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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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John Seward

of Dedham, Essex [Fines]

John Seward overthrew a cross in Stoke park and threw two images fro the church into water c. 1532 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1173; 1576, p. 1003; 1583, p. 1031.

 
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Thomas Rose

(1499/1500 - c. 1576) [ODNB]

of Exmouth, Devon; evangelical reformer and clergyman

When the rood at Dovercourt was burnt in 1532, Thomas Rose burnt its coat. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1173; 1576, p. 1003; 1583, p. 1031.

 
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Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

 
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William Tyndale

(c. 1494 - 1536) [ODNB]

Translator of the bible and religious reformer; martyr

BA Oxford 1512; MA 1515; read theology

Strangled and burnt at Vilvorde Castle

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Foxe erroneously includes Tyndale in a list of scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College, Oxford. Tyndale was in Germany at this time. [ODNB sub John Frith] 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Tyndale was schoolmaster to Sir John Walsh's children. Sir John and his wife joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy his translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Tyndale was examined on a charge of heresy by the bishop's chancellor. He returned to his master, but was troubled by the priests in the area and left for London. He tried to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. Eventually, with the aid of Humphrey Monmouth and others, he left the country. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

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Humphrey Monmouth had heard Tyndale preach two or three sermons at St Dunstan-in-the-West. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Tyndale preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. Tyndale had lodged with Monmouth for about six months. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

While in Germany, Tyndale met John Frith and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. Copies of these and other books he had written were sent to England. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, pp. 1049-50; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Simon Fish, sought by Cardinal Wolsey, was forced to go overseas to join Tyndale. While there, he wrote his book, Supplication for the Beggars. 1563, p. 448; 1570, pp. 1152-53; 1576, pp. 986-87; 1583, p. 1014.

Tyndale left Germany and went to Antwerp. As he was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament in Hamburg. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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John Tyndale, William's brother, was charged in 1530 in London with having sent his brother five marks and having received and kept letters from him. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1041.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

William Tyndale was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Tyndale returned to Antwerp and lodged at a house of English merchants kept by Thomas Poyntz. He became acquainted with Henry Philips and obtained for him a place in the same house, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

While Thomas Poyntes was away, Thomas Philips set a trap for Tyndale. He arranged for imperial officers to be ready in an alley when he tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. Tyndale was captured and imprisoned. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Tyndale was strangled and then burnt at Villevorde. 1563, p. 519; 1570, p. 1229; 1576, p. 1052; 1583, p. 1079.

Tyndale wrote letters to John Frith in the Tower in London. 1563, pp. 520-22; 1570, pp. 1231-32; 1576, pp. 1053-55; 1583, pp. 1080-82.

Tyndale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

 
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Cattaway Causey

 
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Coggeshall
Cocksal, Cocksall, Corksal
NGR: TL 855 230

A market town and parish in the Witham division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 16 miles north-east from Chelmsford. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Colchester, diocese of London

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Great Horkesley

[Great Horksleigh]

Essex

OS grid ref: TL 975 305

 
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Ipswich
Ipswich, Ipswiche
NGR: TM 170 440

A borough in the liberty of Ipswich, county of Suffolk. 25 miles south-east by east from Bury St. Edmunds, 69 miles north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of St. Clement, St. Helen, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at the Quay, St. Mary Stoke, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Mathew, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Stephen, Witham with Thurlstone, and part of Westerfield; all within the Archdeaconry of Suffolk and Diocese of Norwich. St. Clement with St. Helen is a rectory in charge; St. Mary Stoke is a rectory; St. Mathew and St. Stephen are discharged rectories; St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at Quay, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Nicholas and St. Peter are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Sudbury
NGR: TL 871 412

A borough and market town, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Babergh, county of Suffolk. 22 miles west by south from Ipswich, 56 miles north-east by east from London. Sudbury comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Gregory and St Peter, in the Archdeaconry of Sudbury and diocese of Norwich. The living of All Saints is a discharged vicarage. The living of St Gregory is a perpetual curacy with that of St Peter annexed.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1055 [1031]

K. Henry. 8. Three martyrs by Douer Court. The Roode of Douer Conrte. The story of John Fryth.

wel for their purpose, for they founde the Idol, which had as much power to keepe the doore shut, as to keepe it open. MarginaliaExperience of false Idolatry. And for proofe thereof, they tooke the Idol from his shrine, and caryed him a quarter of a myle from the place where he stoode, without any resistaunce of the sayd Idol. MarginaliaThe Idoll set on a light fire.Whereuppon they strake fire with a Flint stone, and sodenly set him on fire, who burned out so brym, that he lighted them homeward one good myle of the ten.

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MarginaliaFalse surmise alwayes ready.This done, there went a great talke abroade, that they should haue great riches in that place, but it was very vntrue, for it was not their thought or enterprise, as they themselues afterward confessed, for there was nothing ta-ken away but his coate, his shoes and tapers. MarginaliaThe right handling of an Idoll. The tapers did helpe to burne him, the shooes they had againe, and the coate one sir Thomas Rose did burn, but they had neither peny, halfe peny, golde, grote, nor iewel.

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Notwithstanding three of them were afterwarde indyted of felonie, and hanged in chaynes within halfe a yere after, or thereabout. MarginaliaRobert Kyng, Robert Debnam, Nicholas Marsh Martyrs.Robert Kyng was hanged in Dedham at Burchet. Robert Debnam was hanged at Cattawaye Causey: Nicholas Marshe was hanged at Douercourt. Which three persons, through the spirite of God at their death, dyd more edifie þe people in godly learning, then all the Sermons that had bene preached there a long

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¶ Robert King, Robert Debnam, and Nicholas Marshe hanged for taking downe the Roode of Douercourt.
woodcut [View a larger version]
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Foxe is our main source for this daring deed of iconoclastic destruction, which took place at a time when Henry VIII's sanction of reform had not yet started official bonfires of holy images. The image destroyed by the three men of Suffolk was a rood in the church of Dovercourt, near Harwich (some miles from where they lived), which they regarded as an idol, partly because of the miraculous powers reportedly attributed to it -- power that they disproved by removing it from the church and setting fire to it. Foxe's illustration -- eliding offence and punishment -- shows it as a lifesize (or larger) wooden figure, readily reduced to ashes. The authorities (both clerical and secular) presiding over the execution are portrayed as calmly in control. But there were were some disturbing features of this incident, including the activities of Thomas Rose, the rector of Hadleigh, himself ardent for image reform, and the recipient of the coat of the Dovercourt rood, which he had the pleasure of burning. A later report of the image being destroyed at Edward's accession seems to indicate that a replacement was installed after this destruction. The woodcut compresses the several parts on this story and presents one image of events that took place at different times and places. As the narrative explains, the three men who were caught were given exemplary executions at different places (Dovercourt itself, Cattawade and Dedham -- both en route to Hadleigh). The fourth man, Robert Gardiner, escaped and lived to tell the tale to Foxe, who only recorded this in 1570 (p. 1173 marginal note: 'Ex testimonio ipsius Gardner'). CUL copy: additional detail is added to the belts in this image, which is visually distracting, since it is in a very bright black. WREN copy: this is a very vibrant illustration, with the use of bright orange for the flames. The burning crucifix is most dramatic: the flesh of Christ is depicted as looking very lifelike, although the additional detail of blood dripping from his wounds is rather clumsily added.

tyme before.

MarginaliaRobart Gardner escaped.The fourth man of thys companye named Robert Gardner, escaped their handes and fledde. Albeit he was cruelly sought for, to haue had the like death, but þe lyuing Lord preserued him, to whom be al honour & glory world without ende.

MarginaliaEx testimonio ipsius Gardner. Images destroyed.The same yeare, and the yeare before, there were manye Images cast downe and destroyed in manye places: as the Image of the Crucifixe in the hygh waye by Cogshall, the Image of saint Petronil in the Church of great Horksleigh, the Image of saint Christopher by Sudburye, and an other Image of saint Petronil in a Chappell by Ipswiche.

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Also Iohn Seward of Dedham, ouerthrew a Crosse in Stoke Parke, and tooke two Images out of a chappell in the same parke, and cast them into the water.

¶ The storie, examination, death, and martyrdome of Iohn Frith. 
Commentary  *  Close
John Frith

Foxe's treatment of the John Frith martyrdom provided him with the material (Frith's own writings, and those of his critics) to provide an exposition of protestant doctrines on purgatory and transubstantiation, supported by relevant patristic material, within the overall context of a narrative that emphasised his valiant steadfastness, intellectually and physically. The story was somewhat elaborated in the 1570 editions and subsequently, with Frith's beliefs examined in greater detail and the letter 'to his friends' printed in extenso. The story of the martyrdom of Andrew Huet ('Hewet'), who accompanied Frith to the scaffold, provided much less possibility for doctrinal elaboration, but he served to make the point that Frith's doctrines and steadfastness had been persuasive.

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Andrew ChibiUniversity of Leicester

MarginaliaAnno 153.AMongest al other chaunces lamentable, there hath ben none a great tyme whiche seemed vnto me more greeuous, then the lamentable death and cruel handlinge of Iohn Frith, MarginaliaIohn Erith Martyr. so learned and excellent a young man, which had so profited in al kind of learning and knowledge, that scarsely there was his equal amongest al his companions and besides withal had such a godlynes of lyfe ioined with his doctrine, that it was hard to iudge, in whether of them he was more commendable, being greatly prayse worthie in them both. But as touchinge his doctrine, by the grace of Christ, we will speake hereafter. Of the great godlynes which was in him, this may serue for experiment sufficiēt for that notwithstanding his other manifold and singulargiftes & ornaments of þe mind in him most pregnant wher withall he might haue opened an easie way vnto honor & dignitie, notwithstanding he chose rather wholly to consecrate himselfe vnto the Church of Christ, excellently shewing forth & practising in himselfe the precept so highly cōmended of the Philosophers, touching the life of man, which life they say, is geuen vnto vs in such sort, that how much better the man is, so much þe lesse he should liue vnto himselfe, but vnto other, seruing for the common vtilitie, & that we should think a greate parte of our byrth to be due vnto our parentes, a greater part vnto our country, & the greatest part of all to be bestowed vpon the Churche if we will be counted good men. MarginaliaIohn Fryth, first studient in Cābridge.First of all he begā hys study at Cambridge. 

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Foxe omits the 1563 reference to Mary Hall.

In whō nature had planted being but a child maruelous instinctions & loue vnto learning, whereunto he was addict. MarginaliaCommendation of Frythes learning.He had also a wonderful promptnes of wit & a ready capacitie to receaue and vnderstand any thing, in so much that he seemed not to be sent vnto learning, but also borne for the same purpose: neyther was there any diligence wanting in him, equall vnto that towardnes, or worthy of his disposition. Whereby it came to passe that he was not onely a louer of learning, but also became an exquisite learned man. In the which exercise, whē he had diligently laboured certayn yeres, not without great profite both of Latine and Greeke, at the last he fell into knowledge and acquayntaunce with William Tindall, through whose instructions, he first receaued into his hart the seede of the Gospell and sincere godlines.

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At that time Tho. Wolsey Cardinall of Yorke prepared to build a Colledge in Oxford, maruelous sumptuous which had the name & title of Frideswide, 

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This refers to the Abbey of St Frideswide which, along with Wallingford Priory, was suppressed in 1525 to provide the necessary building funds. It is interesting to note that the college was subsequently suppressed in 1531 following the fall from grace of Wolsey and re-founded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College and re-founded again in 1546 as Christ Church (the seat of the new diocese of Oxford).

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MarginaliaThe College in Oxford of Frydeswide, now called Christes Colledge. but now named Christes Church, not so much (as it is thought) for þe loue & zeale that he bare vnto learning, as for an ambitious de-

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sire
VVv.iiij.
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