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Augustine of Hippo (St Augustine)

(354 - 430) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Hippo (396 - 430); theologian, doctor of the church

Augustine was called 'papas' or 'father' by the African bishops. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

He was present at the Synod of Milevum in 416. 1570, p. 14; 1576, p. 1035; 1583, p. 1062.

He attended the Council of Carthage in 419. 1570, p. 1209; 1576, p. 11; 1583, p. 11.

Augustine praised Cyprian of Carthage. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

In their examination for heresy, Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney said that Augustine criticised the large number of laws in the church in his time. 1563, p. 464; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

 
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Basil of Caesarea (the Great) (St Basil)

(c. 330 - 379) [Catholic Encyclopedia; Gams]

Cappadocian father of the church; bishop of Caesarea (370 - 79)

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, cited Basil the Great as an authority. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 975; 1583, p. 1000.

He is mentioned as a source by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 127, 132; 1576, pp. 12, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 12, 91, 95.

 
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Bede

(c. 673/4 - 735) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk at Wearmouth and Jarrow; historian and theologian

Wrote on the use of language, computation, chronology, biblical commentaries, hagiography and biography

Author of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum

Bede entered the monastery at Wearmouth under Abbot Benedict Biscop when he was seven years old. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

Bede was made deacon at nineteen years of age, and priest when he was twenty. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Pope Sergius I sent a letter to Ceolfrith, abbot of Wearmouth, praising Bede's learning and asking that he be sent to Rome. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede gave his Anglorum Historia to King Ceolwulf of Northumbria to be approved and amended. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede wrote that in his time Easter was celebrated in Britain following the eastern practice. 1570, p. 145; 1576, p. 107; 1583, p. 106.

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, said that Bede had translated the gospel of St John into English. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

Bede died during the reign of Æthelbald of Mercia. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

 
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Jean Charlier de Gerson

(1363 - 1429) [G. Holmes, Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 (London, 1975) pp. 140, 180]

French ecclesiastical statesman and writer; DTh Paris 1392; became chancellor of the university 1395; attended the council of Constance in 1414; supported Pierre d' Ailly in ending the papal schism; led in the condemnation of Hus

In their examination for heresy, Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney said that Gerson criticised the large number of laws in the church. 1563, p. 464; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

 
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John Chrysostom

(347 - 407) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b. Antioch; hermit and ascetic. Bishop of Constantinople 398, deposed and banished 403. Preacher in Syria and Constantinople; denounced the abuse of authority in the church and the Roman empire

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination on a charge of heresy, said that Chrysostom encouraged the reading of books to aid committing to memory the things that were heard. 1563, p. 465, 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

 
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Marcus Marulus (Marko Marulić)

(1450 - 1524)

Humanist writer and religious poet of Split, Dalmatia; wrote in Latin and Croatian

Marcus Marulus was cited as an authority by Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in their examination for heresy. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 975; 1583, p. 1000.

 
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Ipswich
Ipswich, Ipswiche
NGR: TM 170 440

A borough in the liberty of Ipswich, county of Suffolk. 25 miles south-east by east from Bury St. Edmunds, 69 miles north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of St. Clement, St. Helen, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at the Quay, St. Mary Stoke, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Mathew, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Stephen, Witham with Thurlstone, and part of Westerfield; all within the Archdeaconry of Suffolk and Diocese of Norwich. St. Clement with St. Helen is a rectory in charge; St. Mary Stoke is a rectory; St. Mathew and St. Stephen are discharged rectories; St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at Quay, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Nicholas and St. Peter are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1024 [1000]

K. Henry. 8. Articles obiected agaynst M. Bilney.

MarginaliaBeades.17 Whether they do thinke the woodden beades which the common people doth vse, worthy to be denyed, or not. 

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The reference here to wooden `beades' may not be simply to rosary beads, but to the `pardon beads' that were offered by some religious houses to reassure worried lay people. See J. T. Rhodes, `Syon Abbey and its Religious Publications in the Sixteenth Century', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 44 (1993), pp. 11-25.

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18 Whether they do thinke the whole Scripture ought to be translated into English, or that it should be more profitable for the people, then as it is now read. 

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Translations of the Bible into English had been illegal ever since the Wycliffite heresies of the late fourteenth century. See 5 Ric. II, st. 2, c. 5 (1382); 2 Hen. IV, c. 15 (1401); 2 Hen. V., st. 1, c. 7 (1414), and also the 1408 Constitutions of Archbishop Thomas Arundel, printed in William Lyndwood, Provinciale, (seu Constitvtiones Angliae) (Oxford, 1679; rpt. 1968), p. 286. The call of the humanists, including Erasmus, to return ad fontes, and to understand sacred scripture as it had been written, was highly controversial in the late 1520s. Susan Wabuda, 'The Woman with the Rock: the Controversy on Women and Bible Reading', in Belief and Practice in Reformation England: A Tribute to Patrick Collinson from His Students, eds. Susan Wabuda and Caroline Litzenberger (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 40-59.

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MarginaliaOrgaines.19 Whether they would haue the Orgaines and all maner of songs to be put out of the Church of God.

20 Whether they do thinke that it perteyneth to the Byshops to punishe any man with bonds or imprisonment, or that they haue any temporall power and authoritie.

21 Whether they thinke that cōstitution to be godly, that no man should preach in another mās dioces, wtout letters of commendation, and licence obteyned of the Byshop.

22 Whether they thinke the vowes of religious men and priuate religion, to be constitute and ordeined by the spirit of God, neyther by any meanes to be repugnant to a free and perfect Christian life.

MarginaliaPurgatory.23 Whether they beleue that we should pray for the dead, or beleeue that there is a Purgatorie, or that we are bound by necessitie of faith, to beleeue neyther of them: but that it is free without sinne, either to beleue it, or not to beleue it.

MarginaliaPhilosophy.24 Whether they beleue that moral Philosophy and natural, to preuaile any thing for the better vnderstanding of the scriptures, & for the exposition and defence of the truth.

25 Whether they thinke that the Popes indulgences and pardons are rather to be reiected then receiued.

26 Whether it be contrary to the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles, that Christians shoulde by any meanes contend in the law, to seeke any maner of restitution.

27 Whether they beleeue all things perteining to saluation and damnation to come of necessitie, and nothing to be in our owne willes.

28 Whether they beleeue God to be the authour of euill, as well of the fault, as of the punishment.

MarginaliaMasse.29 Whether they thinke Masse onely to be profitable to him which saith it, & whether euery mā may alter or leaue out the rite and order of the Masse, without hurt of fayth.

30 Whether they beleeue that there can be any morall vertues without the grace of Christian liuing, or that the vertues which Aristotle hath set out, or rather fayned.

31 Whether they thinke it heresie, to teache the people, that it is free to geue tythes vnto Priestes, or to any other poore man.

MarginaliaImages.32 Whether they do thinke it more Christianlike to take away the Images out of the Churches, or to permit them to adorne them and honour them.

MarginaliaReliques.33 Whether they thinke it the part of a Christian man, that preachers should exhort men to pilgrimage, or to the worshipping of reliques.

34 Whether that thou Thomas Bilney, being cited vpō heresie to appeare before my Lord Cardinall, and before þe day of thy apparance, not hauing made thy purgatiō vpon those poyntes that thou was cited, hast preached openly in diuers Churches of the City and dioces of London, without sufficient licence from the Byshop, or any other. 

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Bilney was issued a license to preach in the diocese of Ely in 1525, which Bishop West retracted. Cambridge University Library, MS EDR, G/1/7, fol. 33A.

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Concerning the answeares vnto these Articles, (gentle Reader) for so muche as in the most part of them, Bilney with Arthur seemed to consent and agree (although not fully and directly, but by way and maner of qualifying) 

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For Bilney's 'manner of qualifying' see J. Y. Batley, On a Reformer's Latin Bible: being an Essay on the `Adversaria' in the Vulgate of Thomas Bilney (Cambridge, 1940), pp. 47-8; John F. Davis, `The Trials of Thomas Bylney and the English Reformation', Historical Journal, vol. 24 (1981), pp. 775-790; Susan Wabuda, 'Equivocation and Recantation During the English Reformation: the "Subtle Shadows" of Dr Edward Crome', The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 44 (1993), pp. 224-242; Gregory Walker, 'Saint or schemer?: the 1527 heresy trial of Thomas Bilney reconsidered', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 40 (1989), 219-38.

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yet because he did not expressely denie them, it shall not be needefull heere to recite them all, saue onely suche wherein he seemed to dissent from them.

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MarginaliaAnswers to the Interrogatories aforesaide.To the first and second Articles he answered affirmatiuely. 

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Foxe was deliberately obscure here to conceal the fact that Bilney (with Arthur) believed that Luther's opinions had been justly condemned, even under the terms of Holy Scripture, and that Luther was 'a wicked and detestable hereticke'. Bilney and Arthur agreed that John Fisher, bishop of Rochester and chancellor of Cambridge University, had been correct in impugning Luther's assertions in his books Defensio Regie assertionis contra Babylonicam captiuitatem and Sacri sacerdotij defensiones contra Lutherum (Cologne: Peter Quentell, June 1525).

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To the third he sayd, I beleeue that many of the Popes Lawes are profitable and necessary, and doo preuayle vnto godlynesse, neyther in anye poynte are repugnant vnto the Scriptures, nor by anye meanes are to be abrogate, but of all men to bee obserued and reuerenced. But touching all those Lawes I can not determine: for, as for such as I haue not read, I trust notwithstanding they are good also: and as for those that I haue read, I did neuer reade them to the ende and purpose to reprooue them, but according to my power, to learne and vnderstande them. MarginaliaAgainst the multitude of lawes.And as touching the multitude of Lawes, S. Augustine in his time did much complayne, and Gerson also, who marueiled that we could by any meanes lyue in safetie amongst so many snares of constitutions, when as our forefathers being pure before their fall, could not obserue one onely precept.

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To the fourth Article he sayde, MarginaliaThe true church can not erre in faiththat the Catholique Church can be no meanes erre in fayth, for it is the whole congregation of the elect, and so knowen only vnto God, which knoweth who are his: otherwise no man shoulde be ascertayned of an other mans saluation, or of his owne,but onely through fayth and hope. For it is written: No man knoweth whether he be woorthy of hatred or loue. MarginaliaEccle. 5. It is also sensible, and may be demonstrate so farre foorth as it is sufficient to establish vs in all thyngs, that are to be beleeued and done: For I maye truely saye of the generall Councell being congregate in the holy Ghost, Beholde heere the Catholique Churche, denominating the whole by the most woorthy part.

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To the fift Article, he aunswered affirmatiuely in these words: Cum sint libri Laicorum, adorare oportet, at non imaginem, sed prototypon.

To the sixt Article he answered, that he did not beleeue that they are in heauen, being so taught by the scriptures, and holy Fathers of the Church. 

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Bilney's opinion that the saints were not in heaven was highly unusual. See John F. Davis, 'The Trials of Thomas Bylney and the English Reformation', Historical Journal, vol. 24 (1981), pp. 775-790.

To the seuenth Article he said, that it is not to be thought contrary.

To the eight Article, whether a man may not obserue the Feastes and Fastes of the Churche prescribed, hee thought that there is no man, but he ought to obserue them.

To the ninth Article he said, that we are likewise bound as vnto parents.

To the xiiij. Article he answeared thus, the fourteenth Chapter of Saint Paule, in his first Epistle to the Corinthians moueth mee to beleeue, that it is best, that the people shoulde haue the Lordes Prayer, and the Apostles Creede in English, so that their deuotion might the more be furthered by the vnderstanding thereof, and also that thereby they might be the more prompt and expert in the Articles of their fayth: of the whiche it is to be feared, a great number are ignoraunt. Surely I haue heard many say, that they neuer heard speake of the resurrection of the body: and being certified thereof, but they became muche more apte and readye vnto goodnes, and more fearefull to doo euill.

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MarginaliaScripture to be in Englishe.To the fifteenth Article he sayde, he woulde wishe that the Gospelles and Epistles should be read in Englishe. For I woulde (sayth Paule) Marginalia1. Cor. 14.rather haue fiue wordes, &c. That the Church might be edified, &c. And Chrisostome exhorteth his hearers to looke vpon bookes, that they might the better commit vnto memory those thynges which they had heard. MarginaliaS. Iohns Gospel trāslated into Englishe by Bede.And S. Bede did translate S. Iohns Gospell into English.

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Touching the eighteenth Article, for the translation of the Scripture into English 

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Translations of the Bible into English had been illegal ever since the Wycliffite heresies of the late fourteenth century. See 5 Ric. II, st. 2, c. 5 (1382); 2 Hen. IV, c. 15 (1401); 2 Hen. V., st. 1, c. 7 (1414), and also the 1408 Constitutions of Archbishop Thomas Arundel, printed in William Lyndwood, Provinciale, (seu Constitvtiones Angliae) (Oxford, 1679; rpt. 1968), p. 286. The call of the humanists, including Erasmus, to return ad fontes, and to understand sacred scripture as it had been written, was highly controversial in the late 1520s. Susan Wabuda, 'The Woman with the Rock: the Controversy on Women and Bible Reading', in Belief and Practice in Reformation England: A Tribute to Patrick Collinson from His Students, eds. Susan Wabuda and Caroline Litzenberger (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 40-59.

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, concerning the whole, he dyd partly doubt. Notwithstanding he wished that the Gospels & Epistles of that day might be read in Englishe, that the people might be made þe more apt to heare Sermons. But here some wil say, there might also be daunger for errour. Wherunto he answered. But good & vigilant pastors might easily helpe that matter, by adding the plaine interpretation of the fathers in the margents, in English, vpon the darke and obscure places, which woulde put awaye all doubts. O how great profite of soules should the vigilant pastors get thereby, whiche contrarywise through theyr slothfulnes bring great ruyne and decay.

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MarginaliaThe Popes pardons iniurious to Christes passion.To the xxv. Article, as touching pardons, he sayd, that as they be vsed, and haue too long ben, it were better that they should be restrained, then þt they should be any longer vsed as they haue bene, to the iniurie of Christes passion.

Touching the xxvj. Article, he said, that it is not against the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles, to contende in the Lawe, so it be done with charitie. MarginaliaHow Christians may goe to the lawe. If Saint Austen, and the reuerēd father Marcus Marulus did not erre, which graunted that libertie to the weake Christians: albeit that true Christians ought to geue eare vnto S. Paules sayeng. Why doo yee not rather suffer iniurie? Marginalia1. Cor. 6. And to Christ hymselfe, which saith: He that woulde contende with thee in the lawe, and take away thy coate, geue him thy cloke also.

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Touching the xxviij. he answeared, that God is the authour of that punishment onely, but not of the offence, as Basilius Magnus teacheth in his Sermon vpon these wordes of the Prophete: MarginaliaAmos. 3.Non est malum in ciuitate quod non fecit dominus. And S. Augustine in another place (as I remember) prayeth: That he be not ledde into that temptation, that he shoulde beleeue God to be the authour of sinne and wickednes.

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¶ Heere ensueth a briefe summarie or collection of certaine depositions, deposed by the seuerall witnesses aforenamed, vpon certaine interrogatories ministred vnto them, for the inquirie of Maister Bilneyes doctrine and preaching.

MarginaliaDepositiōs agaynst M. Bilney.FIrst it was deposed, that in his sermō in Christs church in Ipswich, he shuld preach and say, our sauiour Christ is our mediatour betwene vs and the father: what should

we
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