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871 [847]

K. Henry. 8. Persecution in Germanie. Henry Voes, Iohn Esch, Martyrs.

and examine hym selfe what fayth he hath. MarginaliaThe place of S. Paul of iudging the Lordes body, expounded. Whereupon it foloweth, that he which hath a right faith, must haue no parte nor felowship with those thinges, whiche be geuen to Idols, for he is nowe a member of an other bodye, that is, of Christ: so that he can not ioyne hym self now to be one body with Idolaters. And therefore those be they whiche do not iudg or discerne the Lordes body, MarginaliaWho be they that iudge not the Lordes body. that make no difference betweene the Churche of Christe, and the Church of Idolaters. For they whiche sitte at the Lordes table eatyng of Idolemeates, do make no difference at al betweene the Lordes supper, and the supper of the deuyll, whiche be they whom Paul sayth, not to iudge the bodye of the Lorde, that is, whiche make no discrepance, nor geue any more regard to Christes Churche, then to the Churche of deutlles. Whereas if we would iudge our selues, that is, if we would thorowly search and examine our owne consciences, as we should, in commyng to the table of the Lord we findyng any faith in vs, woulde neuer goe to the table, or make therof the feast of deuylles. Wherefore your iudgement herein is not amisse in expounding the worde of iudging in S. Paul, to signifie as muche as considering, perpendyng, and inquiring.

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MarginaliaIesus toke bread. To your seconde question I answeare: That Iesus tooke bread, and brake, &c. Also, he tooke the cup, &c. Ista verba sunt peculiariter agentis, non hospitaliter inuitantis: that is, these wordes declare the actiō of one which properly doth a thing, and not the hospitalitie of one which inuiteth another to eate. Touching your third question out of the sixt chapt. of Iohn: Doth this offend you? herein I do ful agree with you.

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MarginaliaThe word Easter. As for this word Ostren, which is your fourth questiō, I vnderstand therby, the time of the great feast or solemnitie, whiche we keepe in remembrance of the great dieiueraunce of Gods people, from the thraldome nowe of Satan, before from the thraldome of Pharao. Neither is it greatly material with what woorde we expresse the thyng, so the thynge it selfe be one, and the analogie & consonancie of the scripture be kept: For the Scripture calleth Christ both the lambe, and S. Paul calleth hym our Easter or Passeouer. Now your word wanderfest wel pleaseth me, for the Passeouer, or Pæsah.

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MarginaliaThe descending of Christ into hell, expounded. To your fift interrogation, of Christ descending into hel, I suppose this particle was inserted into the Crede, by the sentence of the fathers, to declare how the fathers were redemed by the death of Christ, which dyed in the fayth. For Christe led away captiuitie wherewith they were holden, with him vp into heauen: so that his going down into hel, MarginaliaCircumscriptiue.
Potentionaliter.
Vt mors illius cos qui erant apud inferos, redimeret.
nō sic intelligatur, quasi circūscriptiue, sed potentionaliter: that is, be not so vnderstanded, as circumscriptiuely, whiche is, when a thyng is present by circumscription of any one place: but by power, which is, by the operation of his spirit, whiche is not cōprehended in any certaintie of place, but without prescription of certaine place, is diffused euery where: so that the article of Christes descendyng into hell, importeth as much, as that his death redemed them, which were in hel. Wherūto S. Peter also semeth to haue respect, where he sayth: Marginalia* 1. Pet. 3. * The Gospel also was preached to them which were dead: that is, that they also dyd feele the good tydynges of the Gospel, their redemption by the sonne of God: and that they which rose againe with Christ in spirite, be now with hym in heauen, who neuertheles in flesh shalbe iudged, what tyme the sonne of God & of man shal come to iudge both the quicke & dead. Returne to the places of Peter, the one is in his first Epistle, the other is in the latter: & so be you contēted with this present answeare rashed vp in haste. Fare ye hartily well. And comforte my William, the good aged father, by the grace of God whiche is in you. Commend me to Iohn Eggenberge. From Zuricke the first day of September, ann. 1527.

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FRom the first beginnyng of this whole booke and historie hytherto (good reader) thou hast hearde of many and sundry troubles, & much businesse in the church of Christe, concernyng the reformation of diuers abuses and great errours crept into the same, namely in the Church of Rome, as appeareth by the doynges of them, in diuers and sundrye places, whereof mention hath bene made heretofore in this saide history, MarginaliaThe corruption of the Sea of Rome, continually cryed out agaynst. For what godly man hath there bene within the space of these fiue hundred yeres, either vertuously disposed, or excellently learned, whiche hath not disproued the misordered doings & corrupt examples of the See & Bishop of Rome, from tyme to tyme, vnto the cōmyng of this Luther? 

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German martyrs

In its first edition, Foxe's martyrology had been published alongside that of Heinrich Pantaleon, a second volume ('Pars Secunda') to which Foxe's was the first. Albeit published in London and Basel respectively, they appeared by what must have been by prior arrangement on the same day. Between them lay an implied division of labour, with Foxe concentrating on the 'Acts and Monuments' of the English martyrs, whilst Pantaleon offered a broader 'European' perspective ('per Europam persecvtionvm' ran his title) with the witnesses of the martyrs divided up by nationalities and political entities ('per Regna & Nationes distributarum'). The two parts of the martyrology had, however, overlapped even in 1563. Foxe took the opportunity even then to integrate some martyr narratives from continental Europe into the first edition, especially where their narratives were readily available to him, or had become particularly well-known. He did so for a particular and important reason. If, as Tertullian had famously said, 'in the blood of martyrs lay the seed of the true church', it was important to Foxe's purpose to demonstrate that martyrdoms had occurred in the immediate aftermath of Luther's reformation. So Foxe included five such stories relating to Germany in the 1520s in his 1563 edition. Rather than incorporate them into his table of German martyrs in 1570, he deliberately kept them apart from it in order to emphasise that important point:-

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In the case of the 'account of 'Henry Voz & Iohn Esch frier Augustines' [Hendrich Voes; Jan van Essen] (1563, pp. 421-2) he based his account (indirectly) on an undated and anonymous short pamphlet, published shortly after their martyrdom and reissued in various different editions, one of which was ascribed to Martin Luther himself (F. van der Haeghen, T. J. I. Arnold, and R. Vanden Berghe, Bibliographie des martyrologes protestants néerlandais 2 vols (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1890), 1, p. 473 et seq.). Crespin had provided a short summary of it in the earliest edition of his martyrology, but Foxe did not use that as his source (Crespin/Benoit, 1, pp. 238-40). Pantaleon provided a further summary, basing his account, however, on the same source (Pantaleon, pp. 38-9). Both Foxe and Pantaleon give their source as 'Ex 6 tomo M. Lutheri, fol. 397'. This does not, however, correspond to the relevant volume of the collected works of Luther, edited by Philip Melanchthon (M. Luther, Tomus primus [-septimus] omnium operum Reverendi Domini Martini Lutheri [...] 7 vols (Wiitenberg: Iohannes Lufft, 1545, etc). It is possible that both Pantaleon and Foxe had used another edition of Luther's works, or that they had both copied the reference from somewhere else.

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In the narrative of the martyrdom of Henry Zutphen [Heinrich Mullers van Zutphen], recounted in the 1563 edition (pp. 422-428), Foxe was once again relying on a martyr account which had been widely diffused in the form of a contemporary pamphlet, and published in Latin (1524) and German (1525) - see F. van der Haeghen, T. J. I. Arnold, and R. Vanden Berghe, Bibliographie des martyrologes protestants néerlandais 2 vols (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1890), 1, p. 541 et seq. As Foxe said, the story had already been told, at least in outline, in Sleidan (book 4) and the earliest edition of Crespin (1554) - see Crespin/Benoit, 1, pp. 245-247. He clearly knew, and had probably read, Luther's own account of it, partly through a consolatory letter to the faithful of Bremen, and which had appeared in the earliest published collection of Luther's letters in 1525 (M. Luther, Martini Lutheri Epistolarum farrago, pietatis et eruditionis plena [...] [Haganoae [Haganau]: Iohan Secer, 1525]) - see W. M. L. de Wette, ed. Martin Luther. Briefe, Sendschreiben und Bedenken 5 vols (Berlin, 1825-1828), 3, p. 65 etc. Although Foxe also referred the reader to Ludwig Rabus' martyrology (L. Rabus, Historien der Heyligen auserwölten Gottes Zeugen 3 vols [Strasbourg, 1554-1558], there is no sign that he ever consulted it himself, or had the language skills to read it directly. Pantaleon had provided a similar narrative of this martyrdom (Pantaleon, pp. 35-8).

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The account of the martyrdom of 'Iohn Castellane' (Jean Chastelain), which Foxe published in the earliest edition of his martyrology (1563, pp. 428-431) seems to have come from that published in the earliest edition of Crespin (1554, fol. 175), which Foxe follows very closely here. Chastelain was a native of Tournai who went to Lorraine and actively proselytized at Bar-le-Duc ('Barleduc'), Vitry in Partois ('Vittery in Partoise'), Chalon and Vic ('Vike') before being arrested and imprisoned at Goze ('Gorze') and the castle at Nomény ('Nommeny'). Pantaleon provided a similar narrative in his edition too (Pantaleon, pp. 40-42), deriving it from the same source.

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The 'history of a good pastoure, murthered for the preaching of the Gospel, wrytten by Ihon Oecolampadius' which followed in his earliest edition (1563, pp. 431-432) was also taken directly from the earliest edition of Crespin (Crespin [1554], fol. 154). Crespin ascribed it (and Foxe follows him) to a written narrative prepared by Johann Oecolampadius, the preacher in Basel. Pantaleon had also provided a version of the same narrative (Pantaleon, pp. 46-8). See Crespin/Benoit, 1, pp. 250-1.

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The same is also true of the following 'history of the death of a certaine minister which was drowned in the yeare of our Lord 1525. collected by Oecolampadius', reproduced in the earliest edition of Crespin (Crespin [1554], fol 158) and repeated by Foxe in his earliest edition (1563, pp. 432-3). In 1563, Foxe knew only that he was a minister in the Breisgau ('Brisgois'). However, when he came to repeat the narrative in 1570, he added the pastor's name - Peter Spengler - which he had found in Pantaleon's account of the same narrative (Pantaleon, pp. 48-51). Living in Basel, Pantaleon doubtless had access to written and oral sources which were able to substantiate some of the details of the Oecolampadius narrative.

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The following account of a 'history of a certen man of the Country wrongfully put to deathe Collected by the saide Ihon Oecolampadius' was also published by Foxe in his earliest edition (1563, pp. 433-5). It was the closest he came to engaging the attention of his readers in the link between the early protestant reformation and social conflict - the reference-point for the narrative being the Peasants' War in Germany, which had taken early and divisive root in south-west Germany, the region to which it relates. It had been published by Crespin in his earliest edition (Crespin [1554], fol. 166) and in Pantaleon (pp. 51-54).

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The next account of Wolfgang Schuch, a protestant pastor from Alsace ('Lotharing.') had first appeared in Ludwig Rabus' Historien der Märtyrer (Strasbourg, 1554). It was repeated in Crespin (1560) and Pantaleon, pp. 54-57. Foxe's account here was closely based on the latter, which explains why it appeared for the first time in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.The following narrative of the death of Johann Hüglein in Merssburg (near Constance) in 1527 had already been widely circulated in the reformation. A contemporary narrative of his trial and death had been published in Nuremberg in c.1527. It is from that, either directly or indirectly, that Sleidan derived his account (Sleidan [book 6], 1, p. 331), and a brief account of his death had also been included in Rabus, vol 6, p. 599 and Pantaleon, p. 60. Foxe seems to have consulted both Sleidan and Pantaleon for his details of it and it appeared for the first time only in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.

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The next account was also of an early martyrdom from Bavaria. Georg Carpenter was a native of Emmendingen ('Emeryng') in Bavaria. He was burnt at Munich ('Munchen') on 8 February 1527. The account, with its circumstantiated details of his trial (including the debate with Conrad Schritter ['Scheitter'], the vicar of the cathedral church in Munich), had appeared for the first time in Crespin [1556], but Foxe acquired all his details of it from Pantaleon, pp. 61-3, and it appeared for the first time only in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.

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For the account of the martyrdom of Leonard Kayser, who may well have held Anabaptist beliefs, a contemporary pamphlet had provided the relevant details, published in Wittemberg in 1527. It was upon this account, either directly or indirectly, that the narrative of his martyrdom reached Pantaleon (pp. 63-4) which is where Foxe derived his own account. It appeared for the first time only in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.

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For the subsequent history of the martyrdom of Wendelmoet Claes [var: Classen], Foxe followed Crespin, Haemstede, Rabus and Pantaleon, deriving his account from the latter (p. 65). She was a native of Monnitendam ('Munchendam'), a small town in Holland. It is now evident, although it was perhaps difficult to discern this at the time, that she was a convinced Anabaptist. It appeared for the first time only in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.

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The final account from the first decade of the reformation concerned two martyrs from Cologne, Peter Fliested and Adolf Clarenbach, in September 1529. Foxe might have acquired the material here from Sleidan, but he more likely derived it from the account in Pantaleon, pp. 66-7. It appeared only for the first time in the 1570 edition of Foxe's martyrology.

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Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Wherin this appeareth to me, & may also appeare no lesse to al godly disposed men, to be noted, not without great admiration, that seyng this foresaid Romish Bishop hath had great enemies and gainsayers continually from tyme to tyme, both speaking & workyng, preaching and writyng against hym, yet notwithstandyng neuer any could preuaile before the commyng of this man. The cause whereof, although it be secretly knowen vnto God, and vnknowen vnto men: yet so farre as men by coniectures may suppose, it maye thus not vnlikely be thought: That whereas other men before hym, speaking against the pompe, pride, whoredome and auarice of the Bishop of Rome, charged hym only or most specially with examples and maners of lyfe: Luther went further with hym, charging him, not with life, but with his learnyng: not with doynges, but with his doctrine: not picking at the ryne, but plucking vp þe roote: MarginaliaThe Pope charged with hersie by Luther. not seeking the man, but shaking his seate, yea & charging hym with plaine heresie, as preiudiciall and resisting plainly against the bloud of Christ, contrary to the true sense and direct vnderstanding of the sacred testament of Gods holy word. For wheras the fundatiō of our fayth grounded vpō the holy Scripture, teacheth and leadeth vs to be iustified onely by the worthynes of Christ, and the onely price of his bloud: MarginaliaThe foundation of the popes doctrine contrarye to Christen fayth. the Pope proceeding with a contrary doctrine, teacheth vs otherwise to seeke our saluation, not by Christ alone, but by the waye of mens merityng and deseruyng by workes: Wherupon rose diuers sortes of orders & religious sects amongst men, some professing one thing, and some another, & euery man sekyng his own vnrighteousnes, but few seking the righteousnes of hym which is set vp of god to be our righteousnes, redemption, and iustification.

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MarginaliaIustification by fayth, reuiued by Luther. Martin Luther therfore vrgyng and reducing thynges to the foundation and touchstone of the Scripture, opened the eyes of many, whiche before were drowned in darkenesse. Wherupon it can not be expressed what ioye, comforte, and consolation came to the hartes of men, some lying in darkenesse and ignoraunce, some wallowyng in sinne, some beyng in dispayre, some macerating them selues by woorkes, and some presumyng vppon their owne righteousnes, to behold that glorious benefite of the greate libertie and free iustification set vp in Christe Iesus. And briefely to speake, the more glorious the benefite of this doctrine appeared to the worlde after long ignoraunce, the greater persecution folowed vppon the same. And where the elect of God tooke most occasion of comfort & of saluation, thereof the aduersaries tooke moste matter of vexation and disturbance: As commonly we see thee true worde of God to bryng with it euer dissension and perturbation, and therefore truely it was sayde of Christ, That he came not to sende peace on earth, but the swoorde. MarginaliaMath. 10. And this was the cause, why that after the doctrine and preachyng of Luther, MarginaliaGreat persecution after the doctrine of Luther. so great troubles and persecutions folowed in all quarters of the worlde: whereby rose great disquietnesse among the prelates, and many lawes and decrees wer made, to ouerthrowe the same by cruell handlyng of manye good and Christian men. Thus while authoritie armed with lawes and rigour, dyd striue agaynste simple veritie, lamentable it was to heare howe many poore men were troubled and went to wracke, some tost from place to place, some exiled out of the land for feare, some caused to abiure, some driuen to caues in woodes, some racked with torment, and some pursued to death with fagot and fire. Of whom we haue now (Christ willyng) in this historie folowyng to entreat, first beginnyng with certaine that suffered in Germanie, and then to returne to our owne stories, and martyrs here in England.

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¶ Henry Voes and Iohn Esch, Fryers Augustines.

MarginaliaTwo Fryers burned at Bruxelles. IN the yeare of our Lorde. 1523. two young men were burnt at Bruxelles, the one named Henry Voes, beyng of the age of. 24. yeares, and the other Iohn Esch, whiche before had bene of the order of the Augustine fryers. MarginaliaEgmondanus, and Hochestratus, doctors of Louain, persecuters. They were disgraded the first day of Iulie, and spoyled of their fryers weed, at the suite of Egmondanus the Popes Inquisitour, and the diuines of Louain, for that they woulde not retract and denye their doctrine of the Gospel, whiche the Papistes call Lutheranisme. Their examiners were Hochestratus and other, who demaunded of them, what they dyd beleue? They sayd the bookes of the olde Testament, and the newe, wherin were conteyned the Articles of the Crede. Then were they asked whether they beleued the decrees of the Councels and of the fathers? They sayd, such as were agreyng to the Scripture, they beleued. MarginaliaTheir examination. After this they proceded further, askyng whether they thoughte it any deadly sinne, to transgresse the decrees of the fathers and of the Bishop of Rome? That (sayde they) is to be attributed onely to the preceptes of God, to bynd the conscience of man, or to loose it. Wherein when they constantly persisted, and would not turne, they were condemned & iudged to be burned. Then they began to geue thankes to God their heauenly father, whiche had deliuered thē through his great goodnes, frō þt false and abo-

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minable
GGg.ij.
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