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Abbess of Denny

Abbess of Denny abbey, near Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire; house of Franciscan nuns (Poor Clares)

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have given money to Denny Abbey and allowed the abbess to borrow books left with him by William Tyndale. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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Dr Stockhouse

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have lent books to Dr Stockhouse that had been left by William Tyndale. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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Dr Watson

Chaplain to Henry VIII

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have given money to Dr Watson and to have lent him books left by William Tyndale. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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George Stafford

of Durham; B.A., 1514-15; M.A. 1517; B.D. 1523-24; fellow of Pembroke (1515) and the Lady Margaret reader in divinity (1524). [Venn & Venn

George Stafford disputed with Robert Barnes for his BTh at Cambridge. 1563, p. 601; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

Hugh Latimer heard of Humphrey Monmouth from George Stafford at Cambridge and made use of his story in his sermons. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

George Stafford visited a priest with plague, Henry Conjurer, to convert him. He succeeded, but himself contracted plague and died. Latimer had formerly preached against Stafford and barred his students from hearing him, but was grateful that he was able to ask Stafford's forgiveness before he died. 1570, p. 1152; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1013.

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Henry Sumner [Sommers]

(d. 1528) [Emden; Fines]

King's College, Cambridge; then Cardinal College, Oxford; MA 1526; charged with having heretical books, imprisoned in the salt-fish cellar, where he died

Anthony Dalaber went to John Clerk to tell him about the arrest of Thomas Garrard and his escape. Clerk was glad to hear of it. He sent for Henry Sumner and William Bettes and had Dalaber relate the story to them, who were equally glad. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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Henry Sumner was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He died in prison after a diet solely of salt fish. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Sumner was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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Hugh Latimer

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

of Thirkeson, Leicestershire; BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1514; BTh 1524

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 39); preacher; martyr

While at Cambridge, Thomas Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer, who was crosskeeper at the time. 1563, p. 461; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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George Stafford visited a priest with plague, Henry Conjurer, to convert him. He succeeded, but himself contracted plague and died. Latimer had formerly preached against Stafford and barred his students from hearing him, but was grateful that he was able to ask Stafford's forgiveness before he died. 1570, p. 1152; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1013.

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Queen Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Latimer preached about Bilney's remorse over his abjuration in sermons before King Edward and the duchess of Suffolk. He credited Bilney with his own conversion. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

In his examination, James Bainham said that only Edward Crome and Hugh Latimer had preached the word of God sincerely and purely. 1570, p. 1169; 1576, p. 1000; 1583, p. 1027.

John Tyrel was charged in London in 1532 with holding heretical opinions. When asked how he came to hold these opinions, he said he had heard Hugh Latimer preach the same. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

Latimer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

At the burning of John Forest, Hugh Latimer read out the charges and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

Latimer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Latimer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Anne Askew became very ill and was in great pain during her second examination. She asked to see Hugh Latimer, but was refused. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

 
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Humphrey Monmouth

(d. c. 1537) [Fines]

Draper and alderman of All Saints, Barking.

Imprisoned, abjured; sheriff of London (1535 - 36) [PRO List of Sheriffs]

Articles were put by John Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Monmouth admitted that William Tyndale had lived with him for about six months. He also admitted sending money to him in Hamburg, but also sent money to other scholars and religious houses. He abjured and was later knighted and made sheriff of London. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Hugh Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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John Clerk

(c. 1501 - 1528?) [Emden]

BA Cambridg; MA 1521-22; called from Cambridge to Cardinal's College (Christ Church) Oxford in 1525; BTh 1527; one of those suspected of having done mischief at the time of the visit of Thomas Garrett to Oxford in 1528

John Clerk warned Anthony Dalaber that if he continued to follow him, he would be subjected to scorn, persecution and imprisonment. Many students and scholars throughout Oxford were influenced by Clerk's disputations and lectures. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1196.

Anthony Dalaber went to John Clerk to tell him about the arrest of Thomas Garrard and his escape. Clerk was glad to hear of it. He sent for Henry Sumner and William Bettes and had Dalaber relate the story to them, who were equally glad. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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John Clerk was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He died in prison after a diet of solely salt fish. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Clerk was imprisoned in Cardinal College for holding an illegal assembly and died of illness. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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John Colet

(1467 - 1519) [ODNB]

Dean of St Paul's and founder of St Paul's School; had knowledge and use of Florentine Neoplatonism

Because of his excellence of learning, Richard Pace was considered a suitable successor to John Colet as dean of St Paul's. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Colet was described by John Lambert as having had a good reputation among the people. 1563, p. 566; 1570, p. 1276; 1576, p. 1091; 1583, p. 1117.

Colet was one of those listed by Foxe as having been falsely accused of heresy 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

 
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John Fisher

(c. 1469 - 1535) [ODNB]

Vice-chancellor of Cambridge University (1501 - 1504); chancellor of Cambridge University (1504); bishop of Rochester (1504 - 34); cardinal; martyr

John Fisher preached a sermon at the penance of Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1193.

Fisher preached a sermon against Luther in 1526. 1563, p. 436; 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, pp. 993-94.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Fisher was one of the chief advocates for Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Fisher protested in parliament in 1530 about the proposed bill relating to the probate of testaments, saying it would mean the ruin of the church. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

The bishop of Rochester said that angels were ministers to the souls in purgatory. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Fisher wrote against Johann Oecolampadius and Luther. He was a persecutor of John Frith. He and Sir Thomas More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

Fisher was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

The pope promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Fisher is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

 
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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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John Royston

(d. 1551) [Fasti]

DTh; chaplain to Stokesley, bishop of London; prebendary of Pancratius, St Paul's (1529 - 51)

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have given Royston forty or fifty pounds. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

John Royston was present at St Paul's when the king's commissioners came to administer the oath to Bishop Bonner. 1570, p. 1501; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

 
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John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1500; DTh 1516; archdeacon of Surrey 1522; archdeacon of Dorset 1523; dean of St George's, Windsor 1524; royal confessor 1517; royal chaplain 1519; almoner 1520; bishop of London (1530 - 39)

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

John Stokesley became bishop of London after Thomas Wolsey was deprived. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

After King Henry had extended Wolsey's praemunire to the whole clergy, the bishops agreed to call all the priests in their dioceses to contribute. Stokesley called his clergy together, but there was such protest and disorder that he sent them away with his pardon. He then complained of his clergy to Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

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Simon Fish was wary of returning home because he was afraid of Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

Articles were put by Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. According to Monmouth, Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to read openly the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Stokesley sent a letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, directing them to be present at the sentencing of Richard Bayfield. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Mr Selyard, writing to John Stokesley, asked him to send word by his friend William Saxey of anything that could be discovered against Robert Bate. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley had all of Tyndale's New Testaments and other books brought into St Paul's churchyard and burnt. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley pronounced sentence on John Tewkesbury as a relapsed heretic and turned him over to the sheriffs. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

James Bainham was examined before John Stokesley in the house of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Many people in the London diocese were made to abjure under Bishop Stokesley. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. 1583, p. 1044.

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Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced sentence upon him and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London to be burnt. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Stokesley swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Stokesley met Princess Elizabeth's christening procession at the church door. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Stokesley preached a sermon in 1534 commending the efficacy of masses. This was attended by Thomas Merial, who was accused of heretical opinions and brought before Stokesley. 1570, pp. 1439-40; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Stokesley was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Stokesley attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Stokesley favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Holland, Stokesley's summoner, was sent for by Sir Christopher Barker to take Thomas Frebarne to the bishop. Frebarne had obtained pork in Lent for his pregnant wife. The bishop had Holland take him and the pig to the civil authorities. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1184.

Edmund Bonner, when nominated to the bishopric of London, told Richard Grafton that John Stokesley had been wrong to persecute those like Lobley for having bibles in English. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

 
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Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

 
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Mr Martin

Parson of Tooting Bec

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have lent Mr Martin books left by William Tyndale. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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Richard Taverner

(1505? - 1575) [ODNB]

Translator and evangelical reformer; transferred from Cambridge to Cardinal College, Oxford; BA Oxford 1527; accused of heresy 1529; MA Oxford 1530; Cromwell was his patron; MP Liverpool 1547; licence to preach 1552, although not ordained; temporarily in the Tower 1541

Richard Taverner was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Ettis and his wife were charged in London in 1541 with causing Richard Taverner, who was not a priest, to preach against the king's injunctions. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1204.

 
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Thomas Hitton

(d. 1529) [Fines]

of Martham, Norfolk; priest; burnt at Maidstone

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. William Tyndale mentioned Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

 
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Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Roy

(d. c. 1531) [ODNB]

Observant friar and evangelical author; worked on the New Testament with Tyndale; burnt in Portugal

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Roy was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tyndale

(c. 1494 - 1536) [ODNB]

Translator of the bible and religious reformer; martyr

BA Oxford 1512; MA 1515; read theology

Strangled and burnt at Vilvorde Castle

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Foxe erroneously includes Tyndale in a list of scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College, Oxford. Tyndale was in Germany at this time. [ODNB sub John Frith] 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Tyndale was schoolmaster to Sir John Walsh's children. Sir John and his wife joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy his translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Tyndale was examined on a charge of heresy by the bishop's chancellor. He returned to his master, but was troubled by the priests in the area and left for London. He tried to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. Eventually, with the aid of Humphrey Monmouth and others, he left the country. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

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Humphrey Monmouth had heard Tyndale preach two or three sermons at St Dunstan-in-the-West. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Tyndale preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. Tyndale had lodged with Monmouth for about six months. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

While in Germany, Tyndale met John Frith and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. Copies of these and other books he had written were sent to England. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, pp. 1049-50; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Simon Fish, sought by Cardinal Wolsey, was forced to go overseas to join Tyndale. While there, he wrote his book, Supplication for the Beggars. 1563, p. 448; 1570, pp. 1152-53; 1576, pp. 986-87; 1583, p. 1014.

Tyndale left Germany and went to Antwerp. As he was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament in Hamburg. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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John Tyndale, William's brother, was charged in 1530 in London with having sent his brother five marks and having received and kept letters from him. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1041.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

William Tyndale was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Tyndale returned to Antwerp and lodged at a house of English merchants kept by Thomas Poyntz. He became acquainted with Henry Philips and obtained for him a place in the same house, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

While Thomas Poyntes was away, Thomas Philips set a trap for Tyndale. He arranged for imperial officers to be ready in an alley when he tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. Tyndale was captured and imprisoned. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Tyndale was strangled and then burnt at Villevorde. 1563, p. 519; 1570, p. 1229; 1576, p. 1052; 1583, p. 1079.

Tyndale wrote letters to John Frith in the Tower in London. 1563, pp. 520-22; 1570, pp. 1231-32; 1576, pp. 1053-55; 1583, pp. 1080-82.

Tyndale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Warham

(c. 1450 - 1532) [ODNB]

Studied at Oxford; lawyer in Oxford and London; diplomat

Bishop of London (1502 - 04); keeper of the great seal (1502 - 04); archbishop of Canterbury (1504 - 32); lord chancellor (1504 - 15); chancellor of the University of Oxford (1506 - 32)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. Warham had brought in witnesses who had already abjured and would therefore tell everything they knew lest they be found guilty of relapse. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

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Thomas Wolsey caused his cardinal's hat, when it arrived, to be taken back to Dover so that the archbishop of Canterbury could greet it. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Warham was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

In a letter to Juan de Vergara, Erasmus of Rotterdam described how, after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, Warham was offered the chancellorship but declined due to his advanced years. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

William Tracy's will was sent to the Archbishop Warham to be proved. It contained reformed sentiments, and Warham brought it to the convocation. Tracy's body was exhumed and burnt. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

John Lambert was brought from Antwerp to London, where he was examined before Archbishop Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Wetherall

English Augustinian Provincial (1520 - 22, 1525 - 34)

Humphrey Monmouth claimed to have given money to William Wetherall. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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Denny Abbey

[Dendey, Denney]

Cambridgeshire

OS grid ref: TL 495 685

 
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Greenwich [Grenwich]
NGR: TQ 388 775

Market Town and parish in the hundred of Blackheath, Lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, County of Kent. 6 miles east-south-east of London. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Rochester. A royal residence was established here by Edward I, and was in use throughout the Tudor period. The palace having become decayed was demolished by Charles II, who intended to replace it.

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Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

The reason for the use of this work of reference is that it presents the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take this reference as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hamburg

[Hamborow; Hamburge; Hamborough]

Germany

Coordinates: 53° 35' 0" N, 9° 59' 0" E

Imperial free city 1189

 
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Maidstone
Maidstone, Maydstone
NGR: TQ 760 555

A borough and parish, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Maidstone, lathe of Aylesford, county of Kent, of which it is the county town. 8 miles south from Rochester. The living is a perpetual curacy in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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St-Dunstan-in-the-West [S. Dunstons in the West]

Fleet Street, London

Coordinates: 51° 30' 51.3" N, 0° 6' 36.8" W

 
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Tooting Bec [Totingbecke]

London

OS grid ref: TQ 292 725

1021 [997]

K. Hen. 8. The history of Humfrey Mummuthe. Thomas Hitten Martyr.

of the Clergie, did not only farre passe and exceed the common measure and order of subiectes, but also surmounted ouer Kings and Princes, and all other estates, as may well appeare by his doings and order of his storie aboue described.

Amongst other actes of the foresayd Cardinall, this is not to be forgotten, that he founded a new College in Oxford, for the furniture wherof, he had gathered together all the best learned he could heare of, amongst which number were these: Clarke, Tindall, Sommer, Frith, and Tauerner, with other mo: which holding in assemble together in the College, were accoūted to be heretiques (as they called them) and thereupon were cast into a prison of the college, where saltfish lay, through the stinke wherof the most part of them were infected, MarginaliaClarke died in the Cardinals Colledge in prison.and the sayde Clarke beyng a tender yong man, and the most singular in learning amongst them all, died in the said prison, and other in other places in the towne, also of the same infection deceased.

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And thus hauing deteined the Reader enough, or rather too much, with this vaineglorious Cardinal, now we wil reduce our storie again to more other fruiteful matter, and as the order of time requireth, first beginning wyth M. Humfrey Mummuth, a vertuous and good Alderman of London, who in the time of the said Cardinal was troubled, as in the storie heere foloweth.

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¶ The trouble of Humfrey Mummuth, Alderman of London. 
Commentary  *  Close
Humphrey Monmouth and Thomas Hitten

The principal source for this section is a letter from Humphrey Monmouth to the Privy Council, written on 19 May 1528, found in Foxe's papers (British Library, Harleian MS 425 fo. 10 ff; transcription in John Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, Relating Chiefly to Religion and the Reformation of it (Oxford, 1822), vol. I part ii, pp. 363-8). Foxe abbreviates this text to extract this narrative from it. In the process, he suppresses Monmouth's claim to have burned all his suspected books and his correspondence with Tyndale. He also suppresses Monmouth's fulsome profession of Catholic orthodoxy in that letter, including a reference to pardons he had received on a pilgrimage to Rome and his earnestly pious statement of trust 'in God I received at Easter last past'. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials I/ii, pp. 366-7.Alec Ryrie

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MarginaliaThe story of Humfrey Mummuth.MAister Humfrey Mummuth was a right godly and sincere Alderman of London, who in the dayes of Cardinall Woolsey, was troubled and put in the Tower, for the Gospell of Christ, and for mainteyning them that fauoured the same.

MarginaliaArticles ministred against Hūfrey Mummuth by Byshop Stokesly.Stokesley then Bishop of London, ministred Articles vnto him, to the nūber of xxiiij. as for adhering to Luther and his opinions: for hauing and reading heretical bookes and treatises, for geuing exhibition to William Tindall, Roy, and such other, for helping them ouer the sea to Luther, for ministring priuie helpe to translate, as well the Testament, as other bookes into English, for eating flesh in Lent, for affirming faith only to iustifie, for derogating from mens constitutions, for not prayeng to Saintes, not allowing Pilgrimage, auricular confession, the Popes pardons: briefly, for being an aduauncer of all Martin Luthers opinions, &c.

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He being of these articles examined, and cast in the Tower, at last was compelled to make his sute or purgation, writing to the foresaid Cardinall, then Lord Chauncelor, and the whole Counsayle out of the Tower. MarginaliaThe purgation and answere of Humfrey Mummuth to the artycles.In the contents whereof he answered to the criminous accusation of them which charged him with certayne bookes, receyued from beyond the sea: Also for his acquaintance wyth M. Tindall. Whereunto he sayde, that he denied not, but that foure yeares then past 

Commentary  *  Close

In fact in the latter part of 1523. Tyndale left Monmouth's house for the Continent in or around April 1524.

, he had heard the said Tindal preach two or three sermons at S. Dunstons in the West, and afterward meeting with the said Tindall, had certaine communication with hym cōcerning his liuing, who then told him that he had none at all, but trusted to be in the Bishop of London his seruice: for then he laboured to be his chaplayne. MarginaliaTindal refused of Byshop Stokesley to be his Chaplein.But being refused of the Bishop, so came agayne to the sayd Mummuth this examinate, and besought him to helpe hym. Who the same tyme tooke hym into hys house for halfe a yeare, where the said Tindall liued (as he sayd) like a good priest, studieng both night & day. MarginaliaThe temperate conuersation of W. Tyndall.He would eat but soddē meate, by his good will, nor drink but small single beere. He was neuer seene in that house to weare lynnen about him, al the space of his beyng there. Whereupon the sayd Mummuth had the better liking of hym, so that he promised him ten pound (as he then sayd) for his father and mothers soules, and all Christen soules, which money afterward he sent him ouer to Hamborow, according to his promise. And yet not to him alone he gaue this exhibition, but to diuers other moe likewise which were no heretikes: as to D. Royston, the Bishop of Londons Chaplayne, he exhibited fortie or fiftie pounds: to D. Wodiall, Prouinciall of the Frier Austens, as much, or more: to D. Watson the Kings Chaplayne: also to other scholars, and diuers Priests, besides other charges bestowed vpon Religious houses, as vpon the Nunry of Dendey, aboue fiftie pounds sterling bestowed, &c.

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And as touching his bookes, as Enchiridion, 

Commentary  *  Close

Erasmus' Enchiridion Militis Christiani (Handbook of a Christian Soldier), first published in 1504, republished with a new prefatory letter in 1518 and thereafter an enormous publishing success. It is a text of polemical but ultimately orthodox Catholic humanist piety. Monmouth's original letter makes it plain that his copy was of the English translation prepared by Tyndale himself, who left it in Monmouth's custody. He owned at least two copies, although claimed in 1528 that he no longer had either of them. The translation is presumed lost, although it is possible that the first printed English edition of 1533 is, or is based on, Tyndale's translation. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, I/ii, p. 365. The existence of a translation of the Enchiridion by Tyndale is independently attested in 1563, p. 514. See also Desiderius Erasmus, Enchiridion Militis Christiani: an English version, ed. Anne M. O'Donnell (Early English Text Society 282: Oxford, 1981), pp. xlix-liii.

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the Pater noster, 
Commentary  *  Close

Monmouth described this as a handwritten book in English, 'an old book', and claimed that he could not remember how it came to be in his possession. It may be a Lollard text. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, I/ii, p. 365.

De libertate Christiana, 
Commentary  *  Close

Luther's The Liberty of a Christian, first published in 1520: Luther's fullest early statement of his core doctrine of justification by faith alone. This too, Monmouth's letter makes plain, was a handwritten copy in English, making it the earliest known English translation of Luther. He was given it by 'one Arnold, a yong man that is gone into Spain'. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, I/ii, p. 365.

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an Englishe Testamente, of whome, some W. Tindall left with him, some he sent vnto hym, some were brought into hys house, by whome he could not tell, these bookes he said, did lye opē in his house, the space of two yeares together, he suspecting no harme tobe in them. And moreouer, the same bookes beyng desired of sondry persons, as of the Abbesse of Denney, a Frier of Grenewich, the Father Confessour of Syon, he let them haue them, and yet he neuer heard Frier, Priest, or lay mā, finde any fault with the sayd bookes. Likewise to D. Watson, to D. Stockehouse, Maister Martin, Parson of Totingbecke, he committed the perusing of the bookes of Pater noster, and De libertate Christiana, which found no great fault in them, but onely in the booke De libertate Christiana, they sayd there were thynges somewhat hard, except the Reader were wise.

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Thus he excusing himselfe, and moreouer cōplainyng of þe losse of his credite, by his imprisonment in the Tower and of the detrimentes of his occupying, who was wont yearely to shyp, ouer v. hundreth clothes to straungers, & set many Clothiars a worke, in Suffolke and in other places, of whō he bought all their clothes, which almost were now all vndone: by this reason at length was set at libertie, beyng forced to abiure, and after was made Knight by the kyng, and Shriffe of London.

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Of this 

Commentary  *  Close

This anecdote is lifted from Latimer's seventh sermon on the Lord's Prayer: Hugh Latimer, 27 sermons preached by the ryght Reuerende father in God and constant matir of Iesus Christe, Maister Hugh Latimer (STC 15276: London, 1562), fo. 57r-v. Monmouth is not named in the text, simply being 'a great riche merchaunte'.

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Humfrey Mummuth we read of a notable example of Christian patience, MarginaliaA notable exāple of Christian pacience, in an Alderman M. George Stafford, reader in Cambridge. in the Sermons of M. Latimer, which the sayd Latimer heard in Cambridge of M. George Stafford,reader of the Diuinitie Lecture in that Vniuersitie. MarginaliaEx concione Doct. Hugo. Latimeri.Who expoundyng the place S. Paule to the Romaines 
Commentary  *  Close

Romans 12:20-1.

, that we shall ouercome our enemy, with well doyng, & so heape whote coales vpon his head. &c. brought in an exāple, saying, that he knew in London a great rich Marchaunt (meanyng this Humfrey Mummuth) which had a very poore neighbour: yet for all his pouertie, he loued him very well, and lent him money at his neede, and let him come to his table whensoeuer he would. It was euen at that tyme, when D. Colet was in trouble, and should haue bene burnt, if God had not turned the kyngs hart to the contrary. Now the richman began to bee a Scripture man, he began to smell the Gospell. The poore man was a Papist still.

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It chaunced on a tyme, when the rich mā talked of the Gospell sittyng at his table, where he reproued Popery, and such kynde of thynges. The poore man beyng there present, tooke a great displeasure agaynst the rich man: in somuch, that hee would come no more to his house: he would borow no more money of him, as he was wont to doe before tymes: yea and conceiued such hatred and malice agaynst him, that he went and accused him before the Byshops. Now the riche man not knowyng of any such displeasure, offered many tymes to talke with him, and to set him at quyet. It would not be. The poore man had such a stomacke, that hee would not vouchsafe to speake with him. If he mete the rich man in the streate he would goe out of his way. One tyme it happened that hee mete him so in a narrow streate, that he could not auoyde, but come neare him: yet for all that this poore man (I say) had such a stomacke agaynst the riche man, that he was mynded to goe foreward, and not to speake with hym. The riche man perceiuyng that, caught hym by the hand, and asked him, saying: MarginaliaAgree with thine enemie while thou art in the way with him. Math. 5.Neighbour, what is come into your hart, to take such displeasure with me? What haue I done agaynst you? tell me, and I will be ready at all tymes to make you amendes.

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Finally, he spake so gently, so charitably, so louyngly, and frendly, that it wrought so in the poore mans hart, that by and by he fell downe vppon his knees, and asked him forgeuenesse. The riche man forgaue him, and so tooke him agayne to his fauour, and they loued as well as euer they dyd afore.

¶ The history of Thomas Hitten 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's sources here are, as he suggests, William Tyndale, The practyse of prelates (STC 24465: Antwerp, 1530), sig. K6r, and Tyndale, An answere vnto sir Thomas Mores dialoge (STC 24437: Antwerp, 1531), sig. I5r-v. Tyndale also referred to Hitton, giving no additional detail, in The examinacion of master William Thorpe preste (STC 24045: Antwerp, 1530), sig. A2r. Hitton is also the 'Seinte Thomas mar.' placed in the calendar of George Joye's primer Ortulus animus (RSTC 13828.4: Antwerp, 1530), sig. A3v. These scattered references provoked a much fuller and more circumstancial account of Hitton's case from Thomas More, in The confutacyon of Tyndales answere (STC 18079: London, 1532), sigs. Bb2r-4r. But in the 1583 edition of the Acts and Monuments, Foxe succeeded in providing an even more detailed account of Hitton, apparently drawing on Archbishop Warham's records: see 1583, pp. 2136-2137. See also Charles C. Butterworth, The English Primers (1529-1545) (Philadelphia, 1953), pp. 11-17, 23-4.

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.
Persecuters.Martyrs.The Causes.
MarginaliaTho. Hitten Martyr.Touchyng the memo-
Wil. War-riall of Thomas Hyt-
ham Arch-ten, remayneth, nothyng
byshop ofThomasin writtyng, but onely
Canterbu-Hytten.his name, saue that Wil-
ry.liam Tyndall in his A-
pologie agaynste More:
and also in another booke,
entituled: The Practise
At Mayd-of Prelates, doth once or
Fisher, By-stone.twise make mētion of him
shop ofby way of digression. He
Rochester.An. 1530.was (sayth he) a Preacher
at Maydstone, whom the
Byshoppe of Canterbury
William Warhā, and Fi-
sher Byshoppe of Roche-
ster
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