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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

 
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Dr Stokes

Augustinian friar in 1531; disputed with Bilney while Bilney was in prison; old in 1570

Dr Stokes was one of the persecutors of Bilney and Arthur. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, p. 998.

When Thomas Bilney was imprisoned in 1531, William Calle and Dr Stokes went to visit and tried to change his opinions. Dr Stokes remained obdurate in his opinions. 1563, p. 482; 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

 
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Geoffrey Jullys

BTh Cambridge 1505-6; DTh 1509-10; Dominican friar; prior of Cambridge convent 1507; prior of Sudbury convent in 1530 [Emden]

Geoffrey Jullys was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Jullys testified that Bilney had preached heresy. 1570, p. 1149; 1576, p. 983; 1583, p. 1010.

 
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Geoffrey Lome

of Steeple Bumpstead [Fines]

Abjured in 1528

Lome was charged with translating and dispersing Luther's works and of holding heretical opinions. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Geoffrey Lome had been porter of St Anthony's School, and abjured before the bishops of London, Bath and Lincoln. 1563, p. 480.

 
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Henry Standish

(c. 1475 - 1535) [ODNB]

Franciscan friar; bishop of St Asaph (1518 - 35)

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Standish was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

 
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Hugh Latimer

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

of Thirkeson, Leicestershire; BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1514; BTh 1524

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 39); preacher; martyr

While at Cambridge, Thomas Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer, who was crosskeeper at the time. 1563, p. 461; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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George Stafford visited a priest with plague, Henry Conjurer, to convert him. He succeeded, but himself contracted plague and died. Latimer had formerly preached against Stafford and barred his students from hearing him, but was grateful that he was able to ask Stafford's forgiveness before he died. 1570, p. 1152; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1013.

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Queen Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Latimer preached about Bilney's remorse over his abjuration in sermons before King Edward and the duchess of Suffolk. He credited Bilney with his own conversion. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

In his examination, James Bainham said that only Edward Crome and Hugh Latimer had preached the word of God sincerely and purely. 1570, p. 1169; 1576, p. 1000; 1583, p. 1027.

John Tyrel was charged in London in 1532 with holding heretical opinions. When asked how he came to hold these opinions, he said he had heard Hugh Latimer preach the same. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

Latimer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

At the burning of John Forest, Hugh Latimer read out the charges and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

Latimer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Latimer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Anne Askew became very ill and was in great pain during her second examination. She asked to see Hugh Latimer, but was refused. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

 
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John Bird

(d. 1558) [ODNB]

DTh Oxford 1514; provincial of the Carmelites in Bishop's Lynn 1516

Bishop of Penreth (1537 - 39); bishop of Bangor (1539 - 41); bishop of Chester (1541 - 54)

John Bird was one of the persecutors of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur. 1563, p. 482; 1570, pp. 1134, 1146; 1576, pp. 971, 981; 1583, pp. 998, 1008.

 
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John Brusyerd

Dominican friar of Ipswich in 1531

Thomas Bilney and John Brusyerd entered into a dialogue on images in Ipswich around the time of Bilney's examination. 1563, pp. 474-79; 1570, pp. 1138-40; 1576, pp. 975-76; 1583, pp. 1001-03.

 
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John Clerk

(1481/2? - 1541) [ODNB]

Diplomat; bishop of Bath and Wells (1523 - 41)

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Clerke took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Clerk was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Clerk attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Clerk favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

 
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John Fisher

(c. 1469 - 1535) [ODNB]

Vice-chancellor of Cambridge University (1501 - 1504); chancellor of Cambridge University (1504); bishop of Rochester (1504 - 34); cardinal; martyr

John Fisher preached a sermon at the penance of Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1193.

Fisher preached a sermon against Luther in 1526. 1563, p. 436; 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, pp. 993-94.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Fisher was one of the chief advocates for Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Fisher protested in parliament in 1530 about the proposed bill relating to the probate of testaments, saying it would mean the ruin of the church. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

The bishop of Rochester said that angels were ministers to the souls in purgatory. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Fisher wrote against Johann Oecolampadius and Luther. He was a persecutor of John Frith. He and Sir Thomas More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

Fisher was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

The pope promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Fisher is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

 
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John Hodgkin (Huggen)

(d. 1560) [ODNB]

Dominican friar; BTh Oxford 1521; DTh Cambridge 1525; provincial of the English Dominicans by 1527; bishop-suffragan of Bedford (1537 - 54), deprived for having married

John Hodgkin was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Hodgkin testified that Bilney in Ipswich preached against the power of the pope to remit penances. 1570, p. 1149; 1576, p. 983; 1583, p. 1010.

In 1531, Hodgkin was called in to see Thomas Bilney in prison in order to get him to change his opinions. 1563, p. 482; 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Hodgkin witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

[NB: Hodgkin is correctly recorded as the bishop of Bedford in the 1563 edition, is missing from the list of witnesses in the 1570 edition, and thereafter is recorded as the bishop of Bath.]

 
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John Longland

(1473 - 1547) [ODNB]

Scholar, preacher; BTh Oxford by 1509; DTh by 1511; dean of Salisbury 1514

Bishop of Lincoln (1521 - 1547); royal confessor 1524

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Harding was brought before Bishop Longland to be examined. Longland condemned him as a relapse, and he was sentenced to be burnt. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 983.

John Longland took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced the sentence of condemnation. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Other Lollards were brought before Longland to be examined, confess and abjure. 1570, pp. 1118-20; 1576, pp. 957-59; 1583, pp. 984-86.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Longland was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Longland attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Longland favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Longland preached a sermon against the pope's supremacy in front of the king at Greenwich on Good Friday in 1538. 1570, pp. 1250-54; 1576, pp. 1071-74; 1583, pp. 1097-1100.

Mark Cowbridge went mad, was condemned by John Longland and burnt in Oxford. 1563, p. 574; 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1105; 1583, p. 1131.

Longland and Anthony Draycot were active in enforcing the Six Articles within the diocese of Lincoln. 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1207.

 
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John Veysey (formerly Harman)

(c. 1464 - 1554) [ODNB]

BA Oxford; BCL by 1489; DCL by 1495; archdeacon of Chester 1499; chancellor of Exeter 1502; president of Magdalen College 1507, resigned the same year; dean of Exeter 1509; dean of the Chapel Royal 1514; dean of St George's chapel, Windsor 1515

Bishop of Exeter (1519 - 51), resigned

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

After antipapal papers had been posted on the cathedral doors in Exeter, the mayor and his officers were not especially active in attempting to find the person responsible, but the bishop, John Veysey, and higher clergy were determined to do so. Veysey gave orders that the clergy were to preach daily against the heresy. 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1010; 1583, p. 1037.

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Thomas Benet was arrested and was imprisoned in the bishop's prison, placed in the stocks and in irons. He was examined by John Veysey. 1570, p. 1182; 1576, p. 1011; 1583, p. 1038.

Veysey was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Nicholas West

(d. 1533) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1487; MA 1490; LLD before 1500; treasurer of Chichester 1507; dean of St George's, Windsor (1509 - 1515); bishop of Ely (1515 - 33); diplomat

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Nicholas West took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

West was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

 
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Richard Jugworth

Dominican friar; professor of divinity at Cambridge

Richard Jugworth was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

 
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Richard Nix

(c. 1447 - 1535) [ODNB]

Bishop of Exeter (1487 - 92); bishop of Bath and Wells (1492 - 94); bishop of Durham (1494 - 1501); bishop of Norwich (1501 - 35)

At the burning of Peke in Ipswich in 1515, Dr Redding, on behalf of the bishop of Norwich, promised 40 days' pardon for anyone who threw wood onto the fire. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, pp. 1131-32.

Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur were examined in the house of the bishop of Norwich. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Two years after his abjuration, Thomas Bilney returned to Norfolk and preached openly. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1563, p. 481; 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

The priors of Pentney Priory and Westacre Priory assured Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, that Nicholas Shaxton had not preached heresy at Westacre. 1563 p. 483.

After Bilney's burning, and the decision not to prosecute Nicholas Shaxton, Nix was afraid that he had burnt the wrong man. 1563, p. 484; 1570, pp. 1149-50; 1576, p. 984; 1583, p. 1011.

 
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Robert Barnes

(c. 1495 - 1540) [ODNB]

Religious reformer; martyr of King's Lynn, Norfolk.

Augustinian friar; scholar of Cambridge and Louvain; prior of Augustinians, Cambridge; B.D. Cambridge 1522-23 ; BTh 1523

Arrested in 1526, abjured. Escaped to Wittenberg and became a good friend of Martin Luther; returned in 1531-32 and 1534; became royal chaplain in 1535

Robert Barnes went from Louvain to Cambridge. He became prior and master of the house of the Augustinians. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney, Thomas Arthur and others. 1563, p. 482.

Barnes preached his first sermon after his conversion at St Edward's church, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and was immediately accused of heresy by two fellows of King's Hall. His supporters met frequently at the White Horse tavern. 1563, p. 601; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was supported at Cambridge by William Paget and Gardiner. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Robert Barnes often visited Bury Abbey to see his friend Edmund Rougham, who had been his fellow student at Louvain. While there, Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund Rougham eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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Barnes preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Barnes was arrested and taken to London, where he was examined by Cardinal Wolsey. At the urging of Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox, he abjured. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Thomas Wolsey charged Barnes with heresy and made him bear a faggot. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 993.

Barnes performed his penance with four Stilliard men. He was then imprisoned in the Fleet for half a year. Afterwards he was committed to the Augustinian house in London as a free prisoner. Further complaints to the cardinal resulted in an order that Barnes be sent to Northampton to be burnt. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

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In Northampton Barnes left a suicide note and a pile of clothes on the river-bank and fled to London, from whence he escaped to Antwerp. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

From Antwerp Barnes went to Germany and found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

The king of Denmark sent Barnes as ambassador to Henry VIII with a delegation from Luebeck. Barnes flourished during the time that Anne Boleyn was queen. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Barnes and William Barlow informed Thomas Cromwell of the arrest of Thomas Frebarne for obtaining pork in Lent for his pregnant wife and asked him to send for the mayor. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1185.

Robert Barnes was sent on an embassy to the duke of Cleves by Henry VIII to help negotiate his marriage with Anne of Cleves. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

After the fall of Cromwell and Stephen Gardiner's return from France, Barnes and other preachers were arrested. He was examined, and he, Garrard and Jerome were appointed to preach sermons. Gardiner was present at Barnes' sermon, and Barnes was sent for and imprisoned in the Tower. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

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Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Barnes was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535) [ODNB]

Humanist, author. Studied at Oxford (1492 - 94); Lincoln Inn (1496 - 1501/2); joined king's council 1518; royal secretary (1521 - 26); lord chancellor (1529 - 32); strong opponent of heresy; martyr

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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More became chancellor after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, Phillips was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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More was prevented from persecuting Simon Fish because the king had given him his signet, but he sent for Fish's wife to appear before him. She was saved from molestation because her daughter was ill with plague. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

More wrote The Supplication of Purgatory in opposition to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

More intercepted and confiscated a consignment of protestant books sent to England by Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

More examined John Tewkesbury, and sentence was pronounced in More's house. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

More pursued John Frith in England and abroad and promised large rewards for news of him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

John Fisher and More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Bishop Stokesley complained to More of the behaviour of his clergy in objecting to contributing large sums to the lifting of the praemunire on the higher clergy. More had the mayor of London arrest and imprison a number of clergy and laymen. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

The king sent More to speak to parliament, giving the opinion of the universities on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine. 1563, p. 459.

Because More opposed the king's separation from the pope, he was deprived of the chancellorship. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

In the preface to his book against Tyndale, More gave evidence that Thomas Bilney had recanted before his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

 
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Thomas Arthur

(d. 1532) [ODNB]

Religious radical; BA Cambridge 1513; MA 1516; fellow of St John's, Cambridge 1517; abjured 1527

While at Cambridge, Thomas Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer. Bilney and Arthur left the university, going about teaching and preaching. Cardinal Wolsey had them imprisoned in 1527. 1563, p. 461; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

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Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield in 1531, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

 
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Thomas Bilney

(c. 1495 - 1531) [Fines; ODNB]

Proctor of Cambridge; evangelical reformer; martyr burnt at Norwich

While at Cambridge, Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer. Bilney and Arthur left the university, going about teaching and preaching. Cardinal Wolsey had them imprisoned in 1527. 1563, pp. 461, 481; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

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John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Bilney was well acquainted with Thomas Benet. 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1037.

Bilney preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Thomas Bilney and John Brusyerd entered into a dialogue on images in Ipswich around the time of Bilney's examination. 1563, pp. 474-79; 1570, pp. 1138-40; 1576, pp. 975-76; 1583, pp. 1001-03.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends, and they persuaded him to abjure. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

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Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Bilney was sentenced to bear a faggot at Paul's Cross and to imprisonment at the pleasure of Cardinal Wolsey. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

For two years Bilney repented of his abjuration. He moved to Norfolk and preached openly. He was arrested when he gave books to an anchoress he had converted in Norwich. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Lawrence Staple was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, receiving four copies of Tyndale's New Testament from Bilney. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield in 1531, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

Bilney was arrested by the sheriff, Thomas Necton, his good friend. He was examined and condemned by Thomas Pelles. The night before his burning, his friends found him cheerful and enjoying his dinner. He put his finger into the candle flame several times to test the heat. He was burnt the next day at Lollards' Pit in Norwich. 1563, pp. 482-83; 1570, pp. 1150-51; 1576, pp. 984-85; 1583, p. 1012.

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Michael Lobley was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, saying that Bilney was a good man. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

 
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Thomas Garrard (Garret)

(1498 - 1540) [ODNB; Fines]

of Lincolnshire; clergyman and protestant reformer

BA Oxford 1518; MA 1524, BTh by 1535; chancellor to Latimer and Cranmer

Burnt as a heretic

Garrard preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Thomas Garrard took prohibited books to Oxford and was sought for the same offence in London. 1563, p. 604; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

Garrard was arrested and taken into custody. He undid the lock and went to see Anthony Dalaber, who gave him his cloak to disguise his escape. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Garrard had escaped, he was apprehended by Cole and returned to the university. He was examined by Cottisford, Hygdon and London, condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot with Anthony Dalaber. They were then imprisoned. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

When John Frith heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Garrard had been curate of All Hallows in Honey Lane. He abjured before the bishops of London, Lincoln and Bath and Wells.1563, pp. 419, 480-81.

Richard Champion and Thomas Garrard were sent to Calais to preach. 1563, p. 658; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Garrard first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Garrard was burnt at Smithfield with Robert Barnes and William Jerome. 1563, p. 610; 1570, p. 1370; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

 
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Thomas Williams

Witness against Thomas Arthur 1531 at Norwich

Thomas Williams was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

 
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Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

 
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William Jecket

Gentleman; witness at Thomas Arthur's examination 1532

William Jecket was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

 
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William Nelson

Priest of Leith (Leith Hill, Surrey?) [Fines]

William Nelson was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Nelson was charged in London in 1531 with buying books of Luther, Tyndale and Thorpe from John Periman and abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

 
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William Warham

(c. 1450 - 1532) [ODNB]

Studied at Oxford; lawyer in Oxford and London; diplomat

Bishop of London (1502 - 04); keeper of the great seal (1502 - 04); archbishop of Canterbury (1504 - 32); lord chancellor (1504 - 15); chancellor of the University of Oxford (1506 - 32)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. Warham had brought in witnesses who had already abjured and would therefore tell everything they knew lest they be found guilty of relapse. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

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Thomas Wolsey caused his cardinal's hat, when it arrived, to be taken back to Dover so that the archbishop of Canterbury could greet it. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Warham was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

In a letter to Juan de Vergara, Erasmus of Rotterdam described how, after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, Warham was offered the chancellorship but declined due to his advanced years. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

William Tracy's will was sent to the Archbishop Warham to be proved. It contained reformed sentiments, and Warham brought it to the convocation. Tracy's body was exhumed and burnt. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

John Lambert was brought from Antwerp to London, where he was examined before Archbishop Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

 
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Ipswich
Ipswich, Ipswiche
NGR: TM 170 440

A borough in the liberty of Ipswich, county of Suffolk. 25 miles south-east by east from Bury St. Edmunds, 69 miles north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of St. Clement, St. Helen, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at the Quay, St. Mary Stoke, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Mathew, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Stephen, Witham with Thurlstone, and part of Westerfield; all within the Archdeaconry of Suffolk and Diocese of Norwich. St. Clement with St. Helen is a rectory in charge; St. Mary Stoke is a rectory; St. Mathew and St. Stephen are discharged rectories; St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at Quay, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Nicholas and St. Peter are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Norwich
NGR: TG 230 070

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Humbleyard, county of Norfolk, of which it is the capital. 108 miles north-east by north from London. The city comprises 33 parishes, and the liberty of the city a further four. Of these 37, three are rectories, 12 are discharged rectories, three are vicarages, one is a discharged vicarage, and 18 are perpetual curacies. St Andrew, St Helen, St James, St Paul and Lakenham are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter; the rest are in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Norwich, of which the city is the seat.

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Further information:

Andrews church (now St Andrews Hall) is at the junction of St Andrews Street and Elm Hill.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1022 [998]

K. Henry. 8. The burning of Thomas Hitten. The apprehension of Tho. Bilney, and Tho. Arthur.

ster, after they had longe kepte and tormented him in prison with sundy torments, and that notwithstanding, he continued constant, at the last they burned him at Maydstone, for the constant and manifest testimonie of Iesu Christ, and of his free grace and saluation. In the yeare of our Lord 1530. 

Commentary  *  Close

Hytten was in fact executed on or around 23 February 1530, making him the first English Protestant to be burned for heresy.

¶ The burnyng of Thomas Hytten.
woodcut [View a larger version]
Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
Thomas Hitton may only feature as a footnote (if that) in modern histories of the English Reformation. In his day it was different. As an early martyr of a new credal generation he sparked new admiration. Stemming from Martham in Norfolk (Foxe tells us), which had been a home of Lollards a hundred years earlier, he was sentenced by Archbishop Warham and burned at Maidstone (where he had been preaching) in February 1530. Already in 1531 Hitton's name appeared as that of a saint in the calendar of an unorthodox primer -- something that appalled Thomas More who regarded him as learning false faith and heresy from Tyndale's books

MarginaliaAnno. 1531.Persecuters.Martyrs.The Causes.
MarginaliaThomas Bilney Martyr.In the story aboue pas-
Cardinallsed of Cardinall Wolsey,
Wolsey.mention was made of cer-
tayne, whome the sayde
Nixe, By-Cardinal caused to abiure,
shoppe ofas Bilney, 
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Thomas Bilney

Unlike Robert Barnes or other Cambridge men who were among the earliest English evangelicals, Thomas Bilney left few written works at the time of his execution by burning on 19 August 1531. Posterity therefore has had to depend very largely on Foxe's martyrology for his portrait. When Patrick Collinson wrote that John Foxe's beautiful stories are `indispensable' for our understanding of the Reformation, because `we cannot and never shall be able to see the events' that he recounted `except through his spectacles' (Patrick Collinson, `Truth and legend: the veracity of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs', in Elizabethan Essays, (London, 1994), p. 177), we may appreciate that Foxe is also indispensable for what we can know about Bilney. In this section of his text it is particularly clear how Foxe and his printer John Day looked through the spectacles of the men who had actually known Bilney, and how they interwove the contradictory accounts of his life, examinations, retractions, and death into a memorable portrait of a man who was sacrificed at a delicate moment in the life of the Christian Church.

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In the 1563 edition, their source material was drawn from the official records kept by Cuthbert Tunstall, then bishop of London, in his episcopal register; the sermons of Hugh Latimer; as well as the polemical denunciations of Sir Thomas More. In the second edition of 1570, Foxe and Day were assisted by those who had known Bilney, and were still alive at the time that they were writing, most notably their great patron the archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker, who was a Norwich native, and as a young fellow of Corpus Christi College had accompanied Bilney when he went to the stake. The reason why Foxe consulted these sources about Bilney's death was that he was responding to charges made by Thomas More, and repeated later by Nicolas Harpsfield in 1566, that Bilney had died a penitent sinner, reconciled with the Catholic church.

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Latimer's first printed references to Bilney appeared during the reign of King Edward VI, when Day (while he was working with William Seres in the late 1540s) began to disseminate his sermons with the backing of Katherine Brandon, the widowed duchess of Suffolk, whose arms appear at the beginning of Latimer's books. After Latimer was burnt in 1555, Foxe and Day continued to gather his sermons as they prepared their successive editions of the A&M. Day printed a fresh assemblage of Latimer's sermons in 1562, with previously-unprinted additions that contained further references to Bilney. Even at the end of Day's life, he discovered more sermons by Latimer to put into print.

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To Latimer, we can attribute the evocative portrait of `Bilney, little Bilney' the vulnerable and harmless scholar, which he created in three sermons:1) 'Bilney, litle Bilnei, that blessed martyr of GOD', first appeared in Latimer's Seventh Sermon preached before King Edward VI: The seconde sermon of Maister Hughe Latimer, whych he preached before the Kynges Maiestie within his graces Palayce at Westminster, the xv. day of Marche M.ccccc.xlix. (London: John Day and William Seres [1549], STC 15274.7), sigs. Bb3A-Bb3B; (reprinted in the Parker Society edition of Latimer's Sermons, ed. George Elwes Corrie (Cambridge, 1844), p. 222.2) Bilney asked Latimer to hear his confession (1524): first printed in Latimer's First Sermon on the Lord's Prayer in 27 sermons preached by the ryght Reuerende father in God and constant matir [sic] of Iesus Christe, Maister Hugh Latimer, as well such as in tymes past haue bene printed, as certayne other commyng to our handes of late, whych were yet neuer set forth in print, (London: John Day, 1562, STC 15276) in the section known as Certayn Godly Sermons, made vppon the Lordes Prayer, at fol. 13B (reprinted in Latimer's Sermons, ed. pp. 334-5).3) Bilney's `anguishe and agonie' following his recantation of 1527 appeared in one of the final books Day printed, in Latimer's Lincolnshire Sermons for the Second Sunday in Advent Fruitfull sermons preached by the right reuerend Father, and constant martyr of Iesus Christ M. Hugh Latimer (London: John Day, 1584, STC 15280), fols. 247-247v; reprinted in Sermons and Remains, ed. George Elwes Corrie (Cambridge, 1844), p. 51.Latimer's reminiscences of Bilney's life and sufferings, as they were adapted in the A&M, have proved to be definitive over the centuries, or rather, the chief means by which Bilney has been understood, at least until recently.

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In contrast to Latimer's portrait of Bilney as the noble victim, Sir Thomas More's characterization was polarized between Bilney's obvious reputation for goodness, contrasted against the harm that More believed Bilney inflicted when he preached and distributed books in London and East Anglia. So More wrote during Bilney's lifetime that he had heard that his reputation, was of 'a good honest vertuous man/ farre from ambycyon and desire of worldely worshyp/ chast/ humble/ and charytable/ free and lyberall in alm[h]ouse dede[s]/ and a very goodly prechoure' in A dyaloge of syr Thomas More knyghte . . . touchyng the pestylent secte of Luther [and] Tyndale (London: William Rastell, 1530, STC 18085), especially sig. B3B. B5A-C6B; reprinted in Sir Thomas More, A Dialogue Concerning Heresies, eds. Thomas M. C. Lawler et al., in The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, vol. 6, pt. 1 (New Haven, 1981), especially pp. 27-8, 35-51. As Lord Chancellor, More was asked to investigate some of the legal disarray that accompanied Bilney's execution, which he discussed in The confutacyon of Tyndales answere (London: William Rastell, 1532, STC 18079), sig. Cc3B-Dd1A, reprinted in The confutacyon of Tyndales answere, ed. L. A. Schuster et al., in The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, vol. 8, pt. 1 (New Haven, 1973), pp. 22-5. More's nuanced and complicated understanding of Bilney, which moved in turns from sympathy through to acidulation, has been especially influential in recent decades in the work of John F. Davis and Gregory Walker, among others.

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What was Bilney's own religious complexion? The term `Protestant' began to emerge only from 1529, after the second Diet of Speyer and it did not gain any currency in English until long after Bilney's death. Probably it is not fair to call Bilney a Protestant, for he died before doctrinal lines and confessional identities had been sufficiently developed to make their meanings clear (this was also the view of the Jesuit Robert Parsons writing at the beginning of the seventeenth century). Bilney's opinions reveal a certain fluidity that was characteristic of the Cambridge men of his generation. Also, it may not be completely appropriate to refer to his conversion, as Foxe and Day did, nor to his converting of others, for they defined with the benefit of hindsight what has become known as `the conversion experience' in a manner that might not be said to match the type of profound religious and emotional engagements that Bilney or Latimer knew. Some profound transformations occurred in their devotional lives, but `conversion', as Foxe and Day labeled them, might be too limiting to express the complexity of what actually occurred. Elements of Lollardy have been identified in Bilney's thinking, but many of his ideas were also unexceptional in the broad currents of the Christian Church. It is hard to discern how much of Luther's ideas he accepted. In 1527 he agreed that Luther's opinions had been justly condemned, and that Luther and his followers were wicked and detestable heretics. Four years later, however, some of his ideas sound very much influenced by Luther indeed. But by the time of his death, Bilney may have already been surpassed in his thinking by other Cambridge men. This is apparent if we can believe a comment the A&M attributed to Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, who exclaimed, `I feare I haue burnt Abell & let Cain go', after learning that Nicholas Shaxton had preached during a University Sermon on Ash Wednesday 1531 that it was wrong to say publicly that there was no purgatory, but not damnable to think so privately. John F. Davis, followed by P. R N. Carter, termed Bilney an `evangelical': one who believed that scripture defined faith, devotion, and practice. Evangelical is the term for Bilney that will be embraced here.

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Why was Bilney burned in 1531? The circumstances of his execution go back to his defiant to return to Norwich and preach publicly. His adversaries held the advantage once he decided to repudiate his abjuration and 'go to Ierusalem'), and see his friends no more (like Christ on his way to Golgotha). As a relapsed heretic, he could expect little mercy. More importantly, his execution came about as one element in the larger struggle that was taking place in England between the clergy and Henry VIII for control over the English Church. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (who examined Bilney in 1527) was discarded as the king's chief advisor in 1529 after he failed to obtain an annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon from Pope Clement VII. From mid-1530, the king became emboldened to assert his own authority against the jurisdiction of the pope. Henry began to press forward the understanding that he was the supreme head of the Church in England, and that English kings had always held spiritual sovereignty in their realm. Under this line of reasoning the papacy was a mere usurper in England, and the pope was only the bishop of Rome. In 1527, Bilney made the daring suggestion that kings and princes should assume the role of an Ezechias and destroy any religious images that detracted worshippers from the sacrifice that Christ had made on the cross. In essence, Bilney attempted to push Henry into the role of acting like an Old Testament ruler like Hezekiah, or Josiah, which was a trend that gained greater success late in his reign, and became the standard attribute for the young King Edward VI. During his trial in Norwich in 1531, Bilney appealed to have the king hear his case as the supreme head of the English Church (a strategy that saved his colleague Edward Crome when he was accused of preaching heresies). But Bishop Richard Nix and his chancellor Thomas Pelles refused to allow Bilney to appeal to the king, and they moved swiftly to have him condemned and executed. He was burnt in a place outside Norwich known as the Lollards Pit. It may have seemed singularly appropriate to burn Bilney on the feast day of St. Magnus as a means to repair the insult that he had inflicted four years earlier by preaching against idolatry in a church dedicated to the saint.

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Bilney's execution (like Archbishop Thomas Cranmer's in 1556) was marked by vexing irregularities that fed contentious controversies for decades to come, and they informed the narrative that Foxe created in the A&M. At the last moment, just before the fire was lit, a written recantation was thrust into Bilney's hands to give him a final chance to submit. But he did not take advantage of the opportunity, even though he might have saved his life had he read the document loud enough for the people standing by to hear him. His execution was vastly disturbing. Bilney was a Norfolk native. He had many friends in Norwich, and a number of his colleagues from Cambridge University attended him in his last hours. The fact that his appeal was not brought before the king worried many, and Sir Thomas More, as Lord Chancellor, was asked to investigate. More decided that Bilney had indeed `redde hys reuocacyon hym selfe' as he stood at the stake, but `so softely' that those standing by could not hear him. Had Bilney then revoked at the last moment? If so, was it correct to burn him? In The confutacyon of Tyndales answere More continued to associate Bilney with the teachings of Martin Luther and William Tyndale, but he concluded that Bilney had revoked. As God had given Bilney grace to cast all of his errors to the devil, then Bilney `with glad herte was content to suffer the fyre' as a punishment for his offences. Then, More hoped, God had 'forthwith from the fyre taken hys blessed soule to heuen', where Bilney now could pray for all of those still alive whom he had deluded.

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What Bilney wanted to achieve, at least in terms of dismantling shrines, was done later in Henry's reign, and under King Edward. Bilney was audacious, and he pushed the pace too early. In 1531 he became the victim, but as matters developed, his enemies also failed, for the reaction to his death was extreme. The English clergy was forced to submit to Henry VIII's supremacy over the Church. More's pursuit of Bilney and other heretics in his defense of the papacy and tradition was among the factors that led to his surrender of the office of Chancellor in 1532. Latimer and other evangelicals played a part in bringing him to his execution in 1535. Latimer of course read every word that More had printed against Bilney. He took his own opportunity avenge his friend when he preached before King Edward. 'Wo, wil be to that byshoppe that had the examynacyon of hym,' he warned (Nix had died in 1535, hounded to the end by Cranmer for killing Bilney), 'if he repented not.' (Hugh Latimer, The seconde sermon of Maister Hughe Latimer, whych he preached before the Kynges Maiestie within his graces Palayce at Westminster, the xv. day of Marche M.ccccc.xlix. (London: John Day and William Seres [1549], STC 15274.7), Bb3v).More's writings remained influential long after his death, and were newly relevant after Queen Mary Tudor (1553-1555) brought about a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. Foxe and Day used their account of Bilney in successive editions of the A&M as a means to discredit Catholic politics and theology, and to prevent any possible backsliding toward Rome under Queen Elizabeth. They reconciled the conflicting and divergent interpretations of Bilney's actions largely following Latimer's lead. Bilney was a good man who was overcome by the enemies of the true Church. The heightened competition between Protestant and Catholic traditions had solidified by the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. Foxe and Day reinterpreted the confusing 1520s and 1530s in light of their own present-day circumstances. Thus they smudged some aspects of Bilney's career. They made some of the details of his 1527 submission harder to understand, and cloaked the fact that Bilney had agreed that Luther was a heretic. They also stressed the word 'conuersio' or 'conversion' when they referred to the astonishing and elusive life-altering interviews that passed between Bilney and his friends.

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Was Foxe and Day's account of Bilney's life mainly the literal truth, or was it art? We may never know, and here we suggest some approaches to this difficult issue. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Jesuit Robert Parsons criticized Foxe for his 'bragg & glory' (N. D. [Robert Parsons], A Treatise of Three Conversions of England from Paganisme to Christian Religion (St. Omer, 1603- [1604], STC 19416), 547), and he dismissed the story of Latimer hearing Bilney's confession as a vain thing. Parsons maintained that Bilney had held but few Protestant opinions and that he died in his adjuration. Recently, Bilney could seem (Gregory Walker has argued) more the 'scheming lawyer than the persecuted saint' in 1527 (Walker, 'Heresy Trial', p. 163). If Foxe and Day drifted in their stories, then perhaps they learned some of their strategies from what they called the 'Poeticall fictions' (1563, p. 1009) of Sir Thomas More. Beyond all doubt, however, is the fact that Foxe and Day's portrait of the life and martyrdom of Thomas Bilney is among the elements that make the A&M one of the supreme religious and literary masterpieces of sixteenth-century England.

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Susan Wabuda
Fordham University

Geffrey Lome,
Norwich.Garret, Barnes, and such
Thomasother, of whome we haue
Fryers ofBilney.nowe (the Lorde directing
Ipswich.vs) specially to entreate.
This Thom. Bilney was
Fryer Byrd.brought vp in the Vniuer-
sitie of Cambridge, 
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Thomas Bilney proceeded to the degree of bachelor in Canon Law at Cambridge in 1521. Grace Book B, Part II: Containing the Accounts of the Proctors of the University of Cambridge, 1511-44, ed. Mary Bateson (Cambridge, 1905), p. 95.

euen
Fryer Ho-from a child, profiting in al
gekins.kind of liberal science, euen
vnto the profession of both
Doctourlawes. MarginaliaThomas Bilney Bacheler of both lawes. But at the last, ha-
Stokes.uing gottē a better schoole-
maister, euen the holy spi-
Sir Thom.rit of Christ, who enduing
Moore.his hart by priuie inspira-
tion with þe knowledge of
Fryer Bru-better & more wholesome
syerd.things, he came at the last
vnto this point, that forsa-
Fryer IohnArthure,king þe knowledge of mās
Huggen,which ab-lawes, he cōuerted his stu-
Prouincialliured.dye to those things, which
of the Do-tended more vnto godly-
minikes.nes then gaynefulnes.
Finally, as he hymselfe
Fryer Gef-was greatly inflamed with
frey Iulles.the loue of true religion &
godlines, euen so agayne
Fryer Iug-was in hys hart an incre-
worth.dible desire to allure many
vnto the same, desiring no-
M. Williamthing more, then that hee
Iecket, gen-might stir vp & incourage
tleman.At Nor-any to the loue of Christ, &
wiche.sincere Religion. Neyther
Williamwas his labors vayne, for
Nelson.he conuerted 
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Foxe is our chief source of information that Bilney `conuerted' Thomas Arthur. The best account of Arthur's life has been written by Andrew Hope for the ODNB. Arthur was a fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, which had been built by the chancellor of the university, Bishop John Fisher of Rochester, using a legacy from Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII. Fisher maintained a strong influence over St. John's in the 1520s. The word was Day's and Foxe's anachronistic term for Bilney's influence on his contemporaries. 'Conversion' was not a term that the early evangelicals often used (see Peter Marshall, 'Evangelical conversion in the reign of Henry VIII', in The Beginnings of English Protestantism, eds. Peter Marshall and Alec Ryrie [Cambridge, 2002], 14-37). 'Conuerted' also appeared as a gloss in 1562, when Day printed Latimer's story of how Bilney had come to his chambers and asked him to hear his confession in 1524 (about the same time that he was proceeding to his bachelor's degree in theology) when he preached his first sermon on the Lord's Prayer in Lincolnshire before the Duchess of Suffolk and her household in 1553. 27 sermons preached by the ryght Reuerende father in God and constant matir [sic] of Iesus Christe, Maister Hugh Latimer, as well such as in tymes past haue bene printed, as certayne other commyng to our handes of late, whych were yet neuer set forth in print, (STC 15276) in the section known as Certayn Godly Sermons, made vppon the Lordes Prayer, at fol. 13B (reprinted in the Parker Society edition of Latimer's Sermons, ed. George Elwes Corrie (Cambridge, 1844), pp. 334-5. In the marginal comments Day wrote in 1562: 'Bilney was gods instrument to conuert Latymer.' Also, 'Latymer is conuerted by hearing Bilneys confession.' In contrast, Latimer said that he 'learned' more from Bilney than he had for many previous years, and that he from thenceforth relinquished his studies in the scholastic doctors, as well as `began to smell the word of god' in increasing his interest in Biblical studies. What actually occurred seems to have been more subtle and less cataclysmic, at least at first, than Day and Foxe would have their readers believe.

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many of hys
felowes vnto the know-
ThomasAnn. 1531.ledge of the Gospell, a-
Williams.mōgst which number was

Thomas Arthur, and M. Hugh Latimer, 

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Hugh Latimer's famous account of what passed between him and Bilney when Bilney 'conuerted' him in 1524. 27 sermons preached by the ryght Reuerende father in God and constant matir [sic] of Iesus Christe, Maister Hugh Latimer, as well such as in tymes past haue bene printed, as certayne other commyng to our handes of late, whych were yet neuer set forth in print, (STC 15276) in the section known as Certayn Godly Sermons, made vppon the Lordes Prayer, at fol. 13B (reprinted in the Parker Society edition of Latimer's Sermons, ed. George Elwes Corrie (Cambridge, 1844), pp. 334-5. The word 'conuersion' was Day's and Foxe's anachronistic term for Bilney's influence on his contemporaries. 'Conversion' was not a term that the early evangelicals often used (see Peter Marshall, `Evangelical conversion in the reign of Henry VIII', in The Beginnings of English Protestantism, eds. Peter Marshall and Alec Ryrie [Cambridge, 2002], pp. 14-37).

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MarginaliaMaister Latimer Crossekeeper in the Vniuersitye of Cambridge. which Latimer at that time was crossekeeper at Cambridge 
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Hugh Latimer became University Chaplain in 1522. Although one of his duties was the custody of Cambridge's elaborate silver processional cross, which was brought out at several important occasions during the academic year, Latimer was more correctly known as Chaplain of the University rather than as its `croskeper'. Foxe's source for his information here was from Ralph Morice in British Library, Harley MS 422, fols. 84-8, 90.

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, bringing it forth vpon procession dayes. At the last, Bilney forsaking the Vniuersitie, went into many places, teaching & preaching, 
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Bilney and Thomas Arthur went preaching together from the university to Ipswich and Norwich and onward to London during the summer of 1527. Theirs was an aggressive preaching itinerary, and they were followed at every step by Dominican friars. At Ipswich, Bilney was heard to say that Christ was the only mediator between us and the Father. To petition the saints was to injure the blood of Christ. Bilney was accused of preaching in the churches of St Helen's Bishopsgate, St Magnus, and also in the churches of Willesden (in the week of Pentecost), Newington (in the week of Pentecost), Kensington, and Chelsea outside the city, as well as Ipswich on 28 May. At Willesden, Bilney spoke against going on pilgrimages and offerings to saints. He recommended that worshippers stay at home. At the church of St Magnus (which was always an important City church, as it stood on the north end of London Bridge), the parishioners were gilding their new rood, and here Bilney denounced idolatry. Chelsea is particularly noteworthy, as Sir Thomas More's residence was next to what is now known as Chelsea Old Church, where he intended to be buried next to the chantry chapel he built there. Arthur preached at Cambridge on Whitsunday; and also at Walden; and St Mary Woolchurch in London at the feast of the Trinity. Susan Wabuda, Preaching during the English Reformation (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 119-120; Gregory Walker, 'Saint or schemer?: the 1527 heresy trial of Thomas Bilney reconsidered', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 40 (1989), pp. 219-38; Patrick Zutshi and Robert Ombres, `The Dominicans in Cambridge 1238-1538', Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, vol. 60 (1990), pp. 313-73.

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being associate with Arthur, whiche accompanied him from the Vniuersitie. The authoritie of Thom. Wolsey Cardinall of Yorke, 
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Robert Barnes had shocked the university and the hierarchy of the English Church when he was the first of the Cambridge evangelicals to openly criticize Thomas Cardinal Wolsey in a sermon he delivered at St. Edward's Church in Cambridge on Christmas Eve in 1525.

of whome ye heard before, at that time was great in England, but his pompe & pride much greater, which did euidently declare vnto all wise men, the manifest vanitie, not only of his life, but also of all the Byshops and Cleargie. Whereupon Bilney, MarginaliaBilney against the pride of the Pope, and of his Cardinalls. with other good men maruelling at the incredible insolencie of the Cleargie, which they could now no longer suffer or abide, beganne to shake and reprooue this excessiue pompe of the Cleargie, and also to plucke at the authoritie of the Byshop of Rome.

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Then it was time for the Cardinall to awake, and speedily to looke about hys busines. Neyther lacked he in this poynt any craft or subtiltie of a serpent, for he vnderstood well enough vpon how slender a foundation theyr ambitious dignitie was grounded, neyther was he ignoraunt that theyr Luciferous and proude kingdome could not long cōtinue against the manifest word of God, especially if the light of the Gospell should once open the eyes of men. For otherwise he did not greatly feare the power and displeasure of Kings and Princes. Only thys he feared, the voyce of Christ in his Gospell, least it should disclose and detect their hypocrisie and deceites, and force them to come into an order of godly discipline: wherefore he thought good, speedily in time to withstand these beginnings. Whereupon he caused the sayd Bilney and Arthur to be apprehended and cast in prison, as before yee haue heard.

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After this, the xxvij. day of Nouember, in the yeare of our Lord 1527. 

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The records of Bilney's and Arthur's examinations are preserved in the Register of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, in Guildhall Library, MS 9531/10 fols. 130B-136A.

the sayde Cardinall accompanyed wyth a great number of Byshops 
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Among the other examiners whom Foxe did not name was the bishop of Carlisle. The octagonal chapter house of Westminster Abbey has remained relatively unchanged in the intervening centuries. It is reached from the Cloister and it retains its original tile floor and wall paintings.

, MarginaliaCardinall Wolsey with his complices, agaynst Bilney and Arthur. as the Archbyshop of Caunterbury, Cuthbert of London, Iohn of Rochester, Nicholas of Ely, Iohn of Exeter, Iohn of Lincolne, Iohn of Bathe and Welles, Harry of Saint Asse, with many other both Diuines and Lawyers, came into the Chapterhouse of Westminster, where the sayd Maister Thomas Bilney, and Thomas Arthur were brought before them, and the sayd Cardinall there enquired of M. Bilney, whether he had priuately or publiquely preached or taught to the people, the opinions of Luther or any other, condemned by the Church, contrary to the determination of the Church. Whereunto Bilney answeared, that wittingly he had not preached or taught any of Luthers opinions, or any other, contrary to the Catholique Churche. Then the Cardinall asked him, 
Commentary  *  Close

Wolsey's examination of Latimer, as related by Ralph Morice in British Library Harley MS 422, fols. 84-8, 90, should be compared with his examination of Arthur and Bilney.

whether he had not once made an othe before, that he should not preach, rehearse, or defende any of Luthers opiniōs, but should impugne the same euerywhere? He answered, that he had made such an othe, but not lawfully, which interrogatories so ministred, and answeares made, the Cardinall caused hym to sweare, to aunsweare playnely to the articles and errors preached and set foorth by him, as well in the Citie and dioces of London, as in the dioces of Norwich and other places, and that he shuld do it without any craft, qualifying or leauing out any part of the truth.

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MarginaliaThomas Arthur, examined.After he was thus sworne and examined, the sayd Cardinal proceded to the examination of M. Thomas Arthur there present, causing him to take the like othe, that M. Bilney did. Which done, he asked of him whether he had not once told sir Tho. More 

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The date of any previous conversation between Arthur and Sir Thomas More is not known.

knight, þt in the Sacrament of the altar was not the very body of Christ? Which interrogatory he denied. Then the Cardinal gaue him time to deliberate til noone, and to bring in his answeare in writing. After noone the same daye, what tyme the examination of the foresayde Thomas Arthur was ended, the Cardinall and Byshops by theyr authoritie, Ex officio, did call in for witnesses before Mayster Bilney, certayne men, namely, Iohn Huggen, chiefe Prouinciall of the Friers preachers throughout all England, Geffrey Iulles, 
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Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London licensed the Dominican Geoffrey Jullys to preach through his diocese with two other Cambridge black friars, Robert Buckman and Henry Agbonby, in February 1526/7. Greater London Record Office, MS DL/C/330, fol. 134A and B. See also Patrick Zutshi and Robert Ombres, `The Dominicans in Cambridge 1238-1538', Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, vol. 60 (1990), pp. 313-73.

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and Richard Iugworth, professours of Diuinitie of the same order. Also William Iecket Gentleman, William Nelson, and Thomas Williams, which were sworne, that all fauour, hate, loue, or rewarde set aparte, they shoulde without concealing of any falsehoode, or omitting anye truth, speake theyr myndes vpon the Articles layde agaynst them, or preached by hym, as well within the Dioces of London, as the Dioces of Norwich: and because he was otherwise occupyed aboute the affayres of the Realme, he committed the hearing of the matter to the Byshop of London, and to other Byshops there present, or to three of them, to proceede agaynst all men, as well spirituall as temporall, as also against schedules, wri-

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