change, in all subsequent editions. Foxe's purposes in printing this account were simply to portray the Papacy in a bad light. Foxe highlights the inability of Gregory XII and other popes to set aside their personal interests, even to end the schism. Along the way, Foxe was also able to denounce papal political ambitions, their use of miolitary force and even to sarcastically contrast the lavish granting of promises of eternal life (indulgences) by the popes with their strikingly ephemeral pontificates.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

and procede in our story, after the examination of W. Thorpe, & the martyrdome of W. Sawtrey, and of Iohn Badby thus described (as ye haue heard) which was about the yeare 1409.By þe way here is to be cōsidered, at least to be admonished, that all thys while the schisme in the Church of Rome did yet continue, and so endured till the councell of Constance, which was in whole, the space of. xxix. yeares. MarginaliaVide supra pag. 429.
Vrbanus. 5.
Bonifacius. 9.
The origne wherof (as was sayd. pag. 529) first beganne at Urbanus. 5. Which Vrbanus being dead, an. 1389, next folowed Pope Boniface the. 9. who sat. 14. yeares. He in selling his pardons was so impudent and so past shame, that he brought the keyes of Peter (as sayth Platina) in contempt. MarginaliaInnocentius 7.
Gregorius. 12.
After him succeeded Innocentius. 7. and sat. 2. yeares: who being dead, the Cardinals consulting together, and seing the foule enormitie and inconuenience growing vpon this contentious schisme in their Church of Rome (minding to prouide some remedy for the same after the best deuise they could) MarginaliaThe Cardinalls deuise to cease the schisme.in their conclaue where they were assembled for a new election of þe Pope, tooke this order: promising among themselues, with a solemne vow made to God, to Mary the blessed virgine, to Peter & Paul, and to all the blessed company of saintes: MarginaliaThe vowe & othe of the Cardinals made for the ceasing of the schisme.That if any of them within the colledge or without the colledge, should be called to that high place of Apostolicall preeminence: he should effectuously renounce the iurisdiction & title of his Popedome, if or whensoeuer the contrary Pope for the time being, would in lyke maner renounce his place and title, and his cardinals in like maner to condescend to the other cardinals of Rome. So that both these two colledges of Cardinals agreeing together: one chiefe Byshop might be chosen and taken out of them both, to be made the true Pope. Prouided moreouer, that none should seeke any releasement or absolution from the sayd promyse, vow, and bond, once passed among them: Unto all which things furthermore, euery one subscribed wyth hys hand. These thynges thus prefixed and ratified vpon the same, they proceeded to the election. In which was chosen Gregorius the þe xij. who the same day of hys election, in the presence of all the Cardinals: confirmed the vow, sacrament, and promise made, subscribing the same wyth his hand in forme as foloweth. MarginaliaThe oth and vowe of pope Gregory. 12.And I Gregory, this day being the last of Nouember, in the yeare of our Lord, 1407, chosen and elected for Byshop of Rome: do sweare, vow, and promise, & confirme all the premisses, aboue conteyned, &c. This being done, shortly after he was crowned, being of the age of 80. yeres. As the tyme thus passed, the people and Cardinals were in great expectacion, wayting when the Pope according to hys othe woulde geue ouer, wyth the other pope also. And not long after, the matter beganne in deede betwene the two Popes to be attempted, by letters from one to another: assigning both day and place; where and when they should meete together: but yet no effect did folow. MarginaliaEx Chron. D. Albani.

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MarginaliaThe pope falsely periured.This so passing on, greate murmuring was among the Cardinals, to see theyr holy periured father, so to neglect hys othe, and vow aforenamed. MarginaliaCardinals leaue the periured pope.Insomuch, that at length, diuers of them did forsake the Pope, as beyng periured (as no lesse he was) sending moreouer to kinges and princes of other lands, for their counsell and assistaunce therin, to appease the schisme. Amongest the rest, Cardinall Bituriensis was sent to the kyng of England: who publishyng diuers propositions and conclusions (remaynyng in the registers of Thomas Arundell) disputeth, that the pope ought to be subiect to lawes and councels. Marginalia1409.Then K. Henry (moued to write to Gregory the pope) directeth this letter here vnder insuing, which was the yeare of our Lord. 1409. The contentes of the letter be these.

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¶ The letter of K. Henry. 4. to Pope Gregory. 12.

MarginaliaKing Henry 4 to Pope Gregory 12.MOst blessed father, if the discrete prouidence of the Apostolique sea, woulde call to mynd, with what great perils the vniuersall worlde hath bene damnified hitherto, vnder pretence of this present schisme: Marginalia2. hundred thousand slayne by scisme of Rome. 30. thousā;d slaine in campe fighting for the bishoprick of Leodium.and especially would consider, what slaughter of Christen people to the number of two hundreth thousand (as they say) hath ben through the occasion of warre raysed vp in diuers quarters of the world, and nowe of late, to the number of. xxx. thousand souldiours which haue bene slayne through the dissention moued aboute the bishopricke of Leodium, betwene two set vp: one by the autoritie of one Pope, the other by the authoritie of the other pope, fighting in campe for the title of that Bishoprike: Certes ye woulde lament in spirite, and be sore greued in mynd for the same. So that, with good conscience you would relinquish rather the honour of the sea Apostolike, then to suffer such horrible bloudshed hereafter to ensue, vnder the cloke of dissimulation, folowyng herein the example of the true mother in the booke of kings: who pleading before Salomon for the right of her child, rather would depart from the child, then the chyld should be parted by the sword. And although it may be vehemently suspected by the new creation of 9.Cardinals, by you last made contrary to your othe (as other men do say) that you do but little hede or care for ceasing the schisme: Yet far be it frō the hearing and noting of the world, that your circumspect seate should euer be noted and disteyned with such an inconstancy of mynde: Whereby the last errour may be worse, then the first. Ex Chronic D. Albani. part. 2.

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King Henry. 4. to the Cardinals.

MarginaliaKing Henry the 4. to the Cardinals.ANd to the Cardinals likewyse, the sayd king directeth an other letter with these contents here folowing: We desiring to shew what zeale we haue had and haue, to the reformation of the peace of the church: by the consent of the states of the realme, haue directed to the Bishop of Rome our letters after the tenour of the copy herewith in these presents enclosed, to be executed effectually. MarginaliaConcilium Pisanum.Wherfore, we seriously besech your reuerend colledge, that if it chance the sayd Gregory to be present at the councell of Pise, & to render vp his Popedome, according to your desire, and his own othe: you then so ordayn for his state totally, that chiefly God may be pleased therby, and that both the sayd Gregory, and also we which loue intierly his honour and commodity, may haue cause to geue you worthely, condign thanks for the same. Ibid.

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MarginaliaEx chro. d. Albani.
1410.
Conciliam Pisanum.
This beyng done in the yeare of our Lord 1409. afterward in the yere next followyng an. 1410. 

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Persecution of Lollards and Hussites

For the next few pages, Foxe weaves together two separate strands of material. The first is an account of Alexander V summoning Jan Hus to Rome, and then, when Hus refusd to comply, the pope's ordering the archbishop of Prague to ban all pro-Wiclifite writings in Bohemia and finally of Hus's denunciation of the papal order. All this material came from Johannes Cochlaeus's history of the Hussite wars. (See Johannes Cochlaeus, Historiae Hussitarum [Mainz, 1549], pp. 19-21). The second strand of material is a series of episodes where fourteenth-century English bishops were demonstrating what, to Foxe, was intolerable arrogance in insisting upon either outward deference (such as the having bulls rung in their honour on visitations) or enforcing their tithes and rents with ecclesiastical sanctions such as penance. Foxe took these instances from various archiepiscopal registers. Archbishop Arundel's letter authorizing an indulgence of 40 days to everyone who said five Pater and Aves at the morning bells, is taken from bishop Reginald Braybook's register (London Guildhall Library MS 9531/3, fo. 303A-B). Arundel's commission to suspend certain London churches is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 392A and his mediation between the bishop of Worcester and his prior is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 441A. Archbishop Chichele's letter to the abbot of St. Alban's is taken from his register. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-7], IV, p. 278). Courtney's penance, imposed upon his defaulting tenants, is taken from Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fol. 337B. This material first appeared in the 1570 edition and was reprinted, without change, in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

the Cardinals of both the Popes, to witte, of Gregorius, and Benedictus: By common aduise assembled together at the city of Pise, for the reformation of vnitie and peace in the Church. MarginaliaPope Alexander. 5.To the which assembly, a greate multitude of Prelates and bishops being conuented, a newe Pope was chosen, named Alexander. 5. But to this election, neither Gregorius, nor Benedictus did fully agree. Marginalia3. Popes together.Wherby, there were. 3. Popes together in the Romaine church (that is to vnderstand) not. 3. crownes vpon one Popes hed, but. 3. heds in one popish church together. MarginaliaThe vaine remision by the popes indulgence.This Alexander beyng newly made pope, scarcely had well warmed his triple crowne: but straight geueth out full remission, not of a few, but of all maner of sinnes whatsoeuer: to all them that conferred any thing to the monastery of S. Bartlemew by Smithfield, resortyng to the sayd church any of these dayes followyng: to wit, on Maundy thursday, good Friday, Easter euen,the feast of the annunciatiō from the first euensong, to the latter. MarginaliaPope Alexander dead.
Pope Iohn. 23.
But this Pope which was so liberall in geuing remissiō of many yeres to other, was not able to geue one yere of life to himselfe: for wythin the same yere, he died. In whose stead stept vp, Pope Iohn. 23.

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In the time of this Alexander, great stirre began in the countrey of Bohemia, by the occasion of þe bookes of Iohn Wickleffe, which then comming to the handes of I. Husse, and of other both men & womē, especially of the lay sort, and artificers: beganne there to doe much good. MarginaliaEx Ioan. Chocleo. De historis Hussiarum lib. 2. MarginaliaThe gospell beginneth to take roote in Bohemia.In so much, that diuers of them not onely men, but women also, partly by readyng of those bookes translated into their toung, partly, by the setting forwarde of Iohn Husse, a notable learned man, and a singular preacher at the tyme in the

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Vniuer.
AA.ii.
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