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Andrea Carafa

Count of Sanseverina; viceroy of Naples (1524 - 27)

Having engaged in wars against Charles V, allied to Henry VIII, Francis I was captured at the battle of Pavia by the duke of Bourbon and the viceroy of Naples and taken into Spain in 1525. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

 
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Charles Brandon

(c. 1484 - 1545) [ODNB]

1st duke of Suffolk (1514 - 45); courtier and soldier; married Margaret, Henry VIII's sister, widow of Louis XII

When reaction in Suffolk to Cardinal Wolsey's exactions threatened to turn violent, the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk calmed the people. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

The duke of Suffolk tested the basin of water for Cardinal Wolsey when Henry VIII attended mass after receiving the papal bull granting him the title of defender of the faith. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Thomas Wolsey was indicted for praemunire, his goods were confiscated, and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to remove from him the great seal. They were then assigned to hear causes in the Star Chamber. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

The duke of Suffolk was sent to Catherine of Aragon after her divorce from the king to reduce the size of her household, removing those who refused to serve her as princess rather than queen. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

The duke of Suffolk walked on the left side of the dowager duchess of Norfolk, godmother to Princess Elizabeth, at the christening of the princess. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Geoffrey Loveday was charged with supplying money to Adam Damplip in Calais. He was able to prove that he had been in Paris at the time, seeing to the affairs of the duke of Suffolk. 1563, p. 663; 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The duke of Suffolk was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

The duke of Suffolk's chaplain, Alexander Seton, was presented in London in 1541 for a sermon he had preached. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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Charles III of Bourbon

(1490 - 1527)

8th duke of Bourbon; constable of France 1515; broke with the king of France in 1523 and served under Emperor Charles V; led the army that sacked Rome in 1527, fatally wounded

Having engaged in wars against Charles V, allied to Henry VIII, Francois I was captured at the battle of Pavia by the duke of Bourbon and the viceroy of Naples and taken into Spain in 1525. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Thomas Cromwell was at the siege of Rome with the duke of Bourbon. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, p. 1178.

Pope Clement VII was captured by the duke of Bourbon when he sacked Rome in 1527. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

 
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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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Clement VII (Giulio de Medici)

(1479 - 1534) [Kelly]

Illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici; b. Florence

Archbishop of Florence 1513; cardinal 1513; vice-chancellor 1517; governed Florence from 1519

Pope (1523 - 34); cousin of Pope Leo X

The indulgences granted by Pope Leo X to the guild of Our Lady at Boston had been granted previously by Innocent VIII and Julius II and were later renewed by Clement VII. Further indulgences granted by Nicholas V, Pius II and Sixtus IV were also renewed by Clement at the request of Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

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After Francois I was released from captivity in Spain, Clement VII released him from his oath, fearing the power of the emperor in Italy. He contracted an alliance with the Venetians and other princes. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

Clement was captured by the duke of Bourbon when he sacked Rome in 1527. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

He was besieged in the Castello Sant'Angelo after taking refuge there with many cardinals. He surrendered in July and was able to issue bulls, but was kept imprisoned in the fortress for six months. 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Thanks to the influence of Lorenzo Pucci and other cardinals, Clement VII initially viewed the proposed divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon favourably. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

Clement sent Cardinal Campeggi as legate to England to join with Cardinal Wolsey to consider the matter of the king's divorce. 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Clement pronounced a sentence definitive against Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1458-59; 1576, p. 1243; 1583, p. 1280.

 
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François I

(1494 - 1547)

King of France (1515 - 47)

Having engaged in wars against Charles V, allied to Henry VIII, François I was captured at the battle of Pavia by the duke of Bourbon and the viceroy of Naples and taken into Spain in 1525. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

François was imprisoned for over a year, until he agreed with the emperor to focus their joint efforts against the Lutherans and Turks. François left his eldest sons, François and Henri, behind as pledges, but he was absolved of his oath by the pope. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Francis Brian was sent to François I. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

 
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Henry Fitzroy

1519 - 1536) [ODNB](

Illegitimate son of Henry VIII; godson of Thomas Wolsey; earl of Nottingham, duke of Richmond, duke of Somerset (1525 - 36); lord admiral of England 1525

Thomas Wolsey, guardian to the duke of Richmond, placed new officers in his recently formed household. 1563, p. 435; 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

 
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John Alen

(1476 - 1534) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1494-5; MA 1498; DCnCL by 1508. Commissary to Richard Fitzjames, bishop of Rochester, 1499; proctor for William Warham at the papal curia (1502/3 - 12); commissary-general for Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York, (1519 - 28).

Archbishop of Dublin (1528 - 34); lord chancellor of Ireland (1528 - 32); murdered

Thomas Wolsey sent John Alen to visit all religious houses in the realm. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 986.

 
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John Forest

(c. 1470 - 1538) [ODNB]

Franciscan friar; Catholic martyr

Regular preacher at Paul's Cross; opponent of the king's divorce; convicted of heresy, burnt (the wooden image of Dderfel Gadam from the pilgimage site of Llandderfel, north Wales, was added to the fire)

John Forest preached at Paul's Cross against the visitation of religious houses ordered by Cardinal Wolsey. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Forest was accused of denying that the king was head of the church. He refused to abjure and was burnt at Smithfield. The image of Dderfel Gadam was burnt with him. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

 
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Lady Mary (Mary Tudor)

(1516 - 1558) [ODNB]

Mary Tudor, later Mary I, queen of England and Ireland (1553 - 58)

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

A marriage was proposed between the duke of Orleans and Princess Mary. The French raised questions of the validity of the marriage of her parents, and the proposed marriage did not take place. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Thomas Wolsey set up a household for Princess Mary. 1563, p. 435; 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. Mary wrote to her father and to the lords he sent to her, complaining of the denial of her title and legitimacy. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

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When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Mary exchanged letters with the Lord Protector and privy council, relating to her inability to adhere to the king's new laws concerning religion. The king also sent a letter to his sister, urging her to comply with the laws, to which she replied. 1576, pp. 1289-97; 1583, pp. 1332-39.

The king sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

In his will, Edward VI excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, pp. 1395.

 
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Master Hampton

Of Reading.

Master Hampton was engaged by enemies of Julins Palmer to befriend and then betray him. 1570, p. 2120, 1576, p. 1842 [recte 1831], 1583, p. 1937.

 
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Pompeo Colonna (Pompey Columna)

(1479 - 1532) [www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1517-ii.htm.Colonna]

Roman noble; bishop of Rieti (1508 - 14, 1528 - 29); cardinal-priest (1517 - 26); vice-chancellor of the church (1524 - 26); papal legate

Excommunicated 1526; restored c. 1527; viceroy of Naples 1530

Pope Clement VII threatened to take away Colonna's cardinal's hat if he continued to support the emperor. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

Colonna arrived in Rome with an army in 1527, intending to help the imperial soldiers. When he saw the cruelty of the soldiers, he did little to help them. 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

 
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Sir Thomas Docwra

Prior of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in January 1515, when he and the order granted a 99-year lease of Hampton Court to Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York, for a rent of £50 a year [VCH, Middlesex, vol. 2 (1911), pp. 324-27]

Thomas Wolsey, having paid a large sum for the lease of Hampton Court, gave it to the king. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

 
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Brussels (Bruxelles: French)

[Brusels]

Belgium

Coordinates: 50° 51' 0" N, 4° 21' 0" E

 
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Cremona

Lombardy, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 8' 0" N, 10° 2' 0" E

 
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Florence (Firenze)

[Florentia]

Tuscany, Italy

Coordinates: 43° 46' 13" N, 11° 15' 17" EE

Historic republic; cathedral city

 
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Hampton Court Palace

East Molesey, Surrey

OS grid ref: TQ 157 685

 
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Hawde

Site unknown

 
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Milan

(Mediolanum) [Mediolanensis; Millan; Millaine; Miliane; Millayne; Millen]

Lombardy, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 28' 0" N, 9° 10' 0" E

Cathedral city

 
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Pavia (Ticinum)

[Pauia]

Lombardy, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 11' 0" N, 9° 9' 0" E

Cathedral city

 
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Richmond on Thames (Shene; Sheen)

Surrey

OS grid ref: TQ 185 745

 
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Siena

[Sene; Seynes]

Tuscany, Italy

Coordinates: 43° 20' 0" N, 11° 20' 0" E

Cathedral city

1011 [987]

K. Hen. 8. The pryde of Cardinall Wolsey. Rome sacked. Pope Clement taken.

Furthermore, as he was Ambassadour sent to the Emperour at Bruxels, he had ouer with him the great Seale of England, and was serued with his seruitours kneeling on their knees, and many noble men of England wayting vpon him, to the great admiration of all the Germaines that beheld it: such was his monstrous pompe and pride. MarginaliaEx Paralip. Abb. Vrsp.Ex Paralip. Abb. Vrspur. 

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This refers to the 'paralipomena' (Greek: 'supplement') of the Chronicon quo omnes fere veteres … a chronicle that ended in the thirteenth century, by Burchard, abbot of Uspergensis [Urspergensis = Ursperg, a monastery in Bavaria]), edited and published by the enthusiastic humanist and Augsburg antiquarian Conrad Peutinger in 1515. The first continuation was by Conrad of Lichtenau [Konrad von Lichtenau]. The second continuation, to which Foxe refers here, was that by Caspar Hedio, which took it to 1537, the year it was published.

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MarginaliaThe climing of the Cardinall Wolsey.This glorious Cardinall in his tragicall doyngs, dyd exceede so farre all measure of a good subiect, that he became more like a Prince then a Priest: for although þe King bare the sword, yet he bare the stroke, makyng (in a maner) the whole Realme to bend at his becke, & to daunce after hys pipe. Such practises and fetches he had, that when he had well stored his own cofers, first he fetched the greatest part of the Kings treasure, out of the realme, in xij. great barels ful of gold & siluer, to serue the Popes warres. MarginaliaCardinall Wolsey a great causer of warres.And as his auaritious mind was neuer satisifed in getting, so his restles head was so busie, ruffling in publicke matters, that he neuer ceassed, before he had set both England, Fraunce, Flaunders, Spayne, and Italy, together by the eares.

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Thus this Legate well following the steppes of hys maister the Pope, and both of them well declaring the nature of their religion, vnder the pretence of þe Church, practised great hipocrisie, and vnder the authoritie of þe King, he vsed great extortion, with excessiue taxes and lones, and valuation of euery mans substance, so pilling the commōs and Marchaunts, that euery man complayned, but no redresse was had. MarginaliaThe pilling and poling of the Cardinall.Neither yet were the Churchmen altogether free from the pillax and pollax, from the pilling & polling (I meane) of this Cardinall, who vnder his power Legantine, gaue by preuētions, all benefices belonging to spirituall persons: by which hard it is to say, whether he purchased to himselfe, more riches then hatred ,of the spiritualty. So farre his licence stretched, that he had power to suppresse diuers Abbeyes, Priories, and Monasteries, and so did: taking from them all their goodes, moueables, and not moueables, except it were a little pension, left onely to the heads of certayne houses. By the saide power Legantine, he kept also generall visitations through þe Realme, sending Doctor Iohn Alein his Chaplein, riding in hys gowne of veluet, & with a great traine, to visit all religious houses: whereat the Friers obseruants much grudged, & would in no wise cōdescend thereunto: MarginaliaThe Fryers obseruaunts accursed of the Cardinall.wherfore they were openly accursed at Paules crosse, by frier Forest, MarginaliaOf Fryer Forest, Vid. infra. Ex Hallo. an. 17. Reg. Henric. 8. one of the same order: so that the Cardinall at length preuayled both against them, and all other. Against whom great disdayne arose among the people, perceauing how he by visitatiōs, making of Abbots, probates of testamentes, graunting of faculties, licences, and other pollings in his courtes Legantine, had made his treasure equall with the Kings, and yet euery yeare he sent great summes to Rome. And thys was their dayly talke against the Cardinall.

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MarginaliaEx Hallo, an. 19. Reg. Henric. 8.Beside many other matters and greeuances which stirred the harts of the commons against the Cardinall, thys was one, which much pinched them, for that the sayd Cardinall had sent out certain strait commissions in the Kings name, that euery man should pay the vj. part of his goods. Wherupon there folowed great muttering amongst þe cōmons, in such sort, þt it had almost growen to some riotous commotion or tumult, especially in the partes of Suffolke, had not the Dukes of Northfolke and Suffolke, with wisedome and gentlenes stept in and appeased the same.

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Another thing that rubbed the stomackes of many, or rather which moued them to laugh at the Cardinall, was this, to see his insolent presumption, so highly to take vpon him, as the Kings chiefe counsailer, to set a reformation in the order of the Kings houshold, making and establishing new ordinances in the same. He likewise made new officers, in þe house of the Duke of Richmond, which was then newly begon. In like maner he ordeined a Counsell, & established another houshold for þe Lady Mary, then being princes: so that all thing was done by his cōsent, & by none other. All this, with much more, tooke he vpō him, making the King beleeue, þt all should be to his honour, and þt he needed not to take any paine, insomuch that the charge of all things was committed vnto him: whereat many men smiled to see his great folly and presumption.

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MarginaliaHampton court geuen to the king.At this tyme the Cardinall gaue the King the lease of the Manour of Hampton Court, which he had of the Lord of S. Iohns, and on which he had done great coste. Therfore þe King again of his gētle nature, licenced him to lie in his Manour of Richmond, & so he lay there certain times. But when the common people, and specially such as were King Henry the vij. seruantes, sawe the Cardinall keepe house in the royall Manour of Richmond, which K. Henry the vij. so much esteemed, it was a maruaile to here, how they grudged, saieng: See a butchers dogge lie in the Ma-nour of Richmond. These with many other opprobrious wordes, were spoken agaynst the Cardinall, whose pride was so hygh, that he regarded nothyng: yet was he hated of all men.

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MarginaliaThe Cardinall ruffling in matters and warres of Princes.And now to expresse some part of the ruffling practises and busie intermedlynges of this Cardinall in Princes warres, first here is to be noted, that after lōg warres betwene England & Fraunce. 1524. (in the which warres, kyng Henry takyng the Emperours part agaynst Fraūces the French kyng, had waged with his money, þe Duke of Bourbon, and a great part of the Emperours army, to inuade and disturbe certaine partes of Fraunce) it happened that the French kyng MarginaliaFraunces the French king taken prisoner.commyng with his armye toward Millan, at the siege of Pauia, was there takē by the Duke of Bourbon, & Viceroy of Neaples, and so led prisoner into Spayne.

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Here note by the way, that all this while, the Cardinall held with the Emperour, hopyng by hym to be made Pope: but when that would not be, he went cleane from the Emperour, to the French kyng, as (the Lord willyng) ye shall heare.

After this victory gotten, and the French kyng beyng taken prisoner, who remayned in custody about a yeare & halfe: MarginaliaThe French king prisoner a yeare and a halfe. at lēgth through great labour & solicitation, as well of other, as namely of the Cardinall, and kyng Henry, an order was taken, and conditions propoūded betwene the French kyng and the Emperour, among which other diuers conditions, it was agreed, that they should resist the Turkes, & oppresse the Lutheranes: and so was the kyng set at libertie, leauyng behynd him, his ij. eldest sonnes, for pledges: But shortly after he reuoked his othe, beyng absolued by þe Byshop of Rome, & sayd, that he was forced to sweare, or els he should neuer haue bene deliuered. Which was. an. 1526. Pope Clement vij. seyng the French kyng restored to libertie, & misdoubting the puissance and domination of the Emperour in Italy so neare vnder his nose, absolueth the French king frō his othe: MarginaliaThe pope absolueth the French king frō his othe. also ioyneth together a confederacie of Venetians & other Princes agaynst the Emperour, bearyng great hatred agaynst all thē, that any thyng fauored the Emperours part, especially the familie of Columna in Rome, which familie was then Imperiall, & therfore to shew his hatred against them, he sayd to Pompey Cardinall of the same familie, in threatnyng words, that he would take away his Cardinals hatte. MarginaliaThe answere of the Cardinall to the Pope.To whō it was aunswered agayne of the Cardinall, that if he so did, he would put on a helmet, to ouerthrow the Popes triple crowne. Whereby it may appeare, here by the way, what holynesse and vertue lyeth in the Pope and Cardinals in that Catholicke sea of Rome.

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MarginaliaThe Pope stirreth vp warres.Thus the false Pope, vnder the lying title of holynes, was the father of much mischiefe & of great warres, which after ensued. For the Duke of Bourbon and other of the Emperours Captaines, hauyng intelligēce of the Popes purpose & confederacie, gathered their army together, and after much bloudshed and fightyng, about Millā, Hawde and Cremona, at length they approched & bent their siege agaynst Rome, & after three sharpe assaultes obteined the Citie with the whole spoyle therof: where also they besieged the foresayd Pope, with his Cardinals, in the mount of Adriā and tooke him prisoner. an. 1527. As touchyng the cause of the besiegyng of Rome, now ye haue heard: for the maner of taking of Rome, and of the Pope, the order therof is thus described in Hall, and other.

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¶ The sackyng of Rome, and takyng of Pope Clement.
MarginaliaThe taking of Rome.

THe Emperours army departyng from Florēce, to the Citie of Seynes, where they lost their ordinaūce, tooke counsaile there to go to Rome, and so much they trauailed by night and day, commōly passing xl. myle day and night (their good will was such) that the vi. day of May with bāners displayed, they came before the Citie of Rome beyng Saterday, the same day: and on Sonday the Romaines made Bulwarkes, Rampires, and other defences, and layd ordinaunce on the walles, and shot at them without fiercely. MarginaliaEx Paralip. Abbat Vrsp.

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The Duke of Bourbō MarginaliaThe Duke of BourBon. determined that it was not best to lye still without, and be slayne with ordinaunce, cōsideryng, that they were all naked people, & without great ordinaunce: wherfore he determined to take the chaunce & to geue the assault, and so māfully they approched the walles betwene the Burgo Nouo & old Rome. But the Romaines valiauntly defēded them with hādgunnes, pykes, stones, and other weapons, so that the enemyes were fayne to retreit. Then the Romaines were glad, and set many fayre banners on their towers and bulwarkes, and made great

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