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769 [745]

K. Hēr. 7. Prophecies concerning the Turkes and Antichrist.

mighty God to breake out, and to inuade the Church: Who now ioynyng together with the Saracens, haue wrought, and dayly do worke, all these greuaunces against our Christian brethren: as we see this day is come to passe, and more is lyke to folow, except the hand of the Lord, which let them out, do plucke them in agayne.

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MarginaliaVictory of the Christians gotte against the Saracens. Moreouer, in the meane space, betwene the reigne of the Saracens and the Turkes, where Methodius speaketh of the king of Romaines, which should restore quietnes to the church, and should reigne in Hierusalem a sabbate of tymes and halfe a sabbate: thereby seemeth to be vnderstand the viage of Christiā Princes out of the Weast partes of Europe, MarginaliaEx Paulo Iouio. vnder Gotfridus Duke of Lotharyng & his two brethren and many other Christen Princes, with. 300. thousand footemen, and 100. thousand horsemen: MarginaliaThe Citie of Hierusalem recouered by the Christians frō the Saracens. who fightyng agaynst the Saracens, recouered agayne from them, the citie of Hierusalem, in the yeare of our Lord. 1099. which citie before had bene in their possession, the terme of. 490. yeares. 

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From Paolo Giovio, Turcarum rerum Commentarius as excerpted in Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran (Basel, 1550), III, p. 107.

MarginaliaHierusalem possessed of the Christians 88. yeares. After which victory got, first Gotfridus, then Balwinus his brother, & other after them, to þe nūber of ix. Christen kynges, reigned in Hierusalem the space of 88. yeares: MarginaliaHierusalem wonne from the Christians by the Turkes, an. 1187. and after that, through the discorde of the Christians not agreyng amongest themselues, both Hierusalem, and Syria, with other partes of Asia besides, were subdued and wonne of the Turkes, whiche to this day they keepe yet still. And this was in the yeare of our Lord. 1187.

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MarginaliaThe cōmyng and markes of Antichrist described. About which yeare and tyme (as foloweth in Methodius) when the Citie of Hierusalem shall be wonne of the Turkes, then shall Antichrist begin to be borne of the tribe of Dan, of whom came Iudas Iscarioth, and shalbe borne in Chorosaim and bredde in Bethsaida, and reigne in Capernaum: Meanyng that this Antichrist or sonne of perdition, shall be ful of Gods maledictiō, noted by Iudas Iscarioth, and these three Cities, agaynst whom were spoken thrise of the Lord.

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And here is moreouer to bee noted, that Methodius sayth, not that Antichrist shall be borne among the Saracens, or Turkes, but among the people of God, and of the tribe of Israell. Whereby is to be collected, that Antichrist shall not come of the Saracēs, nor Turkes, but shal spring vp among the Christians, and (sayth Methodius) shall seeme to come out of the Temple, to deceaue many. &c. Whereby the Pope may seeme rather then the Saracen or the Turke, to be described, for somuch as the Pope, beyng elected, nourished, and reignyng in the middest of Gods people, at Rome, sitteth in the temple, and very place of Christ: and (no doubt) deceaueth many. &c.

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MarginaliaThe tyme of Antichrist. And now to come to the tyme assigned of Methodius here is to be added also, that whiche we read in Antoninus Par. 3. that about this sayd present tyme, a certaine byshop of Florence preached that Antichrist was then commyng. But the pope commaunded him to keepe silence & to speake no more therof. 

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St. Antoninus, Historiarum Domini Antonini Archipraesulis Florentini (Paris, 1543), III, fo. 26v.

Now why the pope so dyd, & why he could not abyde the preachyng of Antichrist, I referre it to them which list to muse more vpon the matter. This is certaine, MarginaliaPetrus Lombardus. Gracianus. Innocentius 3 that about this tyme, here assigned by Methodius, came Petrus Lōbardus, Gratianus, & pope Innocent the third, the first authours and patrons of trāsubstātiō. 
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Gratian flourished in the mid-twelfth century and Peter Lombard lived from c.1100-1160. But Innocent III reigned 1198-1216. It is hardly accurate to say that they created transubstantiation, but they personified (respectively) canon law, scholastic theology and papal power.

MarginaliaTransubstantiation.
The first persecutiō by the church of Rome.
Dominicke.
Frier Fraunces.
Ex Antonino Part. 3. tit. 19. cap. 1.
At which tyme also begā the first persecutiō by the Church of Rome, agaynst the Albingēses or Waldenses, about Tolous, Bitures, and Auinion. Of whom xvij. thousād the same tyme were slayne, by the Popes crossed souldiours. Amōg whom Frier Dominicke was then the chiefest doer. About which tyme also was Frier Fraūces, of which two came the two orders of beggyng Friers: all which MarginaliaThe orders of Fryers beganne. began much about one tyme together an. 1215. which were nere, within xx. yeares, after the kyngdome of the Christians was taken of the Turkes, accordyng to the Prophesie aboue sayd.

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It foloweth moreouer in Methodius, That in his tyme all Lordship and domination shall cease and geue ouer. &c. The veritie wherof we see now accomplished in the Pope. For where the Pope with his double sword, & triple crown doth come, there all seculare power must geue place, both Emperours,Kynges, and Princes must stoupe.

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MarginaliaNotes of Antichrist. So kyng Iohn 

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The following incidents are described in more detail in other parts of the Acts and Monuments.

yelded vp his crowne to Pādulfus the Popes Legate, and was in his hand v. dayes. an. 1217. 
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This actually took place in1213.

Childerike the French kyng had his crowne take from him, and geuen to Pipine. an. 747.

Henricus 4. Emperour was forced to submit himselfe and his sceptre to Pope Hildebrand. an. 1077.

Fridericus Barbarossa Emperour, in Saint Markes Churche in Venice, was fayne to lay downe hys necke vnder the Pope Alexanders feete, an. 1277 

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This actually took place in 1177.

. Whiche Friderike also before, was fayne to hold the styrrop to Pope Adrian. &c.

What should I speake of the Ambassadour of Venice, named Franciscus Dandulus? who beyng sent to Pope Clement the 5. was made to lye vnder the Popes table like a dogge, and gather vp the crommes, MarginaliaEx Sabell. Enu. 9. lib. 7. mencioned in Sabell. Enn. 9. lib. 7.

Henry the 3. beyng Emperour, had his diademe first set on with the feete of the Pope, and afterwarde strocken of frō his head with the Popes foote agayne.

And what shall I speake more hereof? when as Carolus magnus submitted himselfe so lowe to kisse the feete of Pope Leo, an. 800.

It followeth thē in the prophesie of Methodius 

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Pseudo-Methodius, Revelationes (Basel, 1515), sigs. d3v-d4r.

: That in the tribulatiē of those dayes, shal be sent frō God two speciall Prophets, MarginaliaEnoch and Hely. Enoch and Hely, to reproue and disclose the fraudulent falsehood of Antichrist, and that many seyng his delusion, shall forsake hym and follow them: Wherat Antichrist beyng greued shall kill them. &c.

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We neuer read yet in any story, of any suche two Prophets to be sent either to the Saracens, or to the Turkes: MarginaliaIohn Hus and Hierome of Prage.
Vid. in primo Tom. operum Iohan. Hus. De Anatomia.
Whereas against the Pope, we read Iohn Husse and Hierome of Prage, two learned Martyrs and Prophets of god to haue bene sent, and to haue reproued and described the Anatomie of Antichrist 

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This is a reference to a work by Hus, De anatomia Antichristi.

, and at last to haue bene burned for their labour. And what Prophet can speake more plainely, either Enoch or Hely, MarginaliaHierome of Prage a prophet and Martyr. then did Hierome of Prage, prophesying of the cōmyng of Martine Luther, an hundreth yeres after hym? when the Pope and his fellowes should answer to God and to hym. The tyme we see came iust. Now let þe Pope see with hys fellowes, what answer they can make.

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¶ The true plate of Hus and Hierome, among the Bohemians.

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The way in which Foxe's work honoured the Hussite martyrs pictorially is suggestive of the how he may have collected visual, as well as textual materials while he was abroad. This instance is unusual in that 'the true plate' can be pinned to an exact source. The woodcut is a close copy of a Reformation medal celebrating the Bohemian martyr, Jan Hus, and inscribed with the words 'CREDO UNAM ESSE ECCLESIAM SANCTAM CATHOLICAM', and the prophesy attributed to Hus at the stake; 'CENTUM REVOLUTIS ANNIS DEO RESPONDEBITIS ET MIHI'. This was of course wonderfully exact for linkage with Luther (as Foxe duly noted), and it is tempting to think that the martyrologist might have come by a copy of the medral while he was abroad. However, it was adapted, as well as copied, for inclusion in the Acts and Monuments, by being drafted into doing double duty for both Hus (whose name, inscribed on the medal, is omitted) and Jerome of Prague, who, by implication is the figure chained to the stake. CUL: the outer ring is purple (with pink shading), the inner is yellow (with orange shading). There is a blue upper skyline added to both images. The right-hand image, of Jerome, is damaged with metallic undercoat (?) paint. Hus is depicted in profile, wearing black, with a brown beard and brown fur collar; Jerome is tied to the stake wearing a white loincloth and his white 'crown of paper'. Note that here Jerome is depicted as clean shaven and much younger looking than in the image of him at his burning on p.754.

MarginaliaThe nearenesse of the Lordes iudgement. It followeth further in Methodius concluding his prophecy 

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Pseudo-Methodius, Revelationes (Basel, 1515), sig. d4v.

, And then (sayth he) shall appeare the commyng of the sonne of man in the cloudes of heauen, with celestiall glory. &c.

Wherfore after the burnyng of these two notable Prophets, with many other thousandes burned also since theyr tyme, by the bishop of Rome it is to be thought, that þe commyng of Christes iudgement in the cloudes, is not farre of. Veni cito Domine. Amen.

And thus much touching Methodius, of whose prophecies how much or how little is to be esteemed, I leaue it indifferent vnto the reader. For me it shall suffice simply to haue recited his wordes, as I finde them in his booke conteyned: notyng this by the way, that of this booke of Methodius, De nouissimis temporibus, neither Hierome in his Cataloge, nor Suidas, nor yet Auentinus in þt place where he entreateth purposely of such Prophecies, maketh anye mention 

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The 'Master of the Sentences' is the famous theologian Peter Lombard (c. 1100-1160). Foxe is saying that, since Methodius's Revelations contain a reference to Lombard's writings, the Revelations could not have been written by a third century bishop. Again, Foxe is casting doubt on the traditional identification of Methodius as the author of the Revelationes.

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